In today’s world, more than 220 million people live in a country that is not their own. Nevertheless, the provision of social welfare is primarily carried out by nations. How are people on the move protected and provided for in the contemporary global context? Have institutional sources of social welfare begun to cross borders to meet the needs of individuals who live transnational lives? In this talk, I will propose a transnational social protection (TSP) research agenda designed to map the kinds of protections that exist for people on the move, determine how these protections travel across borders, and analyze variations in access to these protections. I will define TSP; introduces the heuristic tool of a “resource environment” to map and analyze variations in TSP over time, through space, and across individuals; and provides empirical examples demonstrating the centrality of TSP for scholars of states, social welfare, development, and migration.