Sessions

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Migration Politics & Governance 1

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #1 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Sandra Morgenstern

MZES

Who cares? How political reception contexts shape immigrants’ location decisions Salomon Bennour SFM, University of Neuchâtel Anita Manatschal SFM, University of Neuchâtel Didier Ruedin SFM, University of Neuchâtel Immigrants’ choice of residence in countries of destination, or internal mobility, is a topic of research in several academic fields. Apart from economic and social considerations, some studies suggest that political factors tied to the immigrant reception context can potentially explain mobility decisions. However, existing studies focus on isolated factors, and little is known about the importance of a broader range of political factors on mobility decisions. We also do not know how important political factors are in comparison to other known determinants, such as financial considerations highlighted in economics. Therefore, this paper examines how political factors, such as non-citizen voting rights, citizenship policies and popular support for right-populist anti-immigrant parties, influence immigrants’ mobility decisions relative to other local contextual elements like public transportation, buying power or access to nature. We conducted a conjoint experiment with 1596 respondents, who have all immigrated to Switzerland in the last 15 years. Each participant had to choose between two Swiss municipalities composed of eight attributes, whose levels were varying randomly. This experimental design allowed us to estimate causal effects of contextual factors on mobility decisions, and to assess their relative importance. Our results show that an inclusive political reception context can attract immigrants and act thereby as a pull factor for internal mobility. Among the factors measuring the political reception context, inclusive citizenship policies have the strongest effect on individual location choice. === The role of emerging IT prediction tools in effective migration governance Cristina Blasi Casagran Autonomous University of Barcelona Colleen Boland Autonomous University of Barcelona Eva Vila Sanchez Autonomous University of Barcelona Elena Sánchez-Montijano Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE) Predicting mass migration is one of the main challenges for policy makers and practitioners working with migrants worldwide. In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the use of computational techniques, both machine-learning based and simulation-based to predict migration movements. These improvements in computing technologies have allowed for better algorithms to be applied in this field. However, there is no full-fledged analysis of the existing prediction tools, their effectivity and their impact on migration governance. This study will examine the existing prediction tools in the field of migration and their impact in improving the governance of migratory flows between countries of origin, transit and destination. It will focus on a comparative examination of their scope, categories and variables, validation process, ethical implications, and overall success of the tool. The premise of this study is that, although many countries and organisations have also developed their tools to predict short or longer-term migration trends or to assess migration uncertainties and risks, these devices are fragmented and have quite limited capacities in the domain. The overall goal of this study is to provide clarity on the requirements and features that a valid prediction tool should include, and the impact that such a tool would have on the future migration governance. === Borders made of paper Margit Fauser University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt Walls, fences and toll bars are the most common visual and material representations of the border. In contrast, it often goes unnoticed that many borders are made of paper. The presentation of documents proving the personal-administrative identity and a person’s biographical data and trajectory are among the most fundamental characteristics of border crossings, and their denial. At the external state border, we usually show our passport in order to be allowed to cross, and visas have to be applied for in advance of many trips, for which documents have to be presented in turn. Moreover, after crossing the territorial border, identity papers play an important role in access to rights and resources that make for internal border processes. Papers, thus, function here as mechanisms of territorial and social border control. Using data collected within the framework of the “Urban Border Spaces in Europe”-project this contribution accounts for the (narrated) ""document practices"" of migrants in their encounters with institutional actors. Methodologically, it thus favors an approach that rather than analyzing the documents’ content pays attention to the practices and experiences related to documents. The contribution shows that papers are not only a central component of bureaucratic processes. They are also experienced as mechanisms used by the authorities to delay and divert access or recognition, through permanent review, suspension, supposed inadequacy and articulate doubts in face of which migrants develop multiple strategies in order to negotiate their rights and recognition. Against this backdrop I argue that the social practice of bordering substantially operates through borders made of paper.

author

Margit Fauser

Hochschule Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences

author

Didier Ruedin

SFM

author

Salomon Bennour

SFM

author

Anita Manatschal

Swiss Forum for Migration and Population Studies SFM, University of Neuchâtel

author

Cristina Blasi Casagran

Autonomous University of Barcelona

author

Colleen Boland

Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona

author

Eva Vila Sanchez

Autonomous University of Barcelona

author

Elena Sánchez-Montijano

Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económica (CIDE)

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Highly skilled immigrants in Western Europe and their labour market integration

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #2 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

Chair: Anders Neergaard Discussant: Rinus Penninx PAPER #1 Overeducation of highly educated immigrants in Germany - The signalling effect of ethnical background and unemployment duration AUTHOR(S) Saskia Schramm ABSTRACT To what extent and why are highly educated ethnic minorities more likely to be overeducated than highly educated Germans? Overeducation describes a situation in which individuals work in jobs for which the required education is lower than one`s own. Although there is a competition to attract the brightest minds, immigrants do not face a smooth labour market integration: they are more likely overeducated than natives. According to job competition, employers are assumed to sort potential employees in labour market queues. Due to asymmetrical information, employers are only partially informed about an individual`s productivity. Thus, employers assess job applicants by focusing on signals of productivity like ethnical background and unemployment duration, whereas low signals worse the labour queue position and increase the probability of overeducation. I expect that overeducation varies among ethnic minorities: the higher the social distance to the origin country, the lower the signalling force and the higher the probability of overeducation. Further, less signalling power of long unemployment periods can explain a negative correlation of unemployment duration and overeducation. Long unemployment durations of immigrants might cause a higher share of overeducated immigrants. Analyses of the German Socio-Economic Panel from 2007 to 2018 show that there is a negative relationship between the unemployment duration and overeducation for natives and foreign-borns. Further, highly educated immigrants from countries with a great social distance to Germany, like Turkey, have a larger propensity of being overeducated compared to highly educated natives. Whereas, highly educated immigrants from countries with a small social distance to Germany, like other European countries, have a lower propensity of overeducation. Moreover, these differences can be explained -but to a less extent- by a differential in cumulative periods of unemployment over the life course. PAPER #2 Highly skilled migration: professional resocialisation and family dynamics AUTHOR(S) Irina Gewinner ABSTRACT This study deals addresses highly skilled migration and adaptation strategies of post-socialist women Europe by applying an intersectional approach between culture, migration, gender and social background. It aims at contributing to the discussion on individuals’ professional integration in health sector by exploring narratives of migration and work in women who migrated from the former Soviet Union (FSU) to Europe in 1990s-2010s. This group is of special interest and relevance due to several reasons. First, there is almost no consistent analysis of the experiences of highly skilled female migrants from the former Soviet Union, although female professionals constitute a considerable share in highly skilled migration flows (Zaionchkovskaya 2004), in particular among youth (Mosakova 2017). Second, post-Soviet space is marked by a peculiar combination of high levels of women’s employment (Agamova & Allahverdyan 2000), coupled with ongoing support of traditional gender roles and social norms (Kravchenko & Akvile 2008), especially in private life. Drawing upon 20 original interviews and online discussions data on post-socialist highly skilled migrant women in Germany, this study analyses professional resocialisation of female health workers and their families' transformation through the migration process. Particularly, it not only focuses on solely women who obtained qualifications in healthcare sector in their countries of origin and embark on different professional strategies after immigrating to Germany, but also investigates the challenges linked to private life. In that way, the study also considers the temporal dynamics, looking at pre and post migratory processes related to women's integration into family and work. I find several patterns of moving and coping with resocialisation in healthcare sector after migration episode, tightly related to family dynamics. I then derive implications for policy and practice based on the findings. PAPER #3 Social integration of highly skilled refugees in Sweden: Cultural practices in bridging programs AUTHOR(S) Micheline van Riemsdijk ABSTRACT Sweden received the largest number of asylum seekers per capita of any European country in 2015. As most of these individuals have now received (temporary) residence permits, the policy focus has shifted from arrival to their long-term stay. The labor market integration of refugees is a key focus of these initiatives, as Swedish government actors regard employment as an important aspect of social participation. This presentation examines the social integration of highly skilled refugees, defined as persons with refugee status who have completed a tertiary education or who have the equivalent in skills. Drawing on interviews with 15 highly skilled refugees, 6 teachers in bridging programs, and 4 observations of communication classes, this presentation examines the social integration of highly skilled refugees. In particular, the presentation analyzes the ways in which communication classes in bridging programs aim to prepare highly skilled refugees for Swedish work culture. What norms and values are being transmitted, how, and how do students navigate their professional identity and the professional norms and values in the receiving country? The findings are analyzed by bringing together bodies of literature on social integration and highly skilled migration. Thus, the presentation aims to better understand the ways in which bridging programs help shape the social integration of highly skilled refugees in Sweden.

discussant

Rinus Penninx

University of Amsterdam

author

Saskia Schramm

author

Irina Gewinner

author

Micheline van Riemsdijk

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Migration, citizenship and political participation 2

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #3 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Begüm Dereli

Universitat Pompeu Fabra

How Migration Policy Shapes the Subjective Well-Being of the Non-immigrant Population in European Countries Alexander Tatarko National Research University Higher School of Economics Tomas Jurcik National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation Andreas Hadjar University of Luxembourg Existing studies show that there is a positive association between pro-migrant integration policies and the subjective well-being of immigrants. However, there is a lack of research elucidating the relations between migrant integration policies and the subjective well-being of the host (i.e., non-migrant) population. This study is based on European data and uses multilevel analysis to clarify the relations between migrant integration policy (both as a whole and its 8 separate components such as: Labour market mobility and Family reunion) and the subjective well-being of the non-immigrant population in European countries. We examined relations between the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) for 22 countries in Europe and subjective well-being, as assessed by the European Social Survey (ESS) data. The results demonstrated that there is a positive relation between the MIPEX and subjective well-being for non-immigrants. Considering different components of the MIPEX separately, we found most of them being positively related to the subjective well-being of non-immigrants. As no negative relationship was identified between any of the eight MIPEX components and subjective well-being, policies in favour of immigrant integration also seem to benefit the non-immigrant population. === Does Young Adults’ Life Satisfaction Promote Tolerance Towards Immigrants? The Role of Political Satisfaction and Social Trust Liliia Korol Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare; Malmö University / Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Girona Pieter Bevelander Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare; Malmö University Much prior research relies on the idea that antipathy towards immigrants is primarily driven by natives’ perceptions of the threat that immigrants represent to their economic, cultural or national well-being. Yet, little is known about whether subjective well-being affects attitudes toward immigrants. This study aimed to examine whether life satisfaction would foster tolerance towards immigrants over time via the indirect influence of political satisfaction and social trust. The sample comprised young native adults (N = 1352; Mage = 22.72; SD = 3.1) in Sweden. The results revealed that young adults who were satisfied with important life domains were more likely to extend their satisfaction towards the political system, which consequently resulted in a generalised expectation of trustworthiness and a widening of their circles of trusted others, thus translating into more positive attitudes toward immigrants. The findings provide evidence that it is the causal relationship between political satisfaction and social trust (rather than social trust in itself) which promotes a positive impact of life satisfaction on tolerance towards immigrants. The study highlights that fostering political satisfaction and social trust may play important role in shaping young people’s positive attitudes towards immigrants. === Legal interpreting & language ideologies: Creating understanding, creating the nation state Martha Sif Karrebaek University of Copenhagen Marta Kirilova University of Copenhagen The Danish Administration of Justice Act §149,1 states that “(t)he language of the court is Danish”. When there is a mismatch between the institutional language and that of the defendant, an interpreter is called. The interpreter’s task is to create mutual understanding and facilitate the defendant’s participation. Access to skilled interpreters is essential for the rule of law, and there are many expectations to the interpreter’s performance and practice (Berk-Seligson 2000; Hale 2007). In this paper, we discuss how not all expectations concern understanding. Some suspects speak some Danish, others want to use English, yet a defendant’s use of multiple languages is rarely accepted (see Angermeyer 2015 on the US situation). Furthermore, the interpreter’s work to facilitate understanding often goes against the norms tied to professional interpreting. All of this concern language ideologies (Kroskrity 2000), i.e. ideas about and rationalizations of language use, and they spill over into other social and moral issues (Karrebæk & Møller 2019; Irvine & Gal 2019). We show how some ideologies relate to the understanding of the court as a corner stone of the nation state; this becomes salient in the meeting between the court and the migrants. We discuss what effects this may have on migrants’ understandings and on the work of the interpreters. The study draws on work on language ideologies (Jørgensen et al. 2016; Silverstein 1979, 1985), ideologies of interpreting (Angermeyer 2015; Wadensjö 1998), and socio-linguistic micro-analysis (Gumperz 1999). Data consist of 31 transcribed and translated audio-recordings of court cases. === Enacting Hospitality through the UK Community Sponsorship Scheme Natasha Nicholls University of Birmimgham The UK Community Sponsorship scheme (CS) amplifies the role of community in refugee resettlement: local groups of volunteers are responsible for the support and integration of a refugee family and welcome them into their homes and communities. Previous research has identified the benefits to both volunteers and refugee families of being involved with the CS scheme. However, the long term effects of volunteering in a CS group has yet to be explored. This conceptual paper conceives CS as a form of hospitality (Bulley, 2017) whereby the volunteers are the hosts, and the refugee family are the guests. It presents the conceptual framework to be used to explore how everyday acts of hospitality contribute to the changing roles of host and guest in the framework of CS and the related power dynamics. Additionally, it lays the basis for the analysis of the effect that acting as host has on volunteers’ engagement in civil society more generally.

author

Alexander Tatarko

National Research University Higher School of Economics

author

Tomas Jurcik

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation

author

Andreas Hadjar

University of Luxembourg

author

Liliia Korol

Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare

author

Pieter Bevelander

MIM

author

Martha Sif Karrebaek

University of Copenhagen

author

Marta Kirilova

author

Natasha Joanne Nicholls

University of Birmingham

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The role of housing providers and institutional cultures in shaping migrants' access to local housing markets

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #4 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Christine Barwick

Centre Marc Bloch

chair

Heike Hanhoerster

ILS-Research Institut for Regional and Urban Development

Various studies have demonstrated the limited access of migrants to the housing market in several (European) countries. The declining stock of social housing as well as institutional cultures, such as inner routines and blocking strategies of housing providers, contribute to the further marginalisation of specific groups. At present, particularly asylum-seekers and refugees are facing major problems on the housing market. However, research shows that even long-established immigrants and their children – even though they might have been upwardly mobile and members of the middle classes – are still facing barriers on the housing market and often remain geographically marginalised. As social mixing is often used to desegregate immigrant neighbourhoods, the paradigm of social mixing and the corresponding local allocation strategies of housing providers and municipalities contribute to migrants´ restricted access to the housing market. Moreover, dispersal programmes for refugees, which exist in various European countries can lead to feelings of isolation and experiences with discrimination. In this session, we deal with institutional cultures and how they facilitate or hinder migrants’ access to the housing market. The papers in this panel focus on the following questions: - Institutional cultures and their change: How migration and arrival is mediated through local organisations´ practices and routines, for instance housing providers or arrival specific infrastructures - Residents, their agency and housing trajectories: How the housing situation is experienced by different migrant groups - Spatial characteristics: How different neighbourhood sand their specific (institutional) settings shape migrants´ access to the housing market PAPER #1 (Un)Making Institutional Cultures of Harm in the Provision of Housing for Asylum Seekers on Tyneside AUTHOR(S) Kathryn Cassidy (Northumbria University) ABSTRACT People seeking asylum in the UK without the funds to support themselves are forced into housing in a number of ‘dispersal areas’ (predominantly in parts of large northern cities and post-industrial areas where low-cost housing is in ready supply) on a ‘no-choice’ basis. Housed by providers contracted to the state, they are not only deprived of many of the basic rights afforded by citizenship, such as the right to work, but occupy the housing on a contingent basis without the rights or protections that may be afforded by tenancy law. Since 1999, funding and provision of accommodation for asylum seekers has been through a number of changes: initially semi-privatised with provision through local authority providers and sub-contractors, the accommodation was fully privatised in March 2012, when the Home Office signed six new contracts with three providers, which were then replaced in September 2019. The housing of people seeking asylum has been a key site for contestation and struggles as part of political projects of welcome that seek to challenge anti-immigration policy-making at the national level. Widespread campaigning, lobbying and advocacy has had limited impact on the institutional cultures within housing providers that generate everyday forms of violence towards asylum seekers within forced accommodation settings. Drawing on participant observation and interviews undertaken between 2015 and 2020, I analyse both these violent cultures and the peaceful acts that have sought to disrupt them through a case study of one region, Tyneside, in the North East of England. PAPER #2 Dispersal policies of migrants in mid-size cities: Tensions in institutional cultures of housing providers? AUTHOR(S) Camille Gardesse (Lab’Urba, UPEC) Christine Lelévrier (Lab’Urba, UPEC) ABSTRACT In France as in other European countries, authoritarian policies tend to disperse asylum seekers and refugees in mid-size and small cities. This “flow-governance” not only influences the residential trajectories of those migrants but also disrupts local housing practices and institutional cultures in contexts of historical low-immigration. Some accommodations are specific sheltered housing financed by the national migration policy and locally managed by NGO’s. However, refugees having obtained their status face the regular access to housing either through private or social accommodation and allocation system. Lots of research have showed how social mixing as a value shaping access to housing can lead to institutional racism and paradoxical effects of re-concentration of migrants in migrants’ neighbourhoods. However, little research has been conducted on mid-size cities contexts where both housing configurations (vacancy, individual houses, low rents..) and governance of diversity are different from metropolises. Do local institutional actors govern the access of refugees to “ordinary” and autonomous housing through social mixing values? Our argument is that these practices are framed by paradoxical requirements of the mainstream social mixing paradigm on the one hand, and the emergency of getting refugees out of the specific accommodation on the other. This presentation will first focus on the discourses of fragmented and various housing providers in these local contexts. It will then show how practices can reset discourses and values enhancing unequal treatment of migrants’ housing access to housing. PAPER #3 The role of housing providers and intermediaries in migrant access to (in)formal housing markets in the New York City AUTHOR(S) Mohammad Usman (University of Cambridge) Sabina Maslova (University of Cambridge) Gemma Burgess (University of Cambridge) ABSTRACT The paper investigates housing processes and actors that are involved in the allocation of housing for low-income West African tenants in the housing market of the Bronx, New York City. The study uses qualitative data drawn from 37 semi-structured interviews with housing providers and leaders of various intermediary organisations that perform functions related to housing in the Bronx. Firstly, the paper examines housing allocation process for migrants in the Bronx through formal housing applications and reviews the role of providers (non-profit, public, private, and property management firms) in the tenant-selection process. Secondly, the role of intermediary actors, i.e. religious, advocacy and public authority groups, is explored in facilitating migrant access to both formal and informal housing. As most housing in the Bronx is rent-stabilised, housing providers require rigorous documentation screening to ensure tenant eligibility, which many migrants struggle to provide. The analysis shows that providers act as principal gatekeepers to formal housing market, while intermediaries’ roles differ: public and non-profit housing organisations have minor influence, while religious organisations act as gatekeepers and mediators. The paper invokes the literature on migration industries and argues that informal housing processes of low-income migrants mirror the formal institutional structures but instead of financial and legal grounds, informal migration industries rest on ethnic social capital. Such arrangements, in turn, facilitate further migration and reproduce existing informality in ethnic communities. PAPER #4 The multi-scalar negotiation of Ceuta’s urban structure: How neighbourhoods of arrival along the EU’s overlooked border with Africa are caught in an intersection between local and international interests. AUTHOR(S) Mari Paz Agúndez (Technical University Berlin ) ABSTRACT The paper investigates the power dynamic between macro scale agents such as European Union, the Spanish government or the Ministry of Defense and the municipality, controlling the distribution and allocation of social housing. It focuses on two border districts, Benzú and Príncipe, which due to the lack of urban planning and the fact that they were not included in any previous master plan, have turned into arrival neighborhoods for Moroccan families and sub-Saharan migrants. In these districts of the Spanish enclave of Ceuta, an uncontrolled growth and informal urban sprawl has taken place, corresponding to the two border-crossings separating Ceuta from its Moroccan hinterland. They are not only geographically segregated from the city, but also, considering the ethnic differences, find themselves socially excluded from the population. Although many scholars have studied the evolution of these districts as a direct consequence of the border and the presence of the Fortress Europe infrastructure, they have failed to acknowledge the different actors controlling the development of these districts. Based on mapping, historical archival research and a thorough investigation of the implemented master plans in the city, this paper investigates the attempts of the municipality to improve the living conditions, provide a higher number of social housing as well as reduce the social differences of the population, and how these constantly encounter the restrictions of the military presence, the national government and the imposed Fortress Europe infrastructure. PAPER #5 Migrants‘ access to the rental housing market – Allocation policies of institutional housing providers AUTHOR(S) Isabel Ramos Lobato - University of Helsinki Heike Hanhörster - ILS – Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development

author

Kathryn Cassidy

Northumbria University

author

Camille Gardesse

Lab’Urba, UPEC

author

Christine Lelevrier

Université Paris-Est-Créteil

author

Sabina Maslova

University of Cambridge

author

Sabina Maslova

University of Cambridge

author

Gemma Burgess

University of Cambridge

author

Mari Paz Agúndez

Technical University Berlin

author

Isabel Ramos Lobato

University of Helsinki

author

Heike Hanhörster

ILS – Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development

Access to the session WebEx link and uploaded papers is available for attendees only. Did you register? Check your conference status.

Migrants’ perceptions of the EU. Imaginaries, policies and symbolic management across Europe and beyond (PERCEPTIONS Panel 1)

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #5 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Valentina Cappi

Università di Bologna

chair

Pantelis Michalis

Center for Security Studies - KEMEA

Numerous occurrences periodically contribute to the renegotiation of borders and strengthen limitations to human mobility. Furthermore, many everyday factors motivate departures and arrivals from one part of the world to another. Within this global social process, the expectations, narratives, and perceptions of the places of departure, transit, and destination, also play a role in prefiguring, organizing, and accompanying the movement of millions of people. This panel welcomes the first findings of the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project, which aims to understand how certain narratives and (mis) perceptions of Europe influence prospective migrants behaviours and whether these can lead to problems for the safety of migrants or of European countries. The panel presents, first of all, a very detailed reconstruction of the role that scientific literature, up to 2020, assigns to the perceptions of Europe in migration aspirations, also considering media and social media as key stakeholders. The second contribution examines which current practices, tools, and measures, adopted from 2015 onwards, have addressed the reported (mis) perceptions. The panel will then focus on the threats, real or perceived, referring to migration processes, tracked down in the reports produced by security practitioners, policymakers and civil society organizations throughout the European territory. Finally, looking at measures introduced in selected European countries after the 2015 migration policy crisis, the last paper will investigate the mechanisms behind the measures addressing threats and the effects of framing migration policies in the realm of security. The discussion within the panel will thus allow to reflect on the way in which the perceptions of Europe, formed inside and outside of it, and traceable in the discourses of migrants, policymakers, as well as in all media, do not only act on the imagination of migration as a desirable life project, but also on Europe's self-image. PAPER #1 Mapping Migrant Perceptions of the EU AUTHOR(S) Karen Latricia Hough (CENTRIC, Sheffield Hallam University) David Pannocchia (CENTRIC, Sheffield Hallam University) Miriana Ilcheva (Center for the Study of Democracy) Leda Kuneva (Center for the Study of Democracy) ABSTRACT This contribution presents the results of a systematic literature review and stakeholder mapping conducted for the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project. The findings are based on the systematic review (SRL) of 221 documents including journals, book chapters, conference papers, working papers, and project reports, as well as the mapping of over 1000 stakeholders, undertaken collectively by 25 partners from twelve European and three non-European countries. The study explores how the EU is perceived as a destination in the literature sourced, examining what aspects are pertinent in attracting migrants to certain EU countries, such as the presence of co-ethnics and possibilities of finding safety. The study aims to find links among literature findings and the possible dynamics between the stakeholders involved (academia, policy makers, migrant groups, NGOs). Existing research shows that migrants hold both positive and negative perceptions of the EU thus countering the view that all migrants perceive the EU as ‘el dorado'. Furthermore, we explore the role of the mainstream media in perpetuating perceptions of migrants presenting the main themes used to portray migration in the literature sourced. Finally, our study examines how social media is used by migrants, outlining how migrants perceive social media to be an aid, hindrance, threat and resource for gaining information about destinations. The role of media as key stakeholder is also explored within a comprehensive literature-inspired perceptions’ stakeholder map. This study offers important insights into the complexity of migration narratives, their distribution and effects providing vital groundwork for more effective policymaking in the EU. PAPER #2 Practices, tools, and measurements on addressing (mis) perceptions of migrants towards Europe: What is out there? AUTHOR(S) Theoni Spathi (Center for Security Studies - KEMEA) George Kampas (Center for Security Studies - KEMEA) Dimitra Papadaki (Center for Security Studies - KEMEA) Katerina Georgakopoulou (Center for Security Studies - KEMEA) ABSTRACT Migration has been a worldwide complex phenomenon, indispensable to world’s history since ancient years. Specific micro, meso and macro factors may act as drivers for the decision of any individual to migrate to another country, while particular reasons (e.g. armed conflicts) may also force people to abandon their countries, seeking asylum elsewhere. According to UN data from the migration data portal, the total number of international migrants at mid-year 2019 was estimated at 271.6 million. A great volume of scientific research has tried to address the perception of the population from the destination countries towards the phenomenon of migration. However, little research aimed to identify the impact of perceptions migrants have for destination countries. This paper as part of the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project, focuses on presenting the main findings on the collection of the current practices, tools, and measures, adopted from 2015 onwards, that would address the reported (mis)perceptions. The research was conducted on international and EU level as well as on a national level in specific EU as well as non-EU countries. The adopted methodology as well as the categorization of the countermeasures which resulted to the collection of a total of 149 entries to the final dataset, will be also outlined. Future recommendations for a well-rounded evaluation scheme required to measure the impact and the effectiveness of the implemented counteractions will be also reported. PAPER #3 New and old “threats” to sending and receiving countries and to both. The migration and security nexus revisited AUTHOR(S) Rut Bermejo (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos) Isabel Bazaga (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos) Manuel Tamayo (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos) ABSTRACT The old debate of the security and migration nexus is revisited in this paper and updated with new information resulting from the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project. Since the 1990s, the link between migration and security has had convinced supporters (Weiner 1992; Waever et al. 1993), more or less impartial observers (Meisner 1992; Collinson 2000) and staunch detractors (Huysmann 2000). The debate was revived at the turn of the century by the attacks of 11 September 2001 in both the United States and the EU. This paper focuses on the current debate and the perceived threats related to immigration movements. It analyses the issues, problems or threats (real or perceived) regarding current movements and processes of migration. A database has been created based on 138 reports from different security practitioners, policymakers and civil society organisation around the world. The analysis of this structured collection of documents resulted in a matrix of 177 threats, real or perceived by the authors of the reports. .. The importance of this information lies in analysing which threats are currently identified by security practitioners, policymakers and civil society organisation. Those threats affect different referent objects and could be related to a mismatch between expectations about and ‘reality’ in Europe. The reports represent mainly the perspective of host/destination countries since those documents are more abundant in the database. In sum, this study offers important insights into the complexity of migration-security nexus and updates the panoply of challenges and perceived threats earlier identified in the literature on this issue. PAPER #4 Securitization of Migration: Changing “Perceptions” of Europe Abroad AUTHOR(S) Madalina Rogoz (International Centre for Migration Policy Development) Nesrine Ben Brahim (International Centre for Migration Policy Development) Elena Ambrosetti (Sapienza University of Rome) ABSTRACT The “securitization of migration”, understood as increasingly framing migration policies in the realm of security, has significantly expanded over the last five years. Narratives of threats and security risks have justified policies and laws that were once considered to be “extreme”. The policy measures introduced to counter these threats reflect an approach that not only aims at addressing particular challenges but also the behaviour of (potential) migrants, and sometimes the legal environment, that gives rise to these challenges. Looking at measures introduced in selected European countries after the 2015 migration policy crisis, this paper will investigate how different mechanisms aim at influencing particular migratory behaviours and the “perceptions of Europe” that motivate these behaviours. These policies and measures manifest through the increasing involvement of law enforcement authorities into the migration process – e.g. the emphasis put on the collection and sharing of information on migrants across institutions and states, and the stricter methods used to enforce compliance, both in relation to neighbouring states as well as individuals. Migration infrastructures in Europe, manifested through these measures aimed at changing potential migrants’ decision to migrate and choice of migratory routes are a manifestation of “desired” perceptions of Europe outside of Europe. Looking closely at the mechanisms behind the measures addressing threats through changing migratory behaviour, the paper will also critically analyse to what extent perceptions of Europe held by migrants are relevant for the construction of a “safe Europe”.

discussant

James Edwards

SINUS Markt- und Sozialforschung GmbH

author

Karen Hough

CENTRIC - Sheffield Hallam University

author

David Pannocchia

CENTRIC, Sheffield Hallam University

author

Miriana Ilcheva

Center for the Study of Democracy

author

Leda Valerieva Kuneva

CSD

author

Theoni Spathi

Center for Security Studies - KEMEA

author

George Kampas

Center for Security Studies - KEMEA

author

Dimitra Papadaki

Center for Security Studies - KEMEA

author

KATERINA GEORGAKOPOULOU

author

Rut Bermejo

University Rey Juan Carlos

author

Isabel Bazaga

Universidad Rey Juan Carlos

author

Manuel Tamayo

Universidad Rey Juan Carlos

author

Madalina Rogoz

International Centre for Migration Policy Development

author

Nesrine Ben Brahim

International Centre for Migration Policy Development

author

Elena Ambrosetti

Sapienza University of Rome

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Co-construction and reification of narratives during asylum determination procedures (Panel I)

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #6 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Livia Johannesson

Stockholm University

chair

Daniel Hedlund

In this double panel, we investigate the different practices, techniques, ideas, discourses, and ceremonies that contribute in transforming the situated oral accounts of asylum seekers – told on repeated occasions – into reified and stable objects which are evaluated according to the established legal-administrative methods of assessing credibility in asylum determination procedures. It is well-known in narrative and linguistic research that oral stories are the result of human interactions, physical surroundings, as well as the interactionists’ past experiences, future expectations, and situated identity work. However, within asylum determination procedures, asylum narratives are approached as tangible objects assessed according to coherence, details and consistency. The asylum applicants are also perceived to be solely responsible for the creation of the narrative. Thereby, the co-constructed and situated story-telling that have taken place during various encounters between asylum applicants, interpreters, lawyers, and state officers are effectively obscured. The papers in the first session of this double panel analyze the co-constructed, relational, and situated character of asylum narratives. They shed light on the work of ‘invisible’ or ‘semi-visible’ interactants in the asylum narratives, such as interpreters and legal counsels, and offer detailed linguistic analysis of how interactants seek common grounds through textualizations during asylum interviews. The institutional settings of asylum interviews are also investigated, in particular, how disruptions and distractions influence the construction of the asylum narrative. PAPER #1 Disruptions and Distractions: Towards a Geography of Narrative Construction AUTHOR(S) Nicole Hoellerer (University of Exeter) Nick Gill (University of Exeter ) ABSTRACT The ability to deliver a convincing narrative is essential for asylum seekers. An effective narrative is sequential, building through stages to produce a story. If it is severed or piecemeal though, it can lose internal structure, sense and persuasive force. While much attention has been given to the inter-personal and discursive aspects of narration (Eastmond, 2007; Blommaert, 2001) our interest is in how institutional settings intervene in narrative construction. Examples include when parties enter and leave, breaks occur, hearings are squeezed into timeslots and the noise from waiting rooms and from outside disturb the hearing. Our in-person observations of over 850 asylum appeal hearings in Europe highlight how frequently narratives suffer from disruption and distraction. This focus emphasizes the unruly micro-geographies of legal courtspaces (Bartel et al 2013) within which narratives are told. Via their settings, narratives result from a broad collaboration that reaches well beyond the particular individuals directly involved on the day, to also include planners and logistical engineers responsible for staging hearings. By exploring this collaboration, politico-economic influences over asylum narratives also come into view. Bartel, R., Graham, N., Jackson, S., Prior, J. H., Robinson, D. F., Sherval, M., & Williams, S. (2013). Legal Geography: An A ustralian Perspective. Geographical Research, 51(4), 339-353. Blommaert, J. (2001). Investigating narrative inequality: African asylum seekers' stories in Belgium. Discourse & Society, 12(4), 413-449. Eastmond, M. (2007). Stories as lived experience: Narratives in forced migration research. Journal of refugee studies, 20(2), 248-264. PAPER #2 Mediated disclosure in asylum encounters: How translocal categorisation practices influence the local interactional dynamics of legal service provision AUTHOR(S) Marie Jacobs (Ghent University) Katrijn Maryns (Ghent University) ABSTRACT Research has shown that asylum narratives have a mediated character: throughout the procedure, asylum seekers’ experiences are co-constructed by the participants in the asylum process (Bohmer & Shuman 2008; Maryns 2006), but also by those involved in preparatory meetings (Jacobs & Maryns 2020; Smith-Khan 2020). The latter context, and the role of language mediation within these encounters in particular, have been relatively underexplored. Our paper addresses this gap by analysing the interactional dynamics of interpreter-mediated asylum consultations. Drawing on ethnographic data (observations and audio-recordings) from two Belgian law firms, we examine a multilingual consultation that deals with a sensitive gender-related issue. Our sociolinguistic analysis of the case study exposes how the interpreter is actively implicated in the process of disclosure, as he takes on different roles, determines the turn-taking and aligns with the viewpoint of the asylum authorities. By triangulating our backstage data with authentic frontstage data from asylum hearings, it becomes clear that the discourse in both stages is bureaucratically-induced and that translocal legal categorisation practices influence the local interactional dynamics of asylum consultations. Bohmer, Carol, & Shuman, Amy (2007). Rejecting refugees: Political asylum in the 21st century. London: Routledge. Maryns, Katrijn (2006). The asylum speaker: Language in the Belgian asylum procedure. London: Routledge. Jacobs, Marie & Maryns, Katrijn (2020). Managing narratives, managing identities: Language and credibility in legal consultations with asylum seekers [In press]. Ghent University. Smith-Khan, Laura (2020) Why refugee visa credibility assessments lack credibility: a critical discourse analysis. Griffith Law Review: 1-25. PAPER #3 Creating common ground in asylum interviews: Institutional and experiential contextualization work AUTHOR(S) Zoe Nikolaidou (Södertörn University ) Hanna Sofia Rehnberg, (Södertörn University ) Cecilia Wadensjö (Stockholm University ) ABSTRACT In this paper we draw on ethnographic data of four recorded asylum interviews in order to examine contextualization as a discursive practice inherent in the process of reaching interactional common ground. Our starting point is that an asylum interview is a social practice characterized by deep asymmetries in terms of access to knowledge and discourses (e.g. Maryns 2006), and the aim of the study is to contribute to a deepened awareness of the communicative challenges that all categories of interactants in asylum interviews face. The questions we ask are: How is the participants’ knowledge and lived experience discursively contextualized in asylum interviews, and how are the participants positioned by means of the contextualization work taking place in the interaction? A discursive analysis of contextualization in our data shows that contextualization is achieved by means of two main discourses prevailing the interaction: an institutional and an experiential (see also Maryns 2006). Another finding is that asylum-seekers are placed in a subordinate position, to a large extent due to their unfamiliarity with the institutional discourse but also due to a depreciation of the experiential discourse that they bring in the interaction. More importantly, they are positioned as being solely responsible for the narrative constructed (cf. Smith-Kahn 2017), while at the same time they are deprived the freedom to decide what is important in their story and how much contextualization is necessary in order for the story to become meaningful. References Maryns, K. (2006). The asylum speaker. Language in the Belgian asylum procedure. Manchester, UK: Jerome Pub. Smith-Khan, L. (2017). Telling stories: Credibility and the representation of social actors in Australian asylum appeals. Discourse & Society 28 (5), 512–534.

discussant

Christin Achermann

University of Neuchatel

discussant

Judith Reynolds

Cardiff University

author

Nicole Hoellerer

University of Exeter

author

Nick Gill

University of Exeter

author

Marie Jacobs

UGent

author

Katrijn Maryns

Ghent University

author

Zoe Nikolaidou

Södertörn University

author

Cecilia Wadensjö

Stockholm University

author

Hanna Sofia Rehnberg

Södertörn University

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Making New Citizens: Re-examining the Integration - Citizenship Nexus (Panel 1 of 2) : Politics and Policy Arenas

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #7 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Roxana Barbulescu

University of Leeds

chair

Luicy Pedroza

El Colegio de México

Discussant: Adrian Favell (University of Leeds) This is the first of two panels showcasing the papers of the forthcoming IMISCOE Book "Making New Citizens: Re-examining the Citizenship-Integration Nexus", the objective of which is to provide a contemporary answer on how integration and belonging—the everyday “life of citizenship”—is established and achieved in spite of, or irrespective of, national citizenship rules. The papers address topics of utmost relevance to research and policy agendas surrounding the integration–citizenship nexus: the hierarchies of integration in different levels of political communities, the different paths of institutional and societal inclusion beyond naturalisation and their meaning for migrants, the sometimes implicit and often concealed logics of deservingness behind what are usually quite standard naturalisation rules, and the openly discriminatory naturalisation rules and practices and their effect on the incentives of migrants to integrate. The two panels, as the book, critically re-examines the theoretical and empirical interconnections between integration and citizenship (specifically, naturalization). By providing evidence of a nexus disjuncture, the scholars in this panel contribute to critical dialogues on immigrant integration and political incorporation, relevant for policymakers, civil society actors, and academics alike. Panel 1 revises the policy arenas, while panel 2 showcases analyses of what we term the “life of citizenship,” the central, shared contribution is showcasing how membership is informally achieved through everyday integration —around and sometimes despite formal citizenship requirements. PAPER #1 Becoming Dutch at what cost? The impact of application fees for naturalisation by low-income immigrants in the Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Swantje Falcke (Maastricht University) Floris Peters (Maastricht University) Maarten Vink (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT Citizenship policies in Europe have been characterised by contrasting trends over the past decade with reforms such as dual citizenship acceptance or shorter residence requirements making citizenship more accessible to immigrants. In contrast, the introduction of civic integration and economic requirements have provided new obstacles to immigrants’ naturalisation. The overall impact of citizenship liberalisation and restriction are relatively well studied; yet the impact of economic requirements on citizenship acquisition rates remains understudied in Europe. These requirements may either be direct, such as proof of economic self-sufficiency, or indirect, such as the payment of a substantial application fee. Especially the United Kingdom and the Netherlands have witnessed significant increases of application fees in the past decade, which may well prejudice the chances of immigrants, especially those with lower incomes, of becoming a citizen of the destination country. While studies have recently analysed the relevance of fees and fee waivers in the US context, few studies exist that probe the impact of application fees in the European context. In this paper we analyse the role of application fees in the naturalisation decision of immigrants in the Netherlands, where fees have increased from 336 euro in 2003 to currently 901 euro for a single application, with especially large hikes in 2010 and 2011. Using administrative register data on the complete immigrant population between 2004 and 2016 we look at how increased application fees have affected the naturalisation propensity of low-income migrants in the Netherlands. PAPER #2 Citizenship and naturalisation for migrants in the UK: longitudinal perspectives AUTHOR(S) Madeleine Sumption (University of Oxford) Marina Fernandez-Reino (University of Oxford) ABSTRACT - PAPER #3 Integration below Citizenship: Non-Citizen Rights and Institutional Inclusion in the European Union AUTHOR(S) Hannah Alarian (University of Florida) ABSTRACT How do immigrant rights affect integration? Participation and citizenship form the foundation of contemporary democracy. Together, these two components strengthen the basis of democratic legitimacy, supplement the labour force, and expand the electorate. The European Union, however, stands out globally as a collection of democracies who have severed the two – removing citizenship as a requirement for formal political and economic rights. For some, detaching rights from status hollows citizenship and reduces immigrant formal engagement with the state. Further, if immigrants integrate as a means to obtain the ‘goods’ of membership, detaching rights from formal status may reduce overall demand for citizenship or permanent status. In contrast to this literature, I contend that inclusion is path dependent - such that access to rights prior to citizenship encourages rather than deters integration. In brief, I argue that actively including immigrants within political and economic environments prior to citizenship encourages immigrant belonging and engagement with the state. I address this debate between citizenship and integration with a series cross-national and causal analyses throughout Europe. First, I discuss the effect of political and economic rights on integration in the EU. Next, I consider the causal effect of such rights in Germany. I conclude my analyses considering the relationship between municipal voting rights and integration in a survey experiment in Belgium. Across each analysis, I find non-citizen rights beget formal commitments to one’s state. I further reveal the effectiveness of these rights depend on the inclusivity of the policy in question. These findings challenge citizenship as a final marker of integration, revealing institutional inclusion reinforces rather than degrades immigrant participation and belonging. PAPER #4 Do cities want to matter? The role of local authorities in shaping the integration-naturalisation nexus AUTHOR(S) Tiziana Caponio (European University Institute) ABSTRACT The chapter proposes to take a local perspective on the integration-naturalisation nexus to understand if and asks to what extent cities want play a role in shaping such a nexus. More specifically, the article analyses the main projects carried out by the main European cities under the aegis of the so called ‘Integrating Cities’ Process, a partnership launched in 2005 by the European Commission and Eurocities with the goal of supporting the implementation of the Common Basic Principles on Integration. The analysis shows how the majority of the initiatives cities have been involved emphasise the economic dimension of immigrant integration, and aim at supporting active participation in the labour market. Facilitating access to naturalisation is not explicitly addressed, even though from the various measures implemented at a local level and presented as good practices a clear picture of the ideal would-be (local) citizen seems to emerge: economically autonomous, fluent in the language of the receiving city and actively engaged in host community. PAPER #5 When and under which conditions can newcomers become part of the ‘collective we’? A longitudinal evaluation of the political discourse of Stateless Nationalist and Regionalist Parties on immigrant integration in selected minority nations AUTHOR(S) VERENA WHISTHALER (European Academy of Bolzano) ABSTRACT -

author

Tiziana Caponio

University of Turin

discussant

Adrian Favell

University of Leeds

discussant

Sara W. Goodman

University of California, Irvine

author

Swantje Falcke

Maastricht University

author

Floris Peters

MACIMIDE

author

Maarten Vink

Maastricht University

author

Marina Fernandez-Reino

University of Oxford

author

Madeleine Sumption

University of Oxford

author

Hannah Alarian

University of Florida

author

Verena Wisthaler

Institute of Minority Rights

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Racism and discrimination in education I: Whiteness and racism in higher education institutions

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #8 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Christine Lang

IMIS

chair

Zehra Colak

University of Antwerp

The differential educational outcomes of immigrant or ethnic and racial minority students and their ‘majority’ counterparts have been extensively documented. Research often focuses on students’ cultural and social capital, cultural background or the social status of their parents in explaining such differences. However, increasingly studies also show the role and impact of discrimination and racism for educational inequalities and minority students’ sense of belonging and well-being. Particularly critical methodologies and theoretical approaches (e.g., critical race theory) emphasize that we have to rethink our approach to understanding ongoing inequalities affecting marginalized categories. They highlight the role of structural power inequities, prevailing norms and institutional structures and processes in explaining discrimination. Also, such methodologies aim at redressing inequities and discrimination in education by centralizing the lived experiences and stories of marginalized individuals. This panel aims at discussing issues of racism and discrimination in education in relation to wider structures of inequality. The contributions will address the following and related questions: How do institutional policies, practices and standards (re-)produce inequalities and discrimination against immigrants and ethnic/racial minorities in education? What forms of interpersonal discrimination are experienced by students with a migration background and ethnic/racial minority students? What is their impact on students? In what ways can critical approaches enhance our understanding of structural inequities and ethnic/racial discrimination in education? What are the implications of adopting concepts of “race” and “whiteness”? How does “race” intersect with other categories of differentiation? What are the coping strategies developed by students of immigrant origin and ethnic/racial minority students in response to racism and discrimination? PAPER #1 ‘Whitewashing’ (international) higher education: experiences of Angolan students and graduates from Angola and Portugal AUTHOR(S) Elisa Alves (University of Lisbon) Asaf Augusto (University of Bayreuth) Russell King (University of Sussex) ABSTRACT Higher education is potentially a valuable asset for individuals’ social and economic integration, especially in today’s knowledge economy. It is also assumed that ‘international’ degrees, if they are from reputable institutions, increase the chances of good career opportunities in the future, particularly so in global and regional graduate labour markets. But what is the actual and perceived value of degrees and diplomas from different countries? Within the specific geographical framework of Portuguese post-colonialism, this paper examines how different university systems, and the students and teachers involved in them, are differentially evaluated in Portugal and Portugal’s former African colony, Angola. The approach of coloniality allows us to understand the unequal valorisation of diplomas, graduates and teaching, based on ‘race’ and place, reflecting old yet still-hegemonic forms of prejudice, racism and ‘whiteness’ in higher education. Results are based on interviews and fieldwork in Portugal and Angola with students and graduates of Portuguese and Angolan universities. Findings show how much the colonial past still frames the valorisation of foreign, ‘white’ education, reproducing old social, cultural and political hierarchies. These hierarchies are continued in employment markets, where ‘white’ Portuguese employees’ skills are artificially enhanced in Angola, whilst in Portugal the reverse happens with Angolans, who face racialised barriers in a society which still ‘sees’ them as black immigrant low-skill workers rather than students and qualified graduates. PAPER #2 Navigating discrimination in higher education: A critical race theory analysis of Turkish Belgian students’ experiences AUTHOR(S) Fatma Zehra Çolak (University of Antwerp) ABSTRACT Students of Turkish descent suffer various forms of discrimination in education. Nevertheless, few studies have documented how these discrimination experiences are situated within structures of ethnic inequality. Adopting a critical race theory approach, experiences of 20 Turkish Belgian university students were analysed as counter-stories to expose deficit assumptions towards ethnic minorities. The accounts of students show the exclusionary treatment they were exposed to despite the dominating discourses of colorblindness in education. Low teacher expectations, inequitable assessment, and unquestioned ethnic biases of teachers appeared to aggravate the inequality and isolate ethnic minority students. Students’ experiences were also affected by the lack of representation of their group and lack of an inclusive curriculum. These findings show how seemingly neutral practices in education allow inequalities to be reproduced in subtle ways and limit the opportunities of non-mainstream students. Students’ experiences with peers highlight the pervasiveness and intersectionality of racism that targeted ethnic minority students based on their ethnic and social class background. Various forms of ubiquitous microaggressions Turkish–Belgian students were confronted with suggest that they have a lower intellectual and social status, do not equally belong to Belgium due to their perceived status as ‘foreigners,’ and pose a potential threat to society as Muslims. In response to institutional and interpersonal forms of exclusion and othering, Turkish origin students engaged in self-protective strategies (e.g., forming ethnic student clubs) to develop and maintain their sense of belonging at higher education. The findings of this study suggest that universities need a more forceful push back against the post-racial myth and actively engage in disrupting dominant ideologies of meritocracy. PAPER #3 Integration, negotiation, interrogation: Climates of socialization for ethnic minority women in higher education institutions AUTHOR(S) Dounia Bourabain (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) ABSTRACT This qualitative research investigates the interactional and contextual dynamics underlying the socialization of ethnic minority women (EMW) within the academic institution. From an intersectional perspective, I combine Acker’s theory on inequality regime and Essed’s everyday gendered racism theory to study the link between gender, race and educational socialization. Based on 24 in-depth interviews with female ethnic minority early career researchers working in Belgian-Flemish academia, I identify three socialization climates: integration, negotiation and interrogation. Results show that insiders play a crucial role in facilitating or hindering the socialization of EMW. Insiders’ behaviour towards EMW newcomers are explained in light of gendered racialized relations which are manifested through practices from perceived personal-professional identity mismatch, exoticization, tokenization, to exclusion. In addition, the organizational context sustains these gendered racialised interactions. EMW are able to socialize rapidly only if they arrive in a context that is (radically) inclusive. Most of the times, EMW arrive in an environment with marginal awareness of diversity and (in)equality. This paper is a stepping stone for future research on ethnic minorities’ professional socialization and development in the academy taking into account inequality on individual and structural level. PAPER #4 Who remains? A pilot study on career paths of black researchers and researchers of color in migration, integration and racism research in Germany AUTHOR(S) Hanna Mai (German Center for Integration and Migration Research) Saboura Naqshband (German Center for Integration and Migration Research) Ali Konyali (German Center for Integration and Migration Research) ABSTRACT This exploratory pilot study reflexively turns the gaze "inward" by examining professional career paths of black researchers and researchers of color in migration, integration and racism research in Germany: which factors influence their career paths in this field? What can we learn about institutional racism and the relationship between underrepresented and established groups? What is the impact of exclusionary and discriminatory experiences on the research conducted in the field? Various processes, mechanisms and resources play a role in individual positionalities as well as concerning institutional inclusion and exclusion mechanisms (Ahmed, 2012). This pilot study provides an initial qualitative analysis of data collected from in-depth interviews with researchers from marginalized groups. Thereby the study contributes in particular to the implementation of the premise of organizational self-criticism by questioning the institutional structures from “within”. The project builds on the findings of Critical Race Theories (cf. Jones 2000) by perceiving institutional racism as a normative manifestation of inherited disadvantage in terms of material conditions and access to power and it is a response to repeated calls for scientific institutions to position themselves in this context (Hall 1994, Griffin et al. 2011, Mai, Merl & Mohseni 2018, Sirri 2020). The study is conducted by a collective of researchers working for the German Center for Integration and Migration Research (Co|Lab: Collective labor for structural interventions).

discussant

Elif Keskiner

EUR-CIMIC

author

Elisa Alves

IGOT-UL

author

Asaf Noé Augusto

Bayreuth University

author

Russell King

University of Sussex

author

Dounia Bourabain

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Hanna Mai

German Center for Integration and Migration Research

author

Saboura Naqshband

German Center for Integration and Migration Studies - DeZIM Institute

author

Ali Konyali

DeZIM-Institute

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Migrant Legal Status and Access to Healthcare: Reconsidering Vulnerability and Surveillance - SESSION 1

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #9 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Sajida Zareen Ally

School of Global Studies, University of Sussex

chair

Alejandro Goldberg

Anthropological Sciences Institute, National Council of Scientific and Technical Research of the Argentine Republic, University of Buenos Aires

This panel explores the connections between migrant legal status and access to healthcare across the globe and highlights how healthcare can function as a technology of migration control and border enforcement. In destination contexts, migrants and refugees often face juridical barriers to accessing care, arising from financing and health systems that are shaped by residency status and/or nationality, while moral ideas of their ‘deservingness’ to care conflate with gender, racial and class-based inequalities. Some prefer to seek treatment upon return to countries of origin, where migrant healthcare needs are indistinguishable from those of non-returnees and diagnoses can neglect migratory determinants of disease. Policies in the domains of biosecurity, migration enforcement, detention, education and housing can marginalize healthcare, while healthcare policies do not always specify their applicability to migrants across legal statuses – a context further complicated by policy incoherence between origin and destination countries. Covid-19 has magnified pre-existing inequalities, as migrant low-wage and healthcare workers particularly grapple with infection risk and disease transmission amid inadequate care, livelihood loss, heightened surveillance, border closures and ineffective governance. This panel thus examines the legal, social, political and economic dynamics that produce patterns of exclusion and inclusion within migrants’ healthcare and also influence the ‘quality’ of available services. It investigates the effects of discursive ideas, systems and practices of care on migrants’ care-seeking strategies and experiences of distress, illness, wellness, resiliency and recovery. In bringing together scholars in the social science with those also working in public health, social psychology and clinical research, the panel is inter-disciplinary in perspective and seeks to connect conversations occurring across epistemologies and methodologies of migration research. PAPER #1 Pre-entry screening for tuberculosis: “it's kind of making mark for like all the Asian” AUTHOR(S) Dr Jessica L. Potter (North Middlesex University Hospital ) ABSTRACT The securitisation of borders against the threat of invading microbes, carried by immigrant bodies, is not a new phenomenon. The recent COVID-19 global pandemic has strengthened the global health security agenda, re-focussing attentions on border control. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease transmitted through coughing. Countries with a low incidence of TB, including the UK, screen people prior to planned migration from countries with higher burdens of disease. This ethnographic study explored how people migrating to the UK from India experienced pre-entry screening for TB. A focused ethnography of a pre-entry TB screening centre in India was conducted in 2017 over 4 weeks. This included 180 hours of field work, photographs and interviews with clients and staff. Over 1000 individuals were screened for active pulmonary TB as part of their visa application during this period. Additional data from 14 in-depth interviews conducted with migrants diagnosed with TB in the UK and 10 key professionals involved in healthcare delivery and policy-making were included in the final analysis. Foucault’s concept ‘governmentality’ and sociological theories of bordering were used alongside thematic analysis to interpret the data. Individuals revealed previously undocumented harms associated with their experiences of pre-entry screening for TB. My analysis reveals how through the ‘biosecuritisation’ of some, but not all, off-shore bodies; some, but not all, off-shore TB; some, but not all, infectious diseases; pre-entry screening becomes a border force, reinforcing global inequities and racialised hierarchies. In this context, I argue pre-entry screening makes UK citizens live while letting ‘others’ die. PAPER #2 Migrants’ legal status and transnational ‘access’ to healthcare AUTHOR(S) Dr Sajida Z. Ally (Department of Anthropology, School of Global Studies, University of Sussex) ABSTRACT Ongoing reforms in sponsorship policies, protective legislation and healthcare function as technologies of migrants’ healthcare access in Kuwait, while Sri Lankan state emigration policies have not always prioritized their citizens’ health in the migration process. This paper juxtaposes the discourses surrounding these changes against Sri Lankan migrants’ on-the-ground experiences of using public and private healthcare services across transnational contexts. Drawing on ethnographic research among Sri Lankans in Kuwait’s urban areas, as well as in villages of origin in Sri Lanka, I elaborate migrants’ feelings of satisfaction or dis-incentivization to use services and the meanings that underlie their choices to undergo treatment in particular places. While the everyday politics of accessing care has been radically re-shaped by Covid-19, long-term ethnographic engagement demonstrates migrants’ accumulated experiences of varied opportunities and obstacles to healthcare over time. Rather than to view their self-treatment and visits to private services – due to lack of entitlement or dis-trust of public doctors – as a positioning outside of the state, I suggest that such care-seeking actions are forms of claim-making within the constraints that shape their il/legality. Combined with interviews with doctors and civil society that define analysis of how a continuum of discourses are involved, these findings shed light on the local, state and global structures that exclude, constrain or facilitate access to care. Building on concepts of healthcare ‘access as an interface’ (Levesque et. al. 2013) and health equity as an interrogation of inequitable distributions of power and resources, I argue for the integration of political and juridical context, as well as situated, ethnographic knowledge, into understandings of transmigrants’ healthcare. In doing so, I point towards what an inclusive politics of healthcare might look like in Kuwait. PAPER #3 Expanding the guidelines for the care of forced migrants AUTHOR(S) Suzana Duarte Santos Mallard (Institute of Psychosociology and Community Ecology (EICOS), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ) ABSTRACT Therapeutic clinics for migrants can be considered as a point of tension and site of possibility for the psychological trauma and care of forced migrants. They represent points of convergence for narratives of individual experience and provide insight into broader ethical, social, and political issues. Encounters in these clinics affect refugees, therapists, and the wider community. These encounters produce knowledge and prompt reflection in the field of psychology and define the possibilities and outcomes of those involved. A close examination of these dynamics can provide insight into how clinicians can expand guidelines for the care of forced migrants. Drawing on extensive interviews with therapists in Brazil and the United States, this paper proposes a series of steps for expanding and enhancing psychological care for forced migrants. These steps could enable therapists to identify the specific vulnerabilities of their patients to more quickly and effectively address their needs. They entail: 1) making it a priority to let the migrants find their own voice, and being willing to reflect and question one’s own assumptions; 2) engaged listening, which has the potential to remove migrants from the silence that their condition imposes; and 3) forging a bond that can help restore a sense of agency and trust. Previous studies of forced migrants have suggested that this population is objectified and thereby excluded from exercising their will. The above steps seek to restore migrants’ subjecthood within the therapeutic context. Thus, every professional working with this population should be committed to providing these forms of engaged and self-reflexive care when interacting with migrants. PAPER #4 Healthcare access among migrant children and their families in the UK: Reconsidering law, ethics and society AUTHOR(S) Dr Catarina Alves Soares (Barts Healthcare NHS Trust) Dr Sunanda Bhatia (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust) Dr Bryony Hopkinshaw (Medact Migrant Solidarity Group) Dr Jonathan Broad (Medact Migrant Solidarity Group) Dr. Sarah Boutros (Medact Migrant Solidarity Group) ABSTRACT In the increasingly hostile policy environment and discourse around migration, children and families face barriers to access the national health service (NHS) healthcare. In this paper, we discuss the healthcare context, and the implications of ethics and law on the quality of care provided to migrant children and their families. We ground the paper around adapted clinical case scenarios of children whose healthcare is impacted by their legal migration status, particularly undocumented children who lack legal documentation, and unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. This paper discusses whether current ethical, legal and professional frameworks advocate or hinder access to healthcare and influences on the quality of care. There are detrimental and discriminatory effects of policies within healthcare and society including border enforcement. For instance, the NHS has seen recent expansions of charging children for healthcare and charging for reproductive health including pregnancy and delivery in migrant families. Not only are such policies unfavourable in safeguarding this vulnerable group, but they also lead to moral conflict among stakeholders such as healthcare staff. Having witnessed extenuating circumstances makes children who are unaccompanied and seeking asylum extremely vulnerable; but it also builds their resilience and independence. Therefore, it is imperative to enable their voices to be heard as well as to advocate for a higher level of wellbeing. PAPER #5 Access to healthcare, insurance provision and health status of Sri Lankan migrant domestic workers Dr Hiranthi Jayaweera, Research Affiliate (former Senior Researcher), Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), School of Anthropology, University of Oxford ABSTRACT Poor health affects Sri Lankan women who migrate overseas for domestic work before they migrate, while they are abroad, and on return to Sri Lanka. Provisions to ensure equitable access to healthcare are failing them, both in their own country and abroad. Compared to documentation of the violations of human rights of Sri Lankan overseas domestic workers particularly in Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) countries, relatively little attention has been paid so far to their health and barriers in access to healthcare. Based on primary qualitative research conducted in 2014-15 with 60 pre-departure and returned domestic workers and 20 stakeholders representing state, civil society and international organisations, this paper explores the impact of the Sri Lankan labour migration governance framework relevant to health, as well as the impact of GCC receiving country policies and employer practices, on migrants’ access to healthcare and health status throughout the entire migration process. The research findings point to gaps and anomalies in the governance framework around health that have a negative impact on the women’s health and health rights across the migration process, including during recruitment, training, and medical testing; in the employment contract, insurance, Sri Lankan embassy involvement in receiving countries; and in the provision of health support on return. The domestic workers’ working conditions and lack of health support in destination countries lead to significant deterioration of the health of most. It is clear that the women knowingly sacrifice their health in continuing the cycle of migration. Recommendations for policy and practice reform are based on viewing migrant health holistically, connecting the entire migration journey, and family health as well as the individual migrant’s health.

discussant

Marcia Vera Espinoza

Queen Mary University of London

discussant

Elias Kondilis

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

author

Jessica L. Potter

North Middlesex University Hospital

author

Suzana Duarte Santos Mallard

UFRJ - EICOS

author

Catarina Alves Soares

Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom

author

Sunanda Bhatia

Imperial NHS Healthcare Trusts

author

Bryony Hopkinshaw

Medact Migrant Solidarity Group

author

Jonathan Broad

Medact Migrant Solidarity Group

author

Sarah Boutros

Medact Migrant Solidarity Group

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Reflexive Migration Studies 7

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #10 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Patrícia Nabuco Martuscelli

University of São Paulo

What can Multiculturalism Learn from the Second Wave of Anti-Racist Activism in Europe? Ilke Adam Vrije Universiteit Brussel Since the 2000s, multiculturalism has increasingly been criticized as as a policy approach. Multiculturalism is blamed for not fostering national community building, for contributing to segregation and for failing to ‘integrate’ immigrants. This paper argues that at a time when the advocates of multicultural policy approaches as a means to achieve social justice are lamenting the fact that there is a backlash against multiculturalism, there is also a growing racialized European citizenry which increasingly questions the transformative capacity of multiculturalism. Their critiques differ from the dominant criticisms to multiculturalism in the public debate. Organized in what has been called the ‘second wave of anti-racist activism’ (Essed, 2014) in Europe, the activists call for a different approach, one that moves beyond culture and addresses questions of power and privilege. The activists’ critiques of multiculturalism parallel those of post/decolonial authors and critical race scholars, and in fact these authors are often their intellectual inspiration. Whilst this ‘minorities criticism’ to multiculturalism was still little prominent in the public debate until 2020, it grew louder with the recent BlackLivesMatter movement. This paper argues that a multiculturalist approach to social justice that responds to the claims of the second wave of anti-racist activism must give more weight to the material roots of the cultural, and integrate insights of relevant authors doing so. === Mental health of migrant children in Europe: challenges and recommendations Elena Rodríguez-Ventosa Herrera The University Institute of Studies on Migration (Comillas Pontifical University) Isabel Muñoz San Roque Comillas Pontifical University María Angustias Roldán Franco Comillas Pontifical University Each year, the European infant population grows with the arrival of migrant children from all over the world who settle in different countries in search of better life opportunities. Despite being born in the host society, second generation migrant children face several challenges to achieve global inclusion. Moreover, first generation migrant children face the challenges inherent to the migration process until they arrive in the host society. Both experiences entail a series of efforts by the host society and the migrant population to achieve successful integration into society. However, the exhaustion that the adaptation to a new culture entails can have aftermath that affect different areas of people’s lives, especially mental health. Many authors have asked themselves if migration works as a risk factor for mental health problems, nevertheless, the majority of them have not been able to draw sound conclusions. This is due to the difficulty of comparing different studies that lack clear definitions of key concepts, do not consider the same variables and do not share sample selection criteria. Moreover, the analysed tools do not take into consideration cultural differences and therefore do not correctly evaluate mental health in migrant population. In this contribution, an updated review of the state of the art literature on mental health of migrant children is presented. The difficulties to draw conclusions in this field are discussed in light of the available empiric evidences. Finally, some lines of research that will allow responding to the main challenges of this topic are identified. === Conceptualizing vulnerability in the context of migration: a critical overview and a new conceptual model Amalia Gilodi University of Luxembourg Isabelle Albert University of Luxembourg Birte Nienaber University of Luxembourg The notions of ‘vulnerability’ and ‘vulnerable group’ have increasingly gained prominence in academic literature, policymaking, humanitarian debates and everyday discourses on migration and asylum. Its popularity, not limited to this field, has often led academics and practitioners to use ‘vulnerability’ as a self-explanatory condition or phenomenon. However, vulnerability is neither conceptually straight-forward nor politically and morally neutral. Multiple definitions and operationalizations of vulnerability exist across and within different fields of research and practice, without a common and systematic understanding of the concept. The notion of vulnerability can also be instrumentilised as a tool for discrimination, stigmatization, control, exclusion or even reduction of humanitarian assistance, when access to protection is restricted to ‘the most vulnerable’. In the context of the H2020 project MIMY (n°870700), this paper examines the multiplicities and hidden pitfalls behind different conceptualizations and uses of vulnerability and critically reflects on their implication for the study and governance of migration. By unpacking this concept, we hope to highlight both limitations and opportunities enclosed in the notion of vulnerability and encourage migration scholars to understand, address and take a stand before its complexities. Based on these considerations, a multilevel conceptual model of vulnerability in the specific context of migration is proposed. The model aims to capture several types and understandings of vulnerability and how these are (re)produced at different levels and by different actors, including migrants themselves. Particular attention is paid to migrants’ biographical and psychological experiences of vulnerability and how policy and political frameworks may affect them. === Migrant belonging and integration in Switzerland: Examining the experience of settled Eritrean migrants Wegahtabrhan Sereke USI Jolanta Dzewiecka USI Eritreans are the largest non-European immigrant and refugee group in Switzerland and their experiences provide useful material for thinking through current integration frameworks (Ager & Strang 2008; Castles et al 2002; Penninx 2019; Schwartz et al 2010). We argue that in spite of valid recent criticisms (Mcpherson, 2010; Penninx, 2019; Schinkel, 2018; Wieviorka, 2014; Vasta, 2014), the concept of integration is still useful. However, we propose a revision of the refugee integration framework (Ager & Strang, 2008) in light of the concept of belonging (Duemmler, 2014; George & Selimos, 2017; Geurts, Davids & Spierings, 2020; May, 2011; Muller 2018; Nunn, 2017; Soudy, 2016; Waal, 2020; Wessendorf, 2017; Vasta, 2013; Yuval-Davis’s, 2006). The construct of belonging as a dynamic, dialogic and discursive process of negotiation in multiple spheres that connect the self and society (May 2011; Yuval-Davis 2006) allows for a more complex understanding of migrant agency. We pay particular attention to how Eritrean migrants negotiate forms of inclusion and/or exclusion in a racial formation through affective-discursive practices (Drzewiecka & Steyn 2009, 2012). Our theoretical discussion is based on extensive data of 65 interviews conducted through in-depth qualitative design, that also included ethnographic observations. Preliminary findings show that various forms of exclusion, in institutional and social settings, impede processes of integration and a sense of belonging as well as animate local and oppositional forms of belonging.

author

Elena Rodríguez-Ventosa Herrera

University Institute of Studies on Migration (Comillas Pontifical University)

author

Isabelle A. Albert

University of Luxembourg

author

Birte Nienaber

University of Luxembourg

author

Ilke Adam

VUB

author

Amalia Gilodi

University of Luxembourg

author

Isabel Muñoz San Roque

Comillas Pontifical University

author

Vicente Hernández Franco

Comillas Pontifical University

author

Wegahta Sereke

USI

author

María Angustias Roldán Franco

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Chinese migrants and their descendants’ experiences in a pandemic Europe

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #11 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Thais França

CIES-IUL

chair

Simeng ( Simeng ) Wang

The French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)

In the last decades, Chinese migration to Europe have increased and gained more visibility in the public spheres. Further it became more diverse encompassing worker migrants, international students, artists, investors, etc. However, this growth has been neither smooth nor unproblematic. On the one hand, its segmented and fragmented features have contributed to hinder their integration into the host society. On the other hand, the rising anti-minority, anti-immigrant and xenophobic sentiment and attitudes in some parts of Europe have fostered their stigmatization, stereotyping and marginalization. The initial outbreak of the pandemic in China created an opportunistic situation for racism, prejudice and discriminatory behaviors against Chinese people to thrive – including micro-aggression, physical and psychological violence as for example Chinese people being barred from establishments. Against this background, this panel intends to discuss the experience of Chinese migrants during the pandemic in different European contexts, looking at the main obstacles they have faced during this period, their coping strategies as well as future mobility paths. PAPER #1 Awareness, Appeal, and Act: digital media and racial resistance among Chinese female migrants in the UK AUTHOR(S) Xinyu Promio Wang (Waseda University) ABSTRACT By focusing on Chinese digital diasporas in the UK, this paper sheds lights on the way Chinese women negotiate their perceived discrimination and racism through various digital media channels during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper is based on an empirical investigation using qualitative method, which consists of online interviews with 29 first-generation, Mainland Chinese female migrants living in the UK. It documents the vulnerability of female Chinese migrants by narrating their experiences of verbal and non-verbal, race-based violence connected to coronavirus between February to October 2020. Furthermore, based on these empirical findings, this paper investigates the crucial role digital media play for Chinese women to deal with racially motivated hate crimes, the taken for granted racial stereotypes, as well as the daily racism and white privilege in the UK. This study shows that on the one hand, through the use of Chinese-language digital media such as WeChat and Weibo, Chinese women are able to seek for emotional support and comfort from their left-behind contacts in the homeland, thereby to mitigating verbal and physical violence they perceived from their daily diasporic experiences in the UK. On the other hand, it is also found that by using English-language digital platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, Chinese women actively voice out their embodied vulnerability as silent, invisible and sufferable subjects, as a way to resist this pandemic-induced anti-Chinese racism. This paper indicates that via variant digital media, Chinese women in the UK are able to break their silence, resisting racial discrimination and inequalities in a more united and activist manner, as well as to taking care of others who are racialised and marginalised. PAPER #2 I’m more afraid of racism than of the virus!’: racism awareness and resistance among Chinese migrants and their descendants in France during the Covid-19 pandemic AUTHOR(S) Simeng Wang (The French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)) Xiabing Chen, Yong Li, Chloé Luu, Ran Yan and Francesco Madrisotti (Research team MigraChiCovid) ABSTRACT This article focuses on the discrimination and racism experienced by Chinese migrants and their descendants during the Covid-19 pandemic. It analyses this group’s increasing awareness and activism toward racial discrimination in French society. The paper is based on an empirical investigation using qualitative and quantitative research methods (online surveys and interviews) with people of Chinese origin living in France. In addition, qualitative data from news media and activists is also crucial to this study because of the important role they play in the social construction of the anti-racism movement. This study shows that the Covid-19 pandemic highlights how the discrimination and racism experienced by people of Chinese origin can take various forms. The epidemic has become a catalyst for Chinese immigration to resist racism, especially among descendants, and among more recent and highly-skilled Chinese immigrants, who have broken their silence, united, and participated in a more activist manner. In summary, this paper has three main contributions: first, it has empirically demonstrated the persistence of the feeling of injustice among the Chinese population in France. Secondly, this paper has shown the rising awareness of racism in the newcomer group, which has been catalyzed and accelerated by the Covid-19 epidemic; in contrast, descendants were already attuned to it before the health crisis. Finally, this paper has analysed the struggles and different forms of mobilisations against racism among young people who identify as Chinese, both newcomers and descendants. The paper has also shown that their struggles and commitments are part of a more general anti-racist movement occurring in French society. For more details, cf. the publication (DOI: 10.1080/14616696.2020.1836384). PAPER #3 Chinese students in Portugal during the covid19 outbreak: from mobile elite to uninvited guests? AUTHOR(S) Thais França (CIES-ISCTE, ISCTE-IUL) ABSTRACT In the last decades, Portugal has invested in its image as a diversity opened country as part of its strategy to attract skilled migrants, including international students. Building up on its good ranking in the MIPEX index and the colonial narratives of Portuguese society sharing an empathy toward different people and its ability to embrace different cultures. China and Portugal’s relation dates back the colonial times when the Portuguese arrived in Macau in XVI century, a link that Portugal has strategically used to boost their political and social relations in the present. Chinese student mobility to Portugal is a fairly recent flow when compared both to other destinations in Europe, mainly the UK, France and Germany as well as to other origin countries flows to Portugal. It has, however, grown steadily in a way that in 2019, they represented the 5th largest community among international students in the country. Since the covid19 spread, worldwide, Chinese citizen have been reported experiencing high levels of racism, xenophobia and discrimination, as the virus has been referred to by the mainstream media and by the conservative elite as the “Chinese virus”. This paper aims at analyzing the experience of Chinese international students in Portugal during the health crisis outbreak, looking at how the hidden vulnerabilities and inequalities in international students mobility schemes shaped their experiences. The evidences are drawn from 20 semi-structured interviews with Chinese students who were in Portugal throughout the pandemic. It shed lights on how the idea of international Chinese students as elite and privileged migrants is erroneous and it raises the awareness to the invisible precarious social experience endured by these students in the host society. Further, it challenges the national myth of Portugal as a non-racist country. PAPER #4 Being and feeling ‘Chinese’ in the Netherlands COVID-19 times AUTHOR(S) Maggi W.H. Leung (Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning Utrecht University) ABSTRACT As the Coronavirus spreads, racialisation and other forms of stigmatisation have made their mark in many parts of the world. Reports on physical or verbal assault on people of Chinese, or seen as Chinese are abundant, also in the Netherlands. Many speak of the ‘Corona-racism pandemic’, denoting the rise of racialised acts and narratives since the advent of the virus. On the other hand, the pandemic has also been a context in which ‘Chinese’ identities and positionalities are intensively negotiated and reconstructed. The Chinese and Dutch state and societies, and the Chinese diaspora are key players in these processes. This paper presents some of the experiences among ‘diaspora Chinese’, also those who are made ‘Chinese’ by others, in the Netherlands during COVID-19 times. Drawing on news and social media content analyses as well as qualitative interviews, the paper analyses the processes in which Chineseness is being produced, performed, contested and experienced. Among others, the paper examines the role played by various key actors and institutions in these racialising processes. Conceptually, we operate with an ‘intersectionality’ approach to underline the need to go beyond binaries such as ethnicity-centred majority vs. minority framework in understanding racialisation, or homogenising imageries of a coherent ‘Chinese diaspora’ and its relationship with the states and societies of ‘origin’ and ‘destination’. Our findings highlight the key and intersecting role of different axes of differences such as class, gender, age, place and space in shaping the processes of stigmatisation and actions in dealing with or countering them.

author

Maggi Leung

Utrecht University

discussant

Sofia Gaspar

ISCTE-IUL

author

Xinyu Promio Wang

Waseda University

author

Xiabing Chen

Research team MigraChiCovid

author

Yong Li

author

Chloé Luu

author

Ran Yan

author

Francesco Madrisotti

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Transnational migrant entrepreneurs bridging urban, regional, national, and global spaces: A multi-scalar global perspective - Part 1

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #12 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Laure Sandoz

University of Basel and nccr - on the move

In a globalised world, the actions of groups and individuals span across multiple geographical scales. In recent years, migration researchers have called for taking multi-scalar processes more seriously. In a multi-scalar global perspective, local, regional, national, and global are not separate levels of analysis; they are mutually constituted spheres of action in which people – both migrants and non-migrants – live. This perspective allows researchers to investigate not only the different opportunities and constraints created by nation states, but also the conditions produced by urban and regional contexts within specific nation states, as well as the transnational settings in which migrants act. Some research on transnational migrant entrepreneurship does exist but studies seriously addressing the global multi-scalar perspective by examining how entrepreneurs bridge urban, regional, national, and global spaces are scant. This session contributes to filling this research gap by examining the local, regional, national, and global contexts in which transnational migrant entrepreneurs (TME) are embedded, and how they bridge these different spaces through entrepreneurial activities and creative mobility strategies. We are interested in comprehending the diverse contexts of opportunity, or lack thereof, against the backdrop of entrepreneurship policies and mobility regimes in which cities, regions, states, and global spaces are imbricated. Understanding how transnational entrepreneurs creatively connect and transform such settings through the multi-scalar mobilities of people, goods, capital, and ideas is central. With this panel, we also want to examine how these multi-scalar processes (re)produce social, economic, and spatial power dependencies as well as social inequalities. PAPER #1 Entrenchments for commodities. Brokerage, transnational mobilities and low-cost Chinese goods in Mexico AUTHOR(S) José María Castro Ibarra (Leiden University) ABSTRACT This research focuses on small retailers and entrepreneurs' practices engaged in multi-scalar global channels of low-cost goods from China to Mexico. Some of these brokers travel intermittently to China, others import from Mexico, and others inhabit China. Their labor is linked to the economic globalization 'from below'. As a popular process, this opens the gates to a multiplicity of social actors to immerse themselves, individually or communally, in transnational business dynamics. As petty capitalists and brokers, they build global mobility systems of goods through (in)formal channels. Contemporary globalization is composed of overlapping and interdependent flows of goods, capital, information, and people. Despite being a macro-scale process, it is sustained by a multiplicity of local processes interconnected through social actors, enterprises, governments, and communities in transnational contexts. Usually, the existence of these flows of commodities is taken for granted by scholars. However, brokers must face various threats to set down these mobility systems: criminalization, business competition, bureaucracy, nationalism, and, currently, the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to understand how brokers build transnational circuits of goods while facing obstacles and risks. PAPER #2 Appropriating multi-scalar bordering processes: Deviant entrepreneurship and translocal anchors among illegalized sub-saharan migrants AUTHOR(S) Louis Vuilleumier (University of Fribourg ) ABSTRACT European mobility regimes impose specific spatialities and temporalities on migrants through physical and social immobilization. Nation-states sort un/desired migrants through sets of precarious administrative statuses, which are translated into a limited access to resources and notably the formal labour market. However, facing enduring unemployment situations, impoverished migrants show themselves creative. Some start an entrepreneurial journey across Europe and thus find ways to navigate multi-scalar bordering processes (European migratory policies, multi-national contexts and local implementations). While most studies on transnational migrant entrepreneurs focus on “highly skilled” migrants and/or legitimate markets, I propose to capture the multi-scalar strategies of precarious migrants active in low-level street drugs dealing: a form of negatively labelled entrepreneurship. Drawing on the trajectories of precarious migrants, I use biographical analysis and participant observations of a squatters’ mobilization in a Swiss city to explore how illegalized migrants appropriate spaces of multi-scalar and asymmetrical power relationships. Instead of openly challenging those nested bordering processes, I demonstrate that illegalized migrants’ practices of appropriation oscillate between daily forms of discreet resistance and deliberate conciliation. Moreover, I grasp how the evolution of a deviant entrepreneurial journey relies on the capacities to develop, maintain and mobilize translocal anchors, which depend on networking and (im)mobility strategies and span across different localities. Neither victimizing nor romanticizing deviant entrepreneurship, this paper offers a multi-scalar perspective on the capacities of an impoverished population to appropriate imbricated European mobility regimes that attempt to constrain their physical movements and their financial opportunities by creating spaces of narrowed autonomy. PAPER #3 From Market to Market: Filipino-Canadian Entrepreneurs Refashion a Transnational Alternative Business Landscape AUTHOR(S) Lynne Milgram (OCAD University Toronto) ABSTRACT Studies of Philippine labour migration have rather grimly pictured migrants’ potential for upward socioeconomic mobility in their adopted countries. My research on small-scale Filipino-Canadian entrepreneurs demonstrates, however, that migrants, historically considered a disenfranchised group, have instead established successful enterprises by creating interstitial “gray spaces” of alternative-economy work while fostering social belonging. To engage this issue, I analyze migrant Filipino-Canadian entrepreneurs in Toronto, Canada whose businesses import packaged foods from the Philippines and locally prepare Filipino foods for sale to residents generally, and to Filipino-Canadian migrant communities, in particular. By operationalizing personalized transnational connections between the Philippines and Philippine-Canadian communities, selling local residents’ home production (e.g., prepared foods, garden vegetables), and contributing to their community’s social well-being, Filipino-Canadian migrant businesspeople emerge as edgy “barefoot” or social entrepreneurs redrawing the frontier of their transnational migrant enterprises. Navigating government constraints on importing certain foods, maintaining their appeal to both second generation Philippine-Canadians and to older immigrants while activating community outreach, these entrepreneurs fashion grass-roots transnational-to-local businesses “from below.” Responding to community requests, social entrepreneurs facilitate Canada-to-Philippines digital and shipping services while working in the Philippines with producers to process foods for final manufacture in Canada. By navigating formal/informal and “sharing economy” provisioning channels, entrepreneurs sustain their socially-responsible mandate while financially securing their businesses. Toronto’s Filipino-Canadian entrepreneurs thus problematize any assumed migrant marginality. PAPER #4 Migrant Entrepreneurs Striving to Build Businesses across National Borders: Dependencies, Fragilities and Alternatives AUTHOR(S) Laure Sandoz (nccr - on the move, Institute of Geography, University of Neuchâtel) Christina Mittmasser (nccr - on the move, Institute of Geography, University of Neuchâtel) Yvonne Riaño (nccr - on the move, Institute of Geography, University of Neuchâtel) Lorena Izaguirre (nccr - on the move, Institute of Geography, University of Neuchâtel) ABSTRACT In recent years, scholars have highlighted that migrant entrepreneurs increasingly conduct their businesses beyond national borders, which provides them with new opportunities to achieve social mobility not only in a local and regional context but also in a transnational one. In this paper, we examine the kinds of dependencies, fragilities and alternatives that emerge when migrants strive to develop businesses across multiple scales, and apply the lens of 'globalizations from below'. We ask to what extent social, economic and spatial dependencies affect migrants’ agency and efforts towards social mobility. To do so, we develop a typology based on a three-country-case empirical study in Colombia, Spain and Switzerland. Our research partners include tertiary educated and transnational entrepreneurs with migration experience (migrants and returnees) in Switzerland, Spain and Colombia. We use multiple methods including 95 biographical and semi-structured interviews, geographical and mental maps, ethnographic observations, and participatory Minga workshops. To study dependencies, we focus on the diverse spatial and social connections upon which transnational entrepreneurs rely in both private and professional life. To examine fragilities, we assess the level of risk and vulnerability associated with the former socio-spatial connections. To grasp alternatives, we analyze the strategies that migrants develop to overcome the former fragilities. We contribute to the broader debate on 'globalizations from below' by showing that globalization builds on dependencies not only on a large scale (between geographical regions, social groups and economic sectors), but also on a micro scale in the local spaces where individuals live and experience their daily lives.

discussant

Yvonne Riaño

SFM Neuchâtel and nccr - on the move

discussant

Christina Mittmasser

University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Geographie

author

Jose Maria Castro

Leiden University

author

Louis Vuilleumier

University of Fribourg

author

B. Lynne Milgram

OCAD University

author

Lorena Izaguirre

nccr - on the move, Institute of Geography, University of Neuchâtel

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Migration politics and governance: understanding the relationships - International governance perspectives

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #13 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Ferruccio Pastore

FIERI

chair

Cathrine Talleraas

PRIO

Studies on the politics and governance of migration have rarely spoken to each other. Research on migration politics has emphasised the contentious side of the migration issue, e.g. party ideologies and (populist) discourses, native citizens unfavourable attitudes, pro- and anti-immigrant social movements mobilisation and the like. On the contrary, research on governance and public policy has primarily focused on the consensual side, e.g. policy networks managing migration issues at different levels of government, implementation accommodative practices, processes of policy learning and experts’ knowledge etc. Yet, in a context of increasing politicisation of migration, governance and politics need to be thematised as the two facets of the same coin. In this panel promoted by the IMISCOE MigPOG Standing Committee, crossing-edge empirical and theoretical papers addressing the link between migration politics and governance will be presented. Contributions will bring together reflections from different perspectives. Session 1 will explore the contribution of international governance perspectives in pushing forward the understanding of the relationships between migration politics and governance. PAPER #1 International migration politics and governance: exploring the interplay AUTHOR(S) Sandra Lavenex (University of Geneva) ABSTRACT This paper draws on IR approaches to the institutional design of international institutions to examine the architecture of international cooperation on asylum and migration. We first establish a typology of conflicts characterizing migration politics at the international level. Then we retrace the establishment of the main bilateral, regional and international instruments of international migration governance with a focus on developments since 1990 and interpret their institutional features in the light of the typology of conflicts. Migration governance instruments will be classified along their substantive scope and degree of legalization, i.e. whether they contain legally binding and enforceable commitments or are based on voluntary and process-oriented "soft law" mechanism. In so doing we will examine the explanatory power of two hypotheses drawn from the institutionalist literature. The first hypothesis is that in the light of conflicts of interests, states will seek issue-linkages and package deals to incentivise legally binding cooperation. In the absence of sizeable incentives or in the advent of overwhelming compliance costs, as well as in the presence of conflicts over values, cooperation will either fail or take the form of legally non-binding, process-oriented instruments. The more states disagree over the key principles and values at stake in the cooperation, the more these instruments will keep a general scope allowing for an eventual gradual approximation of views. As a result, we see few binding instruments mainly at the bilateral and regional levels and the pre-eminence of soft law approaches, in particular at the multilateral level. PAPER #2 Securitising the regional agenda? The construction of common ground with ECOWAS states AUTHOR(S) Melissa Mouthaan (University of Cambridge) ABSTRACT European policy-makers have sought to export a model of migration governance to non-EU countries that is characterised by a ‘sedentary bias’ (Bakewell, 2008). This paper examines migration securitising practices and the extent to which these have resonated with West African state actors. It sets out to establish that while EU and West African migration policy priorities diverge, often significantly, the EU’s migration management agenda has resonated to some extent, with security incorporated into West African policy frameworks. Building capacity for border management, the development of biometric data collection for governing migration, and the development of civil registries (état civil) have emerged as areas of successful cooperation. This paper examines two case studies, Senegal and Ghana, and draws on empirical research conducted in 2017-2018 in Dakar and Accra. It finds the EU’s cooperation with Senegal and Ghana in these areas has occurred where the securitisation rationale was accorded legitimacy by domestic actors operating at both the national and regional level. In particular, technocratic elements of the EU’s policy proposals have found resonance with Senegalese and Ghanaian actors’ preferences who perceive technological solutions as appropriate in solving domestic governance challenges, and who demonstrate interest in developing the state’s capacity to monitor and document migration flows. This paper theorises that the highly internationalised and technical policy space of border management and security offers domestic actors a buffered and depoliticised space to operate in, in which they are relatively insulated from domestic pressures. PAPER #3 The UK’s role in building “global walls with very small doors”: How the UK works with five foreign states to enforce extraterritorial migration controls AUTHOR(S) Nik Ostrand (University of Sussex) Paul Sthatam (University of Sussex) ABSTRACT Most literature emphasises powerful destination states’ authority in shaping “remote control” outcomes - the narrative is typically told from a Global North nation-state’s perspective, as a destination for “unwanted” immigration from source or transit states. However, extraterritorial migration management efforts are not just between stronger and weaker states, but also occur between powerful states who have a more equal relationship. As FitzGerald’s (2020) perspective on “shared coercion of movement” underlines, states work together to build what is effectively a global system of controls, that leaves very few pathways for people to move South to North. This means there are limitations on individual state sovereignty, and the degree to which any state can deviate from a ‘de facto’ international system of immigration controls that results from inter-state decisions. Power asymmetries still matter, with Global North states exerting more power over the available mobility and migration pathways. In effect, there is a “hierarchy of sovereignty”, where each state leads or follows according to its relative power in the pecking order. In this paper, we study the UK state’s role by examining its extraterritorial migration activities with five countries, with different positions in this pecking order: Ghana and Egypt from the Global South, the US and France from the Global North, and Thailand in an intermediate position. Empirically, we compare how the UK state co-operates over visa policies and overseas immigration liaison activities with these five states, to deepen understanding on how this international “hierarchy of sovereignty” works in migration management. PAPER #4 ‘Conditionality Reversed’: How Trade Became a Tool for the EU’s External Refugee Policy AUTHOR(S) Karin Vaagland (University of Oslo) ABSTRACT Previous studies suggest that commercial interests and values pull European Union (EU) trade policy formation in different directions. In most cases, this tug-of-war is won by commercial interests, which possess a strong base in the EU Commission and among Member States. By contrast, in the case of the 2016 EU-Jordan Compact values came out victorious. Indeed, while including trade concessions from the EU as a key component and constituting a novel and unique approach to refugee protection, the Compact represents an extreme case of value-based trade policy. How can we explain this policy outcome? This paper reports the results of a case study based on 13 in-depth interviews with negotiators from the Commission, the External Action Service, and the Amman delegation. It shows how the refugee crisis led to the Jordan Compact through three mechanisms: issue linkage, political pressure, and expertise. First, the analysis explores conditionality reversed, identifying Jordan as a policy entrepreneur leveraging the refugee crisis. Next, it shows how conditionality was used as a technical necessity to justify differentiation in EU trade policy. Finally, it demonstrates how DG Trade acted as a reluctant initiator pushing the Member States to adopt the Compact. These three mechanisms explain the outcome: Jordanian businesses were granted relaxation of the rules of origin of exports to Europe, conditioned on their employment of a minimum share of Syrian refugees.

author

sandra lavenex

University of Geneva

author

Melissa Mouthaan

University of Cambridge

author

Nik Ostrand

Sussex Centre for Migration Studies

author

Karin Vaagland

Fafo

author

Paul Statham

SCMR University of Sussex

discussant

Katharina Natter

University of Leiden

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Challenges of doing migration research during COVID-19: Quantitative Perspectives (1)

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #14 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Sebastian Rinken

Institute for Advanced Social Studies (IESA-CSIC)

PAPER #1 Measuring Migration Behavior through Longitudinal Phone Surveys in West Africa AUTHOR(S) Jasper Tjaden (University of Potsdam) Felix Ndashimye (International Organization for Migration (IOM)) ABSTRACT Collecting survey data during the COVID-19 pandemic has been challenging, given the limited ability to conduct face-to-face surveys due to contact restrictions in many countries. To overcome these constraints, researchers have increasingly relied on phone surveys, particularly in developing countries where other online data collection tools are often limited. There is, however, limited evidence of the effectiveness of phone surveys in different geographic settings. In this experimental study, we compare the response rates of different phone survey modes including interactive voice response (IVR), audio messages by WhatsApp and phone credit incentives. We conduct the follow-up phone surveys using two independent surveys of potential migrants in Senegal and Guinea that were collected in 2018 and 2019 by the International Organization for Migration’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre. We randomly assigned nearly 14,000 contacts to receive survey questions by either the IVR or WhatsApp modes. The overall response rate was about 10 per cent and was higher for respondents in Senegal, as well as those that were offered a small airtime top-up for completing the survey. The variation in response rates by country has important implications because the respondents in Guinea were largely based in rural settings whereas respondents in Senegal were based in exclusively urban settings. For those that responded, about 60 per cent reported that it is ‘likely’ or ‘very likely’ that they will leave their country in the next two years; however, only about 16 per cent would consider irregular migration channels. The findings suggest that the use of phone surveys in West Africa faces severe limitations in light of low response rates. Using incentives does not substantially increase response rates. We discuss the potential reasons for low response rates in our samples and suggest solutions based on the lessons learned. PAPER #2 Reaching Subpopulations in Refugee and Forced Migrations Studies: Sampling and Questionnaire Design Procedures of a Quantitative Survey during Covid-19 in Germany AUTHOR(S) Laura Wenzel (Leuphana University Lüneburg) Onno Husen (Leuphana University Lüneburg) Philipp Sandermann (Leuphana University Lüneburg) ABSTRACT Conducting a survey with refugee populations contains particular challenges. Among these challenges, sampling and questionnaire design are crucial. This becomes even more apparent when there is the goal to obtain access to difficult-to-identify and hard-to-reach subgroups of a greater refugee population. This paper demonstrates challenges and possible solutions of the two steps of sampling and questionnaire design by taking the example of a quantitative survey that aims at refugee parents of 0-5-year-old children in the state of Lower Saxony/Germany. First, we document the process of drawing an adequate random sample for such a narrowly defined subgroup and discuss its opportunities and limitations. Second, we describe the design and translation process of the developed self-administrated online questionnaire for this subgroup, following the TRAPD procedure. Third, we reflect on the sampling, translation, and implementation process of the survey in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic and its implications on our research within the different stages of the survey. In our conclusion, we focus on lessons learned regarding adapting strategies for well-defined future samples and questionnaire designs in changing times that reflect the necessity to represent the heterogeneity of refugee subpopulations in research. PAPER #3 How does a mode switch during field work affect data collection and data biases? Experiences from the refugee study ReGES during the COVID-19 pandemic AUTHOR(S) Florian Heinritz (Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories, Bamberg, Germany) Regina Becker (Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories, Bamberg, Germany) ABSTRACT Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many face-to-face interviews could no longer be conducted. As a consequence, surveys had to be cancelled, were postponed, or conducted in a mode that was also permitted despite non-pharmacological interventions. All three options have different methodological implications. This contribution focuses on the last one: A mode switch. A mode switch can lead to different kinds of biases. First, it influences the way of data collection and, potentially, response rates. In particular in migration research, participation is often easier in face-to-face modes, for example, due to language barriers and reading difficulties. Additionally, ways of contacting are limited and, in particular, reaching them via telephone might prove to be more difficult. Second, the data might be biased due to effects of different data collection modes which are of more general survey methodological nature. Based on experiences and data from the panel study ‘ReGES – Refugees in the German Educational System’, we shed light on the challenges experienced due to a mode switch during field work. We elaborate on different types of biases and particularly show who is more difficult to reach after the switch to a telephone interview, in general and due to migrant-specific factors. We thereby draw from our experiences with different modes applied in the ReGES study and hope to inform other migration research about potential consequences of this COVID-19-related mode switch. PAPER #4 Surveying Migrants during the Covid19 pandemic. Lessons learned from the ORIM2020 survey in the Italian Region of Lombardy AUTHOR(S) Livia Elisa Ortensi (Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna) ABSTRACT Since 2001, the Regional Observatory for Integration of Multietnicity of the Italian region of Lombardy carries out an annual multipurpose cross-sectional regional survey targeting migrants. The survey targets men and women aged 18 and over from the primary sending countries, including naturalized and irregular migrants and second generations. From the beginning, the survey uses the Centre Sampling Method to provide statistical representativity at the regional level. The Centre Sampling Methods, initially proposed by prof. Blangiardo, proved through the years and in many different contexts, a valid and replicable technique to study the migrant population. However, in 2020 the region of Lombardy was among the areas most badly hitten by the Covid19 pandemic in Europe. In spring 2020, the working group responsible for the implementation of the ORIM2020 survey implemented some corrections to deal with possible limitations to the field and centres in particular, that are key to the method. These included an enhanced version of the centre sampling methods, including "virtual centres" such as Facebook, WhatsApp and Telegram groups to contact interviewees living in the municipality selected for the survey. 2200 face to face interviews were carried out between September and October 2020 just before the second lockdown was imposed in Lombardy. The contribution will reflect on the methodological advancements implemented, on data quality and comparisons with previous surveys. We will also present results collected about the use of social networks that migrants use to keep informed with the pandemic.

author

Jasper Tjaden

University of Potsdam

author

Jean Felix Ndashimye

IOM-UN MIGRATION

author

Laura Wenzel

Leuphana University

author

Onno Husen

Leuphana University Lüneburg

author

Philipp Sandermann

Leuphana University Lüneburg

author

Florian Heinritz

author

Regina Becker

Leibniz Institut for Educational Trajectories

author

Livia Elisa Ortensi

Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna

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Reflexive Migration Studies 12

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #15 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Gulce Safak Ozdemir

Sra

Changing the narrative - and changing our contributions to the dominant narratives Michael Eve University of Eastern Piedmont Maria Perino University of Eastern Piedmont Changing the narrative on migration’ involves reflection on the way migration scholars and international institutions may contribute to the framework of a debate in which anti-immigration forces insert themselves. An aspect of the framework where ‘populist’ opposition to immigration flourishes is the opposition between those who ‘welcome’ migrants for humanitarian reasons or for love of ‘cultural richness’, and those who wish to restrict migration for the ‘national interest’. This framework presupposes that mass migration to the West exists essentially because of conditions in emigration countries, from wars to economic hardship. This assumption is bolstered by media presentations and by restrictive policies pursued in recent decades which have not succeeded in reducing the total volume of migration to Western nations, but have profound effects on public perception of migration as something coming from ‘outside’. We argue that a shift in academic discourses in recent decades has not helped to counter this perception of migration as driven by conditions ‘outside’. In 1979 Piore stressed the centrality of demand for labour as the driver of migration, and the need to understand the choices of local workers. But at the end of the century Arango, in an authoritative volume (Massey et al. 1998) stressed push factors. There has been a sharp shift in policies, very different from the era of the Gastarbeiter programmes, but not in demand for labour: migrants have continued to find jobs in sectors from agriculture to construction, tourism, cleaning and care services. Migration Studies should not just study migrants. === Integrationism and Boundary Liberalism in Switzerland Stefan Manser-Egli University of Neuchâtel Recently, there has been a growing interest in ‘aggressive integrationism’ and the ‘civic integration paradigm’, referring to ‘integration’ as to be achieved by coercing, testing, penalizing and, ultimately, excluding. Studying integration as a category of practice, this paper focuses on Switzerland where naturalization and residency permits are increasingly predicated on integration requirements. One of the requirements is the criterion of ‘respecting the values of the constitution’. Concretely, the list of examples for the criterion refers to (attitudes on) forced marriage, circumcision, sexual orientation, gender equality and expressions of respect. Against the backdrop of what has been theorized as boundary liberalism or illiberal liberalism, this article enquires into the social imaginaries that are re/produced by legislation and law enforcing authorities. These concepts refer to the fact that the extent to which immigrants are believed to have acceptably liberal values has become a site of boundary making in Western Europe with integration increasingly being predicated on the adoption of liberal-democratic norms and practices and assumptions underpinning liberal personhood. This boundary making in the name of liberal values is carved out by an empirical analysis of the legislative process and fieldwork among public authorities. The value criterion of integration reproduces a presumed incompatibility of Islam and liberal values, drawing a bright boundary against an imagined Swiss community of value. This imaginary of the liberal self against the illiberal other through the culturalization of liberalism and its enforcement by state authorities undermine fundamental premises of liberal democracy and the rule of law. === Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on refugees and migrants Ilse Derluyn Ghent University An Verelst Ghent University Morten Skovdal Copenhagen University Eva Spiritus-Beerden Ghent University Refugees and migrants’ lives are often characterized by numerous stressors, such as discrimination, poor-living conditions and high risk of developing mental disorders. These disadvantages make them especially vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic where health care and protective systems are overwhelmed and under-capacitated. Apart Together aims to uncover the psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on refugees and migrants across the world. Quantitative data was collected from more than 30,000 respondents between April 2020 and October 2020, focusing on five categories: sociodemographic characteristics (1), COVID-19-related situations (2), daily stressors (3), mental health (4), and social well-being (5). The majority of the respondents reported a deterioration of daily stressors (i.e. access to work, safety, and financial means) and mental health (i.e. feelings of depression, worries, anxiety, and loneliness). In addition, over 60 % reported to follow preventive measures, such as covering their nose and mouth. Last, those that would not seek medical health care in case of suspected symptoms said this was mostly due to a lack of financial means and fear of deportation. The results clearly underline the need and importance of including refugees and migrants in policy responses to COVID‑19. Measures are needed to increase refugees’ and migrants’ access to multi-language information and to health services, both medical and psychological. Efforts need to be taken to improve the living conditions of the most vulnerable groups, and to continue the provision of services - also in times of a pandemic.

author

Michael Eve

University of Eastern Piedmont

author

Ilse Derluyn

Ghent University

author

maria perino

università del piemonte orientale

author

Stefan Manser-Egli

University of Neuchâtel

author

An Verelst

Ghent University

author

Morten Skovdal

Copenhagen University

author

Eva Spiritus-Beerden

Ghent University

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Reflexive Migration Studies 9

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #16 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Javier Gutiérrez Espinosa

From the securitisation of migration to the dehumanisation of refugees in Europe Franck Duvell Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies In autumn 2015, a NATO frigate confronted mostly refugees crossing the Aegean from Turkey to Greece. Those who arrived on the Greek islands have since been sent to refugee camps and are subjected to inhumane conditions. In 2020, it became public that national Greek and EU agencies were even enforcing clandestine push back operations. In this contribution it is demonstrated that the refugee influx has been constructed as an existential threat and migration accordingly securitised. However, whilst the analytical tools developed by the Copenhagen and Paris schools facilitate analysis of the discursive practices and some such policies they are insufficient, I argue, to characterise the 'aggressive identity' of the perpetrators (Appadurai), the emergence of ‘an invisible state within the state’ (Arendt), the radicalism of the policies directed at refugees and their suffering. In order to develop a more appropriate conceptual framework I will show that their treatment instead amounts to a process of systematic dehumanisation; second, in order to understand the implications of this process I refer to historical precedence, notably the influx of Eastern European refugees of Jewish background in the 1910s and 20s in Europe and their dehumanisation in the early concentration camps. Drawing on Haslam, Arendt, Bauman and Appadurai I further elaborate this concept. In the conclusion, I carve out some similarities of the 1920 and 2020 policies towards unwanted aliens and its deterrent purpose, argue that refugees are denied moral equality, constructed as the new subhuman and that the concept of refugees has thus been fundamentally perverted. This has wider implications for the future of the contemporary refugee regime as well as the understanding of the world we live in: because moral equality is a key pillar of democracy (Perry) the dehumanisation of refugees signals an authoritarian turn in society and even carries the seed of a genocidal threat, as Appadurai warns. === A theoretical framework of integration for migrant children well-being in Europe Eva Bajo Marcos Universidad Pontificia Comillas Mercedes Fernández Universidad Pontificia Comillas Inmaculada Serrano Universidad Pontificia Comillas European region accounts more than seven million migrant children, which represent 9.4% of their total population (UN-DESA, 2019). In face of such a demographic challenge, European societies have invested into integration and social inclusion as key processes to ensure sustainable development and future cohesive, resilient and prosperous societies (European Commission, 2020) Migrant children constitute one of the most vulnerable populations in Europe, and integration processes are key to foster their well-being (Bech Hansen et al., 2019). When migrant children arrive the country of destination and later when they settle and start their integration process, they face specific challenges that strongly affect their well-being. In this regard, institutions and entities in the field remark the need to further nuance the factors involved in fostering migrant children well-being (Jagland, 2016), and the need of further research providing a more accurate portrayal of the reality and experiences of these children to properly safeguard their rights (Save the children Europe et al., 2020). Interventions and policies aiming to tackle the interaction of integration and well-being require a basis on a theoretical framework providing conceptualisation and analytical approaches of the problem. This paper will present a proposal for a theoretical framework of integration for the well-being of migrant children resulting from a critical review of the literature. Updated models of child well-being and migrant integration will be presented, adopting an ecological, intercultural and rights-based approach. The analysis will link antecedents and outcomes of child well-being highlighting the role of cultural context and social systems in shaping children’s health and well-being. The results from this narrative review should be useful for impact policy-making and develop evidence-based psychosocial interventions for migrant children in Europe. === The interplay between labour migration, soft skills, job satisfaction and well-being Izabela Grabowska SWPS University, Mobility Research Group Agata Jastrzebowska SWPS University, Faculty of Psychology We investigate the interplay between temporary work abroad, soft skills, job satisfaction and well-being. This interplay forms a comprehensive approach to Migration-Impacted Informal Human Capital (MigCap) as a resource for organisations. The article uses the integrated dataset of Human Capital in Poland 2010-2014 representative surveys with 4 040 persons who experienced work abroad for at least three months in comparison to almost 70 000 stayers who never worked abroad. We discovered that working abroad had a positive impact on soft skills (cognitive, intrapersonal and interpersonal), job satisfaction and well-being (both mental and physical). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings and provide suggestions for future research on how to embed employees with MigCap in organisations in order to profit from it.

author

Eva Bajo Marcos

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

author

Izabela Grabowska

SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mobility Research Group

author

Franck Düvell

COMPAS

author

Mercedes Fernández

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

author

Agata Jastrzebowska

SWPS University, Faculty of Psychology

author

Inmaculada Antolinez-Dominguez

University of Cadiz

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Doing Historical Research on Migration in the Digital Age: Theories, Concepts and Methods (Administrating migration)

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #17 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Lorella Viola

University of Luxembourg

The so-called ‘Digital Turn’ has implied major changes in scientific communication and methodology, impacting all areas of research to various degrees. For example, in migration studies, today digital data enable new methods through the development and use of digital tools. Accordingly, there is now a wide range of digital approaches that complement or even challenge traditional methodologies of how to do historical research on migration. Moreover, the ever-growing availability of digital data, including digitized repositories and archives, has provided researchers with new perspectives leading them to challenge traditional positions and even explore new questions. The aim of this panel is to explore the interaction of those parameters having an impact on the different strategies, critical reflections, digital methodological approaches and tools in historical research on migration. In line with the theme of IMISCOE 2021 ‘Crossing borders, connecting cultures’, this series of panels concentrates on theories, concepts and methods in historical research on migration with a specific focus on ‘the digital’. This series of panels brings together prominent, international researchers in the field of digital migration researching the past, providing fresh insights and methodologies and presenting tools and practices of digital historiography. This third session - “Administrating migration” - focuses on administrative archived sources facilitating the study of still under-researched processes of migration, including elements of the changing post-war migration flows. Invited speakers present methods and results from their ongoing research on digital historical archival collections, such as the Luxembourgish European Parliament Archives or the arrival sheets of migrants to the iron basin of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. PAPER #1 Migration research and the Historical Population Register of Norway (HPR) AUTHOR(S) Gunnar Thorvaldsen (Arctic University of Norway) ABSTRACT We are presently building a national HPR, which will cover the period back to 1800 and connect with the modern population register, started in 1964. With some local exceptions, we could not follow individuals longitudinally through earlier periods - only trace them in cross-sectional or vital records, while the HPR combines censuses and church books into an integrated database. Since the internal migration records are fragmentary, the national scope especially facilitates longitudinal studies of migrants. The full count censuses up to 1910 are already available by means of data processing, and the 1920 census is going public on the Internet in December 2020. In particular, the mid-20th century is an understudied period in our population history, with changing post-war migration flows. The possibility of linking the HPR against the modern Central Population Register opens unique opportunities for research on contemporary demographic phenomena with a historical perspective. The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS) covers the needs of statistically oriented users to receive individual level longitudinal data (Alter & Mandemakers, 2014). The North Atlantic Population Project files with linked censuses covers two points in the life cycle (cf https://international.ipums.org/international/linked_data_details.shtml. Our record linkage algorithms are based on similarities in names, birth year, birthplace, occupation, address and relations with family members. In addition, we also check that the events make up a probable life course. The algorithms must be adapted to the characteristics of each source in order to keep the error rates low. For example, it is necessary to require stronger similarities for persons born in large than in small municipalities. PAPER #2 Codification and analysis of migration paths through Nodegoat on the basis of the declaration of arrival sheets of migrants to the iron basin of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg AUTHOR(S) Arnaud Sauer (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History ) Machteld Venken (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History ) ABSTRACT Since the end of the 19th Century, each foreigner moving to Luxembourg needed to declare his or her residency at the municipality within the first days after arrival. This procedure produced vast collections of sheets, especially in Luxembourg’s industrial zones. Despite the informative richness of these well-archival sources, they haven’t received much attention from historians. Our contribution offers a critical reflection on the co-creating with Master students of a data model within the software program Nodegoat. This includes an evaluation of the method, coding and analysis of a selection of the declaration sheets of migrants arriving in two Luxembourgish industrial municipalities: Dudelange and Differdange. The lens is put on the middle of the 1920s, a pivotal time characterised by an increase and diversification of migratory flows to one of the most dynamic industrial basins and sources of jobs in Europe: the basin of the Minette. We evaluate the choices, difficulties and opportunities of developing a data model that is, on the one hand, detailed enough to include the richness of individual migratory cases, while on the other hand, being user-friendly for the insertion and interpretion of data by non-professional historians. The database allows for a comparative analysis of the nationalities of migrants, as well as an analysis of the frequency and complexity of migrant mobility between the two municipalities, and this for both sexes and for families. With the help of a georeferenced historical map, moreover, we can localise the addresses of residency of the migrants in both municipalities and thereby reconstruct their habitation practices. Finally, we discuss the limits of our approach and the pitfalls encountered during this exercise of processing and analyzing these historical data, and we identify perspectives for further research. PAPER #3 Navigating Shengen: Digital Migration History at the Archives of the EP in Luxembourg AUTHOR(S) Cristina Blanco Sio-Lopez (University of Pittsburgh / Ca’ Foscari University of Venice) ABSTRACT This paper aims to analyse the origins, evolution and challenges of the Schengen Area from the differential perspective of key European Parliament (EP)’s players by examining neglected digital historical archival collections which illustrate critical and alternative views on how it would be possible to build and consolidate the EU’s free movement of persons (FMP) with a closer link to supranational perspectives and to a normative commitment to the priority of upholding human mobility rights with the EU. This constitutes, indeed, a key issue in the European integration process as human mobility rights and their embedment in the EU institutional and normative structure constitute one of the most polarizing yet crucial issues in current EU policy-making. The chosen methodology firstly integrates digital history with a history of concepts approach. Secondly, it applies a critical discourse analysis perspective with a focus on institutional discourse, which is understood as a goal-oriented discourse which paves the way for the generation of an expected acceptance. This paper will firstly address the initial steps towards the 1985 Schengen Agreements in relation to the FMP, then it will examine the challenges and propositions of the Schengen Agreement and Convention in the period from1985 to 1992. What are the evolving modes of exclusion in transnational mobility in Europe and beyond? How can historical critiques be relevant to today’s challenges to free movement of persons? What are the neglected differential solidarity and diversity dimensions of European integration? And normatively, are narratives on ‘shared values’ in the EU and beyond, sufficient to mediate countervailing factors of exclusion? This paper is based on the Historical Archives of the European Parliament in Luxembourg (HAEP) and the European Parliament Research Services (EPRS). These sources also include a large set of digital Oral History interviews.

author

machteld venken

University of Luxembourg

discussant

Idesbald Goddeeris

KU Leuven

author

Gunnar Thorvaldsen

UiT Arctic University of Norway

author

Arnaud Sauer

C2DH/Université du Luxembourg

author

Cristina Blanco Sio-Lopez

University of Pittsburgh / Ca' Foscari University of Venice

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Reflexive Migration Studies 3

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #18 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Umut Mişe

CITIZENSHIP ‘ON PAPER’. On the risk of statelessness of Polish children raised in same-sex unions abroad Dorota Pudzianowska Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty Piotr Korzec Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty For the children born in same-sex couples living abroad, access to Polish citizenship is automatic only on paper because they are unable to get Polish passport, ID or the national identification number. They thus cannot avail themselves of the rights stemming from the Polish nationality they acquire ex lege at the moment of birth but that they have no proof of. This situation leads to new cause of statelessness. The approach of Polish administrative courts over actions of administrative bodies in such cases is not unitary and hardly solves the problem. Upon introducing the notion of statelessness in the context of children born abroad who have same-sex parents (1), we will discuss the scenarios under which the Polish law of citizenship and law on civil registers interact to neuter ex lege citizenship (2). We will further analyze various court decisions that arose out of extensive litigation of such cases (3) and the Resolution of the Supreme Court that nullified litigation efforts and suggested a different solution to the problem (4). As we will argue, this solution, however, does not seem to convince the administrative authorities (5). We conclude that the interaction between the Polish citizenship law and civil status law in such cases is indeed a sizable problem that gives rise to statelessness of children born in same-sex couples living abroad. === “I was willing to pay a lot to belong”: A retrospective view of young-adult immigrants on social integration and identity processes Pnina Dolberg Ruppin Academic Center Karin Amit Ruppin Academic Center More than one million immigrants moved to Israel from the FSU after 1989, among them many children who are now young adults. These young adults, who immigrated as children or adolescents (1.5 Generation), faced various migration challenges and difficulties; yet, they have gone through a constant process of integration into Israeli society. The current study addresses the subjective experience of 1.5 Generation immigrants from the FSU to Israel regarding their personal social integration and identity processes. The research used qualitative methods, based on 28 in-depth interviews with young adults (average age: 32.3) who immigrated as children or adolescence (average age: 9.5) from the FSU to Israel between the years 1989-2004. The stories obtained from the interviewees included painful memories of their early years in Israel. In most of the stories, social difficulties, feelings of alienation and challenges related to their families were engraved as deep wounds that made it difficult for them to develop an Israeli identity. The stories revealed that the military service (mandatory in Israel) and the interviewees’ subsequent years changed their initial experience and made it easier for them to connect to Israel. However, the life stories of young immigrants differ from the conventional narratives of Israeli young adults, which include trial and error as part of the ""emerging adulthood"" life stage common among young people in Western countries. The narratives of the FSU young adults usually included rapid economic consolidation and rapid entry into adult life. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. === Forced migration, protection and legal consciousness in a borderland: aspirations and conceptions of Congolese migrants in Rabat, Morocco Ruben Wissing Ghent University The paper is the result of research into the concept of protection at the EU’s external borders. It assesses the legal and actual content of this central concept in international refugee and human rights law, and the commitment to it of the EU and its mobility partner Morocco in their asylum and migration policy discourses. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these protection policies and legal instruments in the Morocco-EU borderland, it is crucial to include the voices of their intended subjects: What are the perspectives and lived experiences of forced migrants in search for protection? What mobilizes them? What does ‘protection’ mean for them? How do they find it? In the law, or elsewhere? This paper presents a socio-legal analysis of the data obtained through observation and 15 interviews with Congolese migrants with (self-assessed) protection needs in Morocco, in October-November 2019. This law in action perspective leads to the following findings: - Firstly, once in Morocco, the Congolese forced migrants aspire material subsistence and working opportunities, rather than ‘protection’; and this irrespective of the original reason that forced them to leave the DRC. - Secondly, they understand, perceive and experience ‘protection’ not as a legal concept in the first place, but as physical safety, freedom of movement and spiritual and religious comfort and relief. - Thirdly, they conceive refugee and human rights law practices, expressed throughout different state law manifestations, as protection-inhibiting rather than protection-enhancing; and preferentially rely on informal and non-state normative orders and institutions instead.

author

Ruben Wissing

Ghent University

author

Karin Amit

Ruppin Academic Center

author

Dorota Maria Pudzianowska

University of Warsaw, Law Faculty

author

Piotr Korzec

Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty

author

Pnina Dolberg

Ruppin Academic Center

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Counting and Accounting for Immigrant Cultures

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #19 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Berndt Clavier

Malmö University

In this panel, we would like to ask questions about the counting and accounting for immigrant cultures on three levels: as a practical problem, as a methodological challenge, and as a theoretical predicament. Does the accounting and counting of immigrant culture co-produce immigrant vulnerabilities? What counts as culture when immigrants are concerned? How do governments quantify immigrant cultures? What gets counted? What is left out? We are inviting a range of suggestions to understand how immigrant cultures have been made amenable for analysis, what inclusions and exclusions of cultural phenomena have been made, and how governmental practices have brightened or dimmed cultural boundaries. We are hoping to attract papers, research proposals, opinion pieces, and provocations of all kinds. PAPER #1 Rozafe Castle – a enactment. Supplementary school memory works in migration. AUTHOR(S) Orly Orbach (Goldsmiths University, UK) ABSTRACT My research examines UK-based supplementary school heritage collaborations with the Museum of London between 2018-2020 using multimodal methods. This paper looks at how the story of Rozafe castle is rehearsed by 2ndgeneration children attending a supplementary school self-organized by the Albanian-speaking community in East London to consider how their parents’ culture and experiences of migration are transmitted cross-generationally, andchildren's agency in reconstructing cultural heritage and rebuilding communities in migration. Rozafe castle is an old Albanian folk tale of a castle that is being built but keeps falling. It is also a story about a mother who leaves her young baby behind in order to support her family, and ends up dividing her body so she can keep connected to her baby and country that are spatially separated by a wall. The woman is a very visceral portrayal of migration, living simultaneously inside and outside the nation, embodying the border. In his ethnomusicological study of Albanian laments, Pistrick observes how migration, so deeply woven into the Albanian experience of place, turns absences into an essential source of creativity in the modes of oral transmission (2015:37). Likewise, this paper describes how heritage is embodied by children in their performance at the Museum of London, in its attempts to broaden its heritage programme, through rehearsals and retellings of a story that connects place-based events across geographies, which at the same time is about the divided self and living simultaneously within and outside borders. PAPER #2 City narratives and “immigrant cultures” AUTHOR(S) Joanna Jurkiewicz (University of Osnabrück) Rikke Gram (University of Osnabrück) ABSTRACT Osnabrück is the “City of Peace”. Sindelfingen is an “International City”. The terms can be understood as related, although very different at the same time – they are narratives to describe both cities’ cultural diversity. The “City of Peace” is, according to actors in the local cultural scene, a marketing label but it’s also more than that. It entails responsibility for making projects possible that are dealing with many of the facets of the contemporary diverse urban society, not at least related to subjects of migration. Sindelfingen has no similar label but the term “international” is often being used to describe the town with its residents from “over 120 countries” . In this panel, we would like to show what count as peace in Osnabrück, and how peace is being used to govern cultural projects with people having migration biographies. We ask: where can the internationality of Sindelfingen be found? We would like to examine how the narratives of “Peace” and “Internationality” are used to frame the topic of migration locally, especially related to cultural projects. We argue that these concepts mean a very specific way of dealing with the topic of migration, and we would like to ask how municipal policies framed under these labels influence the possibilities for local cultural diversity. What diversities do these policies and their related funding schemes (re)produce? Based on interviews and ethnographic research we would like to unfold how cultural projects related to topics of migration are evolving in these two German cities. PAPER #3 Categorising people: who is (not) from here? AUTHOR(S) Petra Sidler (University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland & NCCR – on the move) ABSTRACT When measuring differences between migrants and non-migrants or between a variety of migrant groups, researchers face the methodological challenge of categorising study participants into (non-)migrant groups. “Migrant group”, though, is a constructed term that implicitly constitute the group it seems to describe. Thus, by differentiating between non-migrants and migrants, the non-migrant and the migrant are both created. Refusing to create such groups would make it impossible to study them, and thus we would miss an opportunity to acquire new insights. However, we might negatively impinge on our participants as the “Black Lives Matter” movement currently points a finger at. In refusing to see race and in stating that “we are all the same”, we miss acknowledging how life realities and opportunities are vastly different in relation to e.g. your skin colour. Yet, using these categorisations and thus creating “migrant groups” might also lead to diverse outcomes: on the one hand, our way of classifying might impinge negatively on our study participants, e.g. by stigmatising or stereotyping, thus causing discrimination. In contrast, we might also affect our study participants in a positive way by showing inequities and systemic discrimination of specific groups. The aim of this paper is to show how different definitions of migrant groups lead to various statistical classifications and thus categorise the same study participants in a variety of groups. Additionally, these categories will be related to attitudes towards reciprocal acculturation to examine whether and how results vary depending on the conceptualisation of migrant groups.

discussant

Asko Kauppinen

Malmö University

author

Orly Orbach

Goldsmiths University

author

Joanna Jurkiewicz

Institut für Migrationsforschung und interkulturelle Studien (IMIS), Universität Osnabrück

author

Rikke Gram

IMIS

author

Petra Sidler

FHNW & NCCR - on the move

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Methodological implications of researching deportability and deportation: Session 1 Working with various actors

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #20 workshop | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

organizer

Agnieszka Radziwinowiczówna

CMR

organizer

Ibrahim Soysüren

University of Neuchatel

Over the last two decades, the promotion of the deportation of foreigners and its extensive implementation have gone hand in hand with a growing interest in the topic among researchers in humanities, social sciences and legal studies. One of the outcomes of this interest is the term “deportation studies” (Coutin, 2015) coined and increasingly used to define research on numerous aspects of the deportation of non-citizens. One can argue that this field of inquiry is solely defined by the research topic, the deportation of foreigners, that can be defined as the “compulsory removal of ‘aliens’ from the physical, juridical and social space of the state” (Peutz and De Genova 2010:1). During this workshop we will argue that there are methodological aspects of deportation studies that make this area of inquiry distinct. They will be analysed during the three sessions of the workshop. Session 1 discusses methodological challenges related to working with various actors of the “deportation corridor” (Drotbohm and Hasselberg 2015), such as law enforcement agencies and non-governmental organisations. Papers in Session 2 analyse the access to the field: recruitment challenges and positionality of the research participants and the researchers. Session 3 discusses the methodologies of data collection: bilingual and multilingual research, longitudinal research, as well as projective and interactive techniques in deportation studies. The authors of the papers will present the methodological aspects of their own empirical research in Africa, Asia and Europe. This workshop continues discussions started in September 2020 during a seminar at the University of Wolverhampton. This is an open workshop that welcomes all the researchers interested in the topic.

participant

Lisa Marie Borrelli

University of Bern

participant

Lieke Wissink

University of Amsterdam / University of Applied Sciences Inholland

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Norms & Values 7

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #21 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Hannah van den Brink

Integration in Unwelcoming Society: Impact of Negative Public Opinion to the Integration of Refugees in Croatia Helga Spadina Faculy of Law of the University J.J. Strossmayer Osijek, Croatia Iva Fehir N/A The paper presents findings of a study of attitudes towards integration of refugees in Croatia conducted in 2018. The aim of the research is to determine whether the local population accepts integration of persons under international protection by analysing which perspective of public attitude is dominant – humanitarian, security or integration. The research provides analysis whether gender, level of education, personal refugee experience and the age of respondents are predictors of empathy towards refugees and subsequently willingness to accept their local integration in Croatia. The findings identified a limited empathy and willingness to provide only short-term and emergency assistance to persons in displacement. They also identified majority rejection of an idea of permanent settlement of refugees in Croatia, as well as perception of refugees being a threat to the crime rate, terrorism and public health. Since the majority of survey’ respondents did not have prior contact with persons under international protection, we can conclude that such prejudices are based on insufficient civic and human rights education, as well as negative media depiction of forced migrations. Research findings are consistent with previous similar studies in establishing high rates of intolerance, xenophobia and stigmatization presenting a hindrance to the integration prospects of persons under international protection. Keywords: integration, refugees, attitudes, intolerance, xenophobia. === Religiosity as a coping mechanism: The case of Muslim immigrants in Western Europe Tolga Tezcan California State University, Monterey Bay With an expanding Islamic presence occurring together with increasing Christian secularism, there is a fast-growing body of literature on Muslim immigrants residing in Western Europe. The religiosity of Muslim immigrants is among the main areas of increasing interest of social scientists and policymakers since it mirrors a constantly evolving social identity that may conflict with the mainstream culture in various ways. Such confrontation becomes more complicated when immigrants are protecting their religious practices or becoming more religious in their destination countries than they were before. This study proposes to investigate the extent to which migratory events lead to a decrease or increase in religiosity over time and generations. On the one hand, integration is thought to provide a secularizing effect manifested in diminished salience of religion; on the other hand, religion itself may influence the integration outcomes due to discrimination appearing as an ethno-religious penalty. This research uses longitudinal data from the “Migration Sample (M1)” of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). The results derived from the multilevel-multinomial logistic regression models indicate that once discrimination is perceived to be developed based on religious origin, religious identification turns into a strategic response and reactively reinforces the social identity of the immigrants. Subsequently, religion, as a buffer, constitutes a coping mechanism, which may encourage immigrants to identify and organize around it. === The transition to adulthood of Unaccompanied Migrant Children in a multilevel context: the case of Spain. Patrizia Rinaldi Migration Institute - Granada University Childhood studies and migration studies are complemented by research on children who are part of the general migration processes. However, in the field of childhood studies, the importance of migration as a determining factor in the lives of children is often absent. In the other hands, in the context of migration studies, childhood has only been taken into account in a limited way from family studies. This study fits into this theoretical void. According to the Convention of Children’s Rights, the provision of entitlements and protection are due to the age of 18 years. However, within the context of international migration, studies of empirical research have shown that minor between 15 and 18 year of age usually have access to a lesser degree of protection and in some cases are considered as adults or remain in an ambiguous status until they reach the age of 18 years. Furthermore, the protection of unaccompanied migrants --the object of this paper-- implies a multiple an intersectional nature between the domains of children’s rights and immigration law, including the right of asylum. Although the Spanish legal framework provides a support structure to carry out each phase of the procedure, from the reception to the exit of the protection system, it was never strictly designed as an evaluation tool. This paper analyzes an inclusive and participatory approach to the transition to adulthood of unaccompanied migrant minors (UMM) under the Spanish protection system. The different dimension of integration is seen through: (i) the residence permit and political rights; (ii) socioeconomic conditions; and (iii) inclusion in the labor market. A comprehensive assessment is carried out based upon children’s rights, the social, institutional, and organizational contexts, as well as taking into account the policies which condition the protection milieu with regard to migrant children and the practices at both strategic and operative levels. === Performing as "amateurs": migrants at La Commune theatre (Centre Dramatique National d’Aubervilliers) Karroum Nawal Universidade do Porto / Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier III Critical citizenship perspectives invite us to approach migrations as producing new forms of political engagement, often in opposition to restrictive migratory policies. As for the artistic sphere, it provides a platform for migrant activism by making migrant artists and migrant testimonies visible and audible. Yet in many artworks, the political and artistic participation of migrants falls between that of an author of full rights, and those of a mere witness. To fully understand how migration contributes to the renewal of citizenship through artistic practices, we must therefore understand how the co-construction of migrants' political voices articulates with the co-creation of their artistic productions, and how the legitimacy of the first one resonates with the recognition of the latter. This paper is based on an ongoing ethnographic work carried out since February 2019, as part of my doctoral research, at La Commune theatre. Drawing on sociology of migration and political anthropology as well as performance studies, it explores the participation, practices and interactions of migrants during “amateur” theatre workshops, public performances and assemblies. How do collective theatrical performances involving migrant actors go beyond or reinforce assigned social and political roles? How do migrants reflect, mediate and perform their migratory experience through the practice of theatre but also during assemblies and daily interactions? To what extent does migrant artistic participation contribute to strengthening their political voices beyond the migration issues alone? How does the promotion of ‘amateurism’ contribute to the negotiation of norms, values and boundaries? This paper invites to rethink how migration and citizenship are embodied in collective creation processes and particularly in the act of performing as “amateurs”.

author

Rinaldi Patrizia

Institute of Migration Studies - Granada University

author

Helga Špadina

University J.J. Strossmayer Osijek

author

Iva Fehir

N/A

author

Tolga Tezcan

California State University, Monterey Bay

author

Karroum Nawal

Universidade do Porto / Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier III

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Migrant Transnationalism 8

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #22 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Ruan Schoeman

Exploring transnational healing in relation to mental health: some evidence on Senegalese Wolof and Lébou migrants Yassin Dia FIERI - Forum of International and European Research on Immigration A rich literature has highlighted that, besides being exposed to multiple mental health risk factors related to pre-migration, migration and post-migration experiences, asylum seekers, refugees and migrants face significant difficulties in accessing information, healthcare services and medical care. More specifically, barriers to mental health care include marginalization and discrimination in receiving contexts, difference in language, lack of awareness about the incidence of culture on illness experiences, and fear of stigmatization. When confronted with neglected health needs and specific cultural perceptions of mental illness, migrants might turn to alternative healing practices stretching across borders (Tiilikainen, 2012; Tiilikainen, Koehn, 2011). This paper aims at deepening existing qualitative knowledge on how migrant populations respond to mental health disorders and illness experiences in migration contexts by engaging in transnational settings. By focusing on Senegalese migrants belonging to the Wolof and Lébou ethnic groups, this paper explores how migrants’ behaviours and health-seeking strategies in relation to mental health and healing are transnationally shaped. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in northern Italy in 2020 with Wolof and Lébou migrants who experienced mental health issues, this study shows the importance of transnational ties in providing access to multiple resources - i.e. advice, information, treatments and traditional medicines - and the relevance of migrants’, healers’ and therapeutic materials’ cross-border mobility, shedding light on how a transnational perspective contributes to a better understanding of mental health-related phenomena among migrant populations. === Onward migration and post-colonial trajectories: a multi-sited ethnography among Cape-Verdean migrants Sónia Ferreira CRIA NOVA FCSH In this paper I intend to discuss onward migration trajectories (Ahrens, Kelly and van Liempt, 2016) among Cape Verdean migrants. The ethnographic data to be presented analyse two main migratory itineraries, Cape Verde, Portugal and France and Cape Verde, Senegal and France (with intermittent mobility in Italy, Netherlands and the United States). These migratory trajectories will be discussed from the analytical framework of transnational practices in postcolonial contexts. Namely discussing: a) the universe of lusophony and lusotopy (Cahen, 2012; Trovão, 2014; Dos Santos, 2016) as post-imperial spaces for circulation; mobility in the European space (with or without European citizenship); c) circulation in the French postcolonial universe (Kuczynski et Razy, 2009; Parker, 2014; Perina, 2016). Analysing colonial imaginaries, inheritances and ontologies (Pels, 2008; L'Estoile, 2008), the ethnicization of social relations and racial identity politics. Simultaneously discussing how the transnational experiences of these migrants (Carling e Batalha, 2008) are shaped by the trajectories they choose, are engaged or pushed to in different historical and political periods (Barou, 2012) or lifetime stages and how all of this relates to trajectories or imaginaries of return. === Somali women's deselection of the Danish welfare state: Racialization and Transnational migration Ayan Yasin Roskilde University While successive Danish governments have placed restrictions on Somali asylum seekers, an understudied yet significant number of this community - particularly women – are opting out of Danish society, seeking out new communities in the Middle East. A disenfranchised socio-economic reality and narratives of being a ‘burden’ on the welfare state have framed this community as a powerless one with a limited mobility/motility. This project investigates the individual agencies, power relations and contingent factors at play when Danish-Somalis ‘opt out’ of the welfare state and ‘opt into’ countries like Turkey and Egypt. The project wants to map the motives for Somali women's options and deselection with a special focus on the following research questions: how does transnational migration change diaspora-Somali women's perceptions of themselves, their ability to act and their social position? What significance and consequences do experiences of “othering”, discrimination and racialization have for diaspora-Somali women's perception of and interaction with Danish and Turkish authorities? What opportunities and limitations do diaspora-Somali women experience in Denmark and Turkey, respectively? In doing so, it aims to generate new knowledge about Somalis in Denmark, their transnational migration trajectories and their experience of the welfare state's institutions. The study is based on a qualitative autoethnographic research strategy including a total of 3 months participant observation in Turkey and Denmark, 10-20 semistructured interviews with Somali women who are either still living in Denmark or have chosen to migrate to Turkey. Throughout the qualitative ethnographic fieldwork and interviews, I ask about their transnational engagement between Denmark and Turkey and about their civic role in those respective countries. Keywords; Racialization, transnationalism, citizenship, belonging, diaspora, gender, migration, integration, membership. === The Soft Power of Music: Western Classical Music Migrants between the U.S., Mandatory Palestine, and Europe, 1920-1941 Kira Álvarez Freie Universität Berlin Western classical musicians have regularly migrated between the United States, Mandatory Palestine, and Europe since the beginning of the twentieth century. These transnational migrants have performed, regularly exchanged artistic and political ideas with each other, and created a migrating musical ecosystem. They accomplished this while continuously moving between Europe, the United States, and Mandatory Palestine. Europe represented the cultural home of classical music, while the United States was a place for financial and ideological support. Most of these musicians migrated for their career, but many also had ambitions of creating cultural diplomacy projects within the U.S. and the Middle East. This presentation focuses on an analysis of two Western classical music institutions: the American Palestine Music Association (1932-1941), and the Palestine Symphony Orchestra (1936-present), known today as the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. The study of musical migrants enriches the transnational histories of the U.S., Europe, and Mandatory Palestine by focusing on the migration of non-state actors who are usually relegated to local cultural histories. In my research, I reveal how most of these migrants formed complex political beliefs due to their transnational careers, and applied them when creating musical institutions in Mandatory Palestine. How has the constant flow of musical migrants influenced relationships between these three regions? How do these musical migrants and their institutions change our understanding of Western classical music’s soft power potential between two different regions? These questions stand at the heart of my research.

author

Yassin Dia

FIERI

author

Sónia Ferreira

CRIA - Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia

author

Ayan Yasin

Roskilde University

author

Kira Alvarez

Freie Universität Berlin

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Evaluating the contribution of qualitative research methods.

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #23 workshop | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Joanna Kossykowska

Technological University Dublin

organizer

serge basini

Technological University Dublin

It has been stated that some forms of qualitative methodology ((e.g. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA)) are easy to do badly and difficult to do well. So how does qualitative research establish contribution and utility in migration research? This may be an especially relevant question where such research output might be described as possessing theoretical validity rather than empirical validity. Researchers can examine such phenomena and processes as migration in-depth and in detail through qualitative research methods that take serious account of the interplay between cultural, structural and agent characteristics and forces, and seek to postulate causal mechanisms that produce those outcomings. Since an appreciable corpus of published qualitative research exists within migration studies, it is both reasonable and desirable to evaluate this work, as well as to look forward to advance quality investigations alongside acculturation and transnationalism research and their domains such as the formation of cultural identity, language use and family relations. The discussions within this track will clearly reflect and elaborate on the commitment to rigour of the qualitative methods applied. It will also specify the underlying strength of the data and transparency in the analytical processes. Throughout the workshop, the following topics will be discussed: • Developing Rigour and Evolving guidelines for Quality in qualitative research; • Defending the value of Qualitative Research; • Migration Context elaboration and meaning in Qualitative research; • The challenge of Dissemination & Publication of Qualitative research; • Developing commitment to qualitative research.
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State policies, migrant work and COVID-19: emerging and conflicting regulations

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #24 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and the labour market in Europe

chair

Rinus Penninx

University of Amsterdam

chair

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

The Standing Committee on Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe (IILME) proposes two panels on policies, migrant workers and COVID-19 for the 2021 Luxembourg annual conference. We have seen for some years the tensions between state policies to stop refugees from reaching the shores of Europe and policies to enhance labour mobility and migration. And in this ‘time of migration’ (Castles and Miller 1993), the COVID-19 pandemic breaks out, plainly revealing that mobility and migration form a vital source of labour within our societies today. Where borders close and new borders are set up in attempts to prevent the virus from spreading, mobility and migration of labour within and across state lines is both restricted and enhanced. When air traffic came to an almost complete stop over the world, the Austrian government arranged to fly in migrant care workers nonetheless. Despite lockdowns, an air bridge between Germany and Rumania was established, so that Rumanian workers could be flown in for the German asparagus harvest. These are some of many examples where policies accommodate the persistent market demand for migrants as an essential source of labour. How (non)existing, emerging, changing or conflicting state policies and regulations in times of and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic shape labour market opportunities and conditions for migrant work in European labour markets is subject to our two panels. In this first panel, we explore the impact of lockdown and COVID-19 related measures on migrants’ well-being in Denmark, the Netherlands and Japan, paying particular attention to the (conflicting) interaction between different policy domains. PAPER #1 When lockdown meets integration requirements: The impact of COVID-19 related job loss on migrant integration in Denmark AUTHOR(S) Liv Bjerre (Aarhus University) Kristian Kriegbaum Jensen (Aalborg University ) Per Mouritsen (Aarhus University) ABSTRACT This paper investigates the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on immigrants’ integration, focusing on the interplay between job loss and demanding requirements for (permanent) stay and citizenship. After Denmark went into lockdown to prevent the spread of COVID‐19, thousands of immigrant employees have been fired, been told to stay at home, or asked to work fewer hours. Many of whom do not hold permanent residence permits and/or Danish citizenship, and thus find themselves in a new position at risk of being forced to leave Denmark, or to have their application for permanent residency or citizenship rejected due to the demanding Danish requirements for stay and access to nationality. How does this intersection between requirements and lockdown affect those implicated? How do immigrants navigate in this space of demanding requirements for permanent residence/citizenship and COVID‐19 related job loss? Which strategies do immigrants whose job‐situation has been altered due to COVID‐ 19 pursue? Why? And how does the changed position affect their integration trajectory? Based on semi‐structured interviews with immigrants without permanent residency and/or citizenship who lost their job or were asked to work fewer hours following the Danish lockdown, the paper inductively unfolds the strategies of those caught between unemployment and integration requirements. Although the COVID‐19 pandemic in many ways is an extreme case that has brought unprecedented challenges for both people and societies, job loss is not uncommon for immigrants employed in insecure jobs. This paper contributes to the literature on migrant worker’ precarization and the impact of integration requirements. PAPER #2 Institutional ambiguity towards migrant labour in German and Dutch slaughterhouses in times of, and beyond, COVID-19 AUTHOR(S) Tesseltje de Lange (Radboud University) Anita Böcker (Radboud University) Sandra Mantu (Radboud University) Natalia Skowronek (Radboud University) ABSTRACT In this paper we examine policy and enforcement measures to prevent such outbreaks and improve general well-being of key-migrant workers, also beyond COVID-19. Outbreaks in the meat industry in Germany and the Netherlands have helped uncover an ambiguity in the institutional cooperation between different levels of government in the European Union and its member states and border regions. We investigate the institutional responses to the COVID-19 outbreaks through 40 in depth interviews with relevant stakeholders at both sides of the border. Preliminary findings show a different and uncoordinated approach, with little attention being paid to existing EU legal frameworks. E.g. the German response is to draft new formal laws prohibiting outsourcing in the meat processing industry, setting standards for housing of migrant workers and facilitating the integration of accompanying family members. Meanwhile the Dutch created an adhoc advisory body which suggests a complex set of measures largely build on private party certification, private enforcement and collective labour contract negotiations. Unlike Germany, new Dutch legislation is not yet foreseen. Our research question for this contribution is: how are governmental bodies at different levels, cooperating, enforcing, and mediating different policies and practices with respect to key-workers during and after Covid-19? Our further adds to the theoretical literature on “institutional ambiguity”. While this concept has been used in refugee studies and studies of irregular migration, it is less used in free movement of workers literature, which is largely discussed as an economic endeavor where legislation is intended to create order, instead of disorder. PAPER #3 An Alternative View from Japan: Labor Demand, Migration Policies, and the Pandemic AUTHOR(S) Deborah J. Milly (Virginia Tech ) ABSTRACT Japan’s experience of the pandemic mirrors that in other parts of the world in its uneven impact on economic sectors and on labor migrants, but the bigger context of migration diverges from that in Europe. This paper considers how the immediate timing of the pandemic crisis intersects with other elements of time, including longer-term structural and institutional trends, to account for the Japanese government’s policy responses to migrants. Those responses include that Japan: 1) is continuing to implement policy changes to expand opportunities for labor migration to the extent that borders are open; 2) is providing supports to encourage these workers to move to agriculture and care work for technical trainees who have lost jobs because of their employers’ vulnerability; and 3) has re-opened its border to workers from some (but not all) of the labor-sending countries, based on stringent health requirements. The paper will assess how implementation of the anticipated long-term migration policy expansion has become slowed or stalled, what modifications have been made to encourage employment of migrants in essential sectors but to reduce reliance on others, and how changes among the Japanese labor force have contributed to changing the demand for foreign labor in specific sectors. Reflections on the comparative implications of the Japanese experience will be situated in considerations of the particularities of the timing of the crisis and how governments have addressed the demand for essential workers with migrants.

discussant

Stefania Marino

Manchester Business School

discussant

Lisa Berntsen

Tilburg University

author

Liv Bjerre

WZB Berlin Social Science Center

author

Kristian Kriegbaum Jensen

Aalborg University

author

Per Mouritsen

Aarhus University

author

Tesseltje de Lange

Radboud University

author

Anita Böcker

Radboud University

author

Sandra Mantu

Radboud University

author

Natalia Skowronek

Radboud University Nijmegen

author

Deborah Joy Milly

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

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Baltic region: multidimensional borders and mobility in time before and during COVID19

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #25 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and the labour market in Europe

chair

Irina Nikolaevna Molodikova

Central European University

chair

Sergey Ryazantsev

Institute for Demographic Research FCTAS RAS

Countries of Baltic region have common history of economic and cultural relations. Proposed panel takes a comparative approach, looking at the role of “border” in broad context and border policy across countries of Baltic region in the time before and during COVID19, with the aim to develop new conceptualisation of the border vision and its links to wider migration dynamics, Media and public attitude. The panel papers have to investigate “the border” through lenses of international, national and local levels. The papers look at return migrations and the boundaries between home populations and returnees in their efforts to bring social remittance in Lithuania (I. Geciene-Janulione); at the consequences of locked down for majority of migrants in Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg regions of Russia and society response on that situation (A.Lyalina, L.Yemelianova and L. Bardakova); at the protests and disobedience of locals in case of termination of cross-border commuting between Finland and Sweden from one side and indifference towards locked down Estonian migrants in Finland (J. Virkkunen); at the problems caused by internal (including commuting) migration in Latvia (Z. Krisiane with colleagues); and at the integration processes supported by governments before and during COVID19 time and their peculiarities in the closed communities of migrants in Denmark (J. Faludi). The workshop seeks to answer a key research and policy questions: To what extent does COVID19 influenced migration processes and society perception about mobility and migrants in countries of the Baltic region? How does border policy and information dissemination in every country affects mobility of specific categories of migrants? What kind of lessons can be learned by local population and migrants of the Baltic region for post Covid rehabilitation? PAPER #1 PUBLIC ATTITUDE TO THE DESEASE CONTROL AND BORDER LOCKDOWN AT THE EU’S INTERNAL BORDERS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: THE CASE OF FINLAND AUTHOR(S) Joni Virkkunen (Karelian Institute, University of Eastern Finland ) ABSTRACT The article discusses the lockdown of the EU’s internal borders during the Covid-19 pandemic in Finland. A special attention will be paid to the governments’ aim to “protect population and secure functions of society” by restricting migration and mobility at Finland’s different borders. Not only did the government restrict flights and ‘not-essential’ travel from non-Schengen countries such as Russia, China and Thailand but, with some exceptions, it also restricted travel-to-work commuting and everyday cross-border encounters between Finland and its Schengen neighbours of Sweden, Norway and Estonia. The restrictions hampered tourism and migrant-dependent industries as well as complicated lives of migrants’ families. While lockdown of the Estonian and Russian border does not cause any debates in Finnish society, the closure of the Finnish-Swedish border area that has been completely open since the 1950’s, the new regime led to a debate of citizens’ constitutional rights and to civil disobedience that materialised in semi-legal border crossings. PAPER #2 INFLUENCE of COVID19 ON LABOR MOBILITY AND MIGRANTS WELLBEEING IN BALTIC REGIONS OF RUSSIA (comparative cases of St.Petersburg and Kaliningrad regions) AUTHOR(S) Lyalina Anna (Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia) Yemelianova Larisa (Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia) Burdakova Larisa (Demographic Institute) ABSTRACT Countries of Baltic region have common history of economic and cultural relations. Proposed panel takes a comparative approach, looking at the role of “border” in broad context and border policy across countries of Baltic region in the time before and during COVID19, with the aim to develop new conceptualisation of the border vision and its links to wider migration dynamics, Media and public attitude. The panel papers have to investigate “the border” through lenses of international, national and local levels. The papers look at return migrations and the boundaries between home populations and returnees in their efforts to bring social remittance in Lithuania (I. Geciene-Janulione); at the consequences of locked down for majority of migrants in Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg regions of Russia and society response on that situation (A.Lyalina, L.Yemelianova and L. Bardakova); at the protests and disobedience of locals in case of termination of cross-border commuting between Finland and Sweden from one side and indifference towards locked down Estonian migrants in Finland (J. Virkkunen); at the problems caused by internal (including commuting) migration in Latvia (Z. Krisiane with colleagues); and at the integration processes supported by governments before and during COVID19 time and their peculiarities in the closed communities of migrants in Denmark (J. Faludi). The workshop seeks to answer a key research and policy questions: To what extent does COVID19 influenced migration processes and society perception about mobility and migrants in countries of the Baltic region? How does border policy and information dissemination in every country affects mobility of specific categories of migrants? What kind of lessons can be learned by local population and migrants of the Baltic region for post Covid rehabilitation? PAPER #3 WORK-LIFE BALANCE DURING THE OUTBREACK: An Analysis from Latvia AUTHOR(S) Zaiga Krisjane (Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia,) Elina Apsite Berina (Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia,) Maris Berzins (Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia,) Toms Skadins (Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia,) ABSTRACT The paper aims to shed light on work-life balance aspects in Latvia during the state of emergency. The COVID-19 outbreak has led many governments to implement lockdowns. While imposed restrictions may help to contain the spread of the virus, they may result in substantial damage to population well-being. The COVID-19 outbreak in Latvia concerns the extent and ways in which socio-demographics have determined different patterns of behaviours, attitudes, employment changes and harmonized work and life balance relationships. The study describes the labour migration to and from Latvia patterns before Covid-19 outbreak, and chronological development of the COVID-19 situation the country, providing geographical features of the distribution of confirmed Covid-19 cases. The work form and work-life balance is analysed according to the geography and age groups. Finally, the extent of COVID-19 threat at different levels is assessed focusing on the global, national, regional and intra-family level drawing some borderlines between them. In Latvia, remote work and self-employment have been defined as the new forms of employment in the field of labour protection. They created new forms and geography of internal migration. PAPER #4 IMPACT OF REMIGRATION ON THE WORK SPHERE UNDER (re)migration on the COVID-19 CIRCUMSTENCES: the case of Lithuania AUTHOR(S) Ingrida Geciene-Janulione (Institute of Social Innovations\Vilnius University, Lithuania ) ABSTRACT (Re)migration in time of Covid19 opens the opportunity for Lithuania to see the return of its citizens from migration, bringing with them their ideas, knowledge, values and skills. The work sphere is one of the main areas where these social remittances can be used. Therefore, the first aim of this article is to explore the types of (re)migrants’ social remittances, the ways they are transmitted and their acceptance in the work sphere. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the work sphere was heavily affected as many workplaces were closed because of the introduction of quarantine. Thus, the second aim of this article is to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the transfer of (re)migrants' social remittances to the work sphere. The article is based on interviews with highly qualified (re)migrants and with their colleagues at working places in Lithuania. They show that some border exists in communication and transfer of knowledge between returnees and new colleagues. Returned Lithuanians have varied experiences of joining the workforce. Some could easily adapt their competences and were able to transmit their social remittances (knowledge, skills, work ethic and culture), while other faced opposition towards their ideas and practices. The main factors that were revealed cover these three aspects: (1) the type of knowledge, skills and experience that was acquired, as a high qualification is appreciated much more than a low one; (2) how much the returned migrant wants to transmit, and how actively they do this; and (3) how prepared is the workplace to take on the social remittances being transmitted by the returned migrant. PAPER #5 Labour Market Integration, Migration and role of language before and during Covid times in Denmark AUTHOR(S) Faludi J., Corvinus University, Hungary ABSTRACT The aim of this study has been to explore the integration process of migrants through language acquisition and labour market access through the lenses of the goals set by the framework of the integration policy before and during Covid times. This case study focused on the case of Denmark, describing the system of language courses and labour market integration and in providing services on the local level in close cooperation with the local governance and Job Center in the frame of the integration programme. The study investigated the organizational features, as well as into the system of requirements of input and output competencies in the light of possibilities of integration. A particular focus was given on the adaptability of the best practices of the programme, and its challenges. The situation with Covid lockdown created some other obstacles and tasks for the local governance and Job Centers. They had to find solutions for support and provision of information for the migrants trapped in lockdown. The location of many migrants in like- ghetto areas creates parallel society and lockdown deteriorates their segregation in time of COVID19, creating invisible border dividing ‘aliens’ and locals.

discussant

Vladimir Mukomel

Institute of Sociology RAN

discussant

Dmitry Poletaev

Institute of Economic Forecasting

author

Joni Virkkunen

University of Eastern Finland

author

Anna Lialina

Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University

author

Larisa Yemelianova

Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia

author

Burdakova Larisa

Demographic Institute

author

Zaiga Krisjane

University of Latvia

author

Elina Apsite Berina

Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia,

author

Maris Berzins

Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia,

author

Toms Skadins

Faculty of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Latvia,

author

Ingrida Geciene

Lithuanian Social Research Centre

author

Julianna Faludi

Corvinus University Budapest (former Budapest Univ. of Econ. Sciences)

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Decolonizing Migration Studies

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #26 workshop | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Heather McCarty Johnson

Ghent University, North Carolina State University

organizer

Giacomo Orsini

Ghent University, Centre for the Social Study of Migration and Refugees (CESSMIR)

Critical scholars of migration studies are increasingly taking their field to task for its roots in empire and Western epistemologies. IMISCOE’s own PhD blog recently addressed this very issue in a post, “Taking decolonizing seriously - the problem with migration studies” (Tuley 2020). In it, the author calls for both a decolonization of research practices as well as situating the assumptions and norms of the discipline in history, thereby opening them up to examination and revision. Our workshop asks, how can migration scholars “provincialize” (Chakrabarty 2000) our ways of knowing and doing while still engaging with the discipline? The scope of this workshop is thus to identify the colonial in migration studies and reflect on possible strategies to transform this multidisciplinary field. For this purpose, we organize three distinct but interrelated sessions. First, we critically assess some of the most contentious structural features of migration studies, wherein the organizers give a broad overview of the history of European imperial expansion and the academy’s historical and theoretical origins in it. Second, our focus moves to key controversies relative to specific methodologies and concepts, such as the role and significance of quantitative analysis, discourses around securitization and integration, and inclusion of participant knowledge structures as endemic to shaping the research process. Finally, through horizontal discussions among all participants, our last session provides a forum to investigate alternatives for the study of migration in our own work and pedagogy. While we do not endeavor to come to definitive answers to these complex and context-dependent questions, we hope to inspire participants to contextualize their work in decolonial principles, reassess their methods and theoretical framework accordingly, and possibly lay the groundwork for future collaborations and publications on the subject.

participant

Adrian Favell

University of Leeds

participant

Ine Lietaert

University of Ghent

participant

Sarah Smith

Université Catholique de Louvain

participant

Floor Verhaeghe

University of Ghent

participant

Konstantin Manyakin

University of Essex

participant

Robin Vandevoordt

Ghent University

participant

Laurence DeBacker

KU Leuven

participant

Alina Penkala

Ghent University

participant

Stephanie Hermant

Ghent University

participant

Ruben Wissing

Ghent University

participant

Sophie Samyn

Ghent University

participant

G. Solorzano

participant

Dora Rebelo

participant

Emilia Cordero Oceguera

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Migration, citizenship and political participation 1

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #27 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Sandra Morgenstern

MZES

Misperceptions of the foreign-born population size in European societies. The role of national discourse on immigration-related issues Jan-Philip Steinmann University of Goettingen Marcel Lubbers Utrecht University Many people are prone to misperceive the foreign-born population size of the total population living in their country. Considering the repeatedly demonstrated finding that not only people differ in their degree of misperceptions, but the extent of misperceptions also varies distinctly between countries, it is our purpose to contribute to the open question, how these between-country differences in misperceptions of the foreign-born population size come about. We argue that people are exposed to a certain national discourse on immigration in their country and expect this discourse to be consequential for the formation of (distorted) perceptions of the foreign-born population size. We provide theoretical reasoning why the national discourse on immigration-related issues, present in the political elite, the media, and the public, as a contextual influence should have an effect on individual (mis)perceptions. We differentiate between salience and valence of national discourses, and, thereby, examine whether the pure visibility of immigration-related discourse or the tone of it is responsible for inflated views on the foreign-born population size. Based on different data sources (Comparative Party Manifesto, European Social Survey media claims, and Eurobarometer), country-specific discourses are empirically mapped. These contextual-level data sources are combined with 2014 European Social Survey data, which provides the necessary individual-level data. Preliminary results of multilevel models show that in countries with predominantly inclusionary discourse on immigration-related issues by political elites, overestimation of the foreign-born population size living in these countries is less common. This finding points to the importance of national discourse in order to inform people about social realities. === CAN THE UN’S STATELESSNESS GLOBAL ACTION PLAN SUCCEED: A CASE STUDY ON MYANMAR. Katherine Pratt American Graduate School There are an estimated ten million stateless persons worldwide, meaning that these individuals are not recognized by any State legally and thus are not granted fundamental rights. One of the most prominent groups in the world that experience statelessness are the Rohingya from Myanmar. With more than a million stateless Rohingya still within Myanmar and 2.5 million around the world, the group has experienced widespread persecution and discrimination. The United Nations created a framework through the Global Action Plan to End Statelessness: 2014 – 2024 to resolve current situations of statelessness, prevent new cases from emerging and better protect stateless persons. This thesis analyzes whether the United Nations will succeed in eradicating statelessness by 2024 by asking the question: Can the UN’s Stateless Global Action Plan Succeed: a Case Study on Myanmar. Using two opposing theoretical frameworks, a traditional view of sovereignty advocated by Philip Cunliffe and a responsible view of sovereignty advocated by Amitai Etzioni, the research analyzes each individual action plan and its successes and failures in the State of Myanmar. Through looking at a specific state, this research is able to take a close look at the power of the international organization against the strength of domestic policies. The analysis of the ten stateless action plans in Myanmar provides evidence that the UN’s Global Action Plan, although within the realm of responsible sovereignty, may not be as powerful as the traditional view of sovereignty held in Myanmar. The implications of this research is that a supranational organization such as the United Nations is only as powerful as the individual state allows it to be, and that in order for there to be change in eradicating statelessness, it must fall onto the local people and government to implement it. === Empirical Understandings of Citizenship and Political Community: Internally Displaced Persons in the Democratic Republic of Congo Carolien Jacobs Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Society, Leiden Law School Nadia Sonneveld Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Society, Leiden Law School Until recently, in citizenship studies the nation-state was reified as the most important political community. In the last two decades, empirical scholars have asserted that citizenship may include memberships in other political communities too. These studies, however, do not explain in detail what a political community is and their analyses remain within the citizen-noncitizen binary, defining the noncitizen as lacking formal membership in the nation-state. Our paper presents a new understanding of citizenship. It is based on fieldwork research on the rights of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the country hosting the largest number of IDPs worldwide. Data were gathered between 2014 and 2020. We argue that individuals always have memberships in multiple political communities and, as such, citizenship and noncitizenship are necessarily embodied in every human being. We compare the different memberships of internally displaced persons in what we claim are political communities not limited to the nation-state. Rather than the nation-state people usually resort to other political communities, of which the neighbourhood, the church and the ethnic group are important ones. Within these political communities, substantive citizenship rights, such as access to housing, education, and employment, are not automatically guaranteed but often depend on active participation. Recognition of the value of displaced persons’ multiple citizenships, that is to say, their membership in different political communities could be an important step in enhancing our knowledge of the ways in which IDPs and migrants in general navigate the spaces they inhabit. === Can Local Policies Shake Up Internal State Borders? The Role of the ‘Cities for Change’ in Protecting Irregular Migrants in Spain Keina Espiñeira Research Group in the Sociology of International Migration (ESOMI), University of A Corunna (Spain) Belén Fernández Suárez Research Group in the Sociology of International Migration (ESOMI), University of A Corunna (Spain) Do have the new municipalist pro-migrant policies succeeded in protecting the rights of irregular migrants? Cities in Spain have powers to design and implement services and programs aimed at the reception and integration of immigrants. Cities have also mechanisms to include those who are in vulnerable conditions regardless of the immigration status guaranteeing, for instance, access to healthcare and minimum income coverage. Notwithstanding, old municipal politics have been characterised by pragmatism, focusing primarily on responding to those who are in a regular situation. In addition, there is a restrictive and punitive turn in immigration policy that is directly connected to austerity policies. In order to explore what possibilities do cities have in expanding and protecting the rights of irregular immigrants, we have analysed the cases of Madrid and Barcelona for the years 2015-2019, when progressive municipalists fronts ruled the cities. Based on the textual analysis of policy documents and in-depth interviews with political parties, street-level bureaucrats and activists, we first examine the competencies that municipalities have in migration matters and what mainstream approaches do we find in Spain. Then, we discuss the action of the new municipalism, focusing the analysis on four political measures that we observe innovative when protecting irregular immigrants. These are measures aimed at, first, actively facilitate the census; second, prevent falling into irregularity; third, ensure access to healthcare; and fourth, changes in police identification protocols. Based on these real experiences we argue that cities can achieve changes in the way state control is enforced, yet the analysis also shows tensions between the political will and institutional constraints. === Challenges of the Immigrant Community-based Organizations in Milan, Italy Martinez-Damia, Sara Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Universidad De Sevilla Marzana, Daniela Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore Paloma, Virginia Universidad De Sevilla Marta, Elena Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore Research claims the importance of community participation of immigrants in community settings to promote their own well-being and empowerment in their new society. In the last years, however, media coverage focused on immigration has increased in Italy, connecting immigrants with fragility, otherness, threat, crime and insecurity. In fact, 2019 has been defined as the “Annus horribilis” for Italy in terms of migration. This may potentially impact on the everyday practice of the immigrant community-based organizations settled in the country. Within this context, this study focuses on analyzing the challenges faced by immigrant organizations in Milan, i.e. organizations founded and managed by immigrants. Through extensive fieldwork with immigrant community‐based organizations in Milan, immigrant associations were selected based on their nationality and their years of activities. In‐depth interviews (N=29) with immigrant leaders and members of these associations were completed and unstructured observations of public events were carried out. Based on a critical situational analysis approach that complemented an open coding, positional maps regarding the challenges that immigrant organizations encountered were generated. Specifically, the meaning of welcoming and racism in everyday practice, different perceptions of Milan and different narratives about immigration in Italy emerged, showing the complexity that immigrant associations have to face. Struggles, resources and desires of organizations were analyzed and some practical implications are advanced.

author

Daniela Marzana

UCSC Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano

author

Marcel Lubbers

Utrecht University

author

Jan-Philip Steinmann

University of Bremen

author

Katherine Pratt

American Graduate School

author

Carolien Jacobs

Leiden University

author

Nadia Sonneveld

Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance, and Society

author

Sara Maria Martinez Damia

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

author

Virginia Paloma

Universidad de Sevilla

author

Marta, Elena

Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore

author

Keina Espineira

author

Belén Fernández-Suárez

Universidade da Coruña

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Looking at migration from a remote perspective. The social and economic impact of migration in rural, remote and bordering spaces

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #28 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Simone Baglioni

Department of Economics and Management, University of Parma

In this panel we would like to discuss the impact of migration on local development and territorial cohesion in the European rural, remote and bordering regions as well as to explore social and economic integration patterns in those regions. The peripheral dimension or remoteness implies a polarised space constituted by a centre that creates marginal spaces and, in a wider sense, it evokes the notions of otherness and liminality. We will explore the impact of migration taking an opposite prospective, such as by starting for the peripheral, remote and bordering regions. Migration can potentially contribute to the revitalisation of those regions by contrasting the depopulation process and by enhancing the social and economic fabric. Furthermore, with a place-based approach, we would like to discuss the specific integration patterns that occur in those regions, from a social as well as an economic point of view. PAPER #1 De/Re/Bordering Remoteness: (mis)management of heterogeneous migrations in the Rhodope mountain AUTHOR(S) Anna Krasteva (New Bulgarian University) ABSTRACT The paper has a double objective: to analyse the dynamic processes of de/re/bordering of a mountain region at the borders of Bulgaria with Turkey and Greece; to compare the impact of deterritorialization (emigration of Bulgarian citizens) and reterritorialization (by immigrants and refugees) on local development. The paper is structured in three parts. The first one examines the transition from the crisis of communism to the migration crisis. The crisis of communism (post 1989) catalysed the debordering by the double process of (relative) opening of state borders and the rise of emigration. The migration crisis (2015-16) pushed the pendulum in the opposite direction – rebordering by the triple process of building a fenced wall; the rise of populist discourses of Othering; by the construction of a refugee camp. The second part analyses the (mis)management of the diverse migration and mobility flows in the border province of Haskovo. The last part presents the findings of the Matilde project’s case study of the border town of Harmanli and the impact of the refugee centre on local development, crisis resilience and everyday de/bordering. PAPER #2 The Impact of COVID-19 on Foreign Immigrants in Rural and Mountain Regions of Europe AUTHOR(S) Marika Gruber (Carinthia University of Applied Sciences) Raúl Lardiés Bosque (University of Zaragoza ) Andrea Membretti (UEF) Daniele Tonelli (EURAC) ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic has brought not only a serious health (system) crisis but also severe impacts on the globalized economy, interconnected labour markets, and the mega-trend ‘glocalization’. In general, migrants and asylum seekers can be seen as one of the most vulnerable groups in the COVID‑19 pandemic. A recent study conducted by the International Organization of Migration analyzed the specific ways migrants have been affected by the pandemic and have identified a variety of conditions which makes migrants more vulnerable in times of such a pandemic. The Horizon2020 project MATILDE examines migration impacts on local development and territorial cohesion in European rural and mountain regions, to improve integration of Third Country Nationals (TCNs) and local development. At the first peak of the COVID-19 crisis in Europe (April 2020), a first survey among the twelve research/university partners and the thirteen local partners (including NGOs, city councils, local and provincial authorities as well as governmental agencies) were conducted. This paper will take up the results of that first survey, mainly investigating the different impacts of COVID-19 on TCNs and rural areas, by drawing specific attention to the experiences and observations made by the local partners. Different areas affected by COVID‑19 like demographic development, migration flows, employment, health and economic development will be focused. An attempt in the direction of combining the two analytical areas, migration/migrants and rural areas, will be started in order to get insight into the COVID-19 triggered challenges and opportunities of urban-rural-migration nexus. PAPER #3 TCNs’ access to and impact on rural labour markets. Experiences from Bavaria, Germany AUTHOR(S) Stefan Kordel (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg) Tobias Weidinger (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg) ABSTRACT Rural small towns and villages in Bavaria, Germany that are often characterised by age-selective out-migration and an increasing demand for labour, especially since the 1990s, face the arrival of TCNs as a result of national dispersal schemes for asylum seekers, family reunification as well as specific migration and employment-related policies. TCNs’ presence comes along with various interdependencies with rural economies: firstly, from migrant’s perspective, integration into employment increases migrants’ autonomy but also fulfils expectations by the local society. Secondly, for rural labour markets, TCNs can provide additional work force but also foster challenges within companies. Accordingly, this paper focusses on TCNs' access to and their impact on rural labour markets. Methodologically, we draw on different datasets that were conducted in rural Bavaria, including a policy analysis, qualitative interviews with employers, TCN entrepreneurs and employees as well as qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with the specific group of refugees. Results show that access to rural labour markets is provided by means of mediators such as friends and family members as well as volunteers. Apart from that, previous internships and the accessibility of the work place are considered core. Employers may facilitate integration when assisting with visits to the authorities or the housing search. With regard to self-employment, entrepreneurs established firms mostly in vacancies in the centres of small towns and filled niches regarding products and services, mainly requested by newcomers. For operating their businesses, entrepreneurs deploy material and emotional relationships both to their family members and friends in Germany and abroad. PAPER #4 Non-EU foreign immigrants in rural areas of Aragón, Spain: characterization, policies and governance AUTHOR(S) Raúl Lardiés-Bosque (University of Zaragoza ) Nuria del Olmo Vicén (University of Zaragoza ) Ángel Pueyo Campos (University of Zaragoza ) ABSTRACT Many rural areas in Spain are characterized by low population density and low economic activity. Aragón is one of the 17 autonomous communities, located in the northern border of the country; most of its territory is rural, it is quite depopulated and has little economic vitality. It is a region that since the 1990s has received many foreign immigrants, phenomenon considered very positive from the socio-economic, demographic and territorial points of view. In Spain, some migration policies are national in nature, but others are depending on the Autonomous Communities and are developed by social organizations. In this contribution, non EU-foreign immigrants will be analyzed, with some sociodemographic and territorial characteristics. Next, the focus will be on the analysis of the main policies that manage this phenomenon, in order to identify and evaluate which ones have been most effective in favor of the arrival, integration and impact of immigrants in the rural areas of the region. To carry out this analysis, we will work with documentation and available statistical sources (basically, the Municipal Register of inhabitants); it will also work with qualitative information obtained through field work (semi-structured interviews) carried out with stakeholders related to migration issues. The results show that there are autonomous communities like Aragón with transversal social and economic policies that include the entire population, regardless of their origin. In addition, the regulations developed by the government of Aragon and the role of the social agents contribute to acceptable levels of integration of these immigrants. PAPER #5 Looking at migration from a remote point of view. Migrants in Scotland's remote and rural communities AUTHOR(S) Maria Luisa Caputo (University of Parma) Simone Baglioni (University of Parma) ABSTRACT In this paper we discuss the social and economic impact of TCNs as well as EU national migration in Scotland remote and rural communities as well as how the dimension of remoteness influences integration between those community and migrants. Since 2016, all Scottish local authorities adhered to the resettlement programme and welcomed small numbers of refugee, e.g. North Ayrshire welcomed 180 people, the Outer Hebrides 34, 0.13% of its population. Altogether, the TCNs (excluding North Americans and Oceanians) living in this local authority are less than 1%, the EU nationals less than 1% of the population. In this paper we will explore why small numbers of migrants do matter for those local communities, such as how migrants can contribute to the revitalisation of the region by contrasting the depopulation process, by enhancing its social and economic fabric, and contributing to secure the continuity of services and welfare. On the other side, we will explore how the characteristics of remote living influence integration between those community and migrants – e.g. the presence of small communities, the challenges to reach services and welfare facilities. Finally we will discuss about the opportunity of migration policies tailored on the specificities of migrants and remote communities.

author

Stefan Kordel

FAU Erlangen-Nurnberg

author

Tobias Weidinger

FAU Erlangen-Nurnberg

discussant

Maria Luisa Caputo

Università di Parma

author

Anna Krasteva

New Bulgarian University

author

Marika Gruber

Carinthia University of Applied Sciences

author

Raúl Lardiés-Bosque

University of Zaragoza

author

Andrea Membretti

UEF

author

Daniele Tonelli

EURAC

author

Nuria Del Olmo

UNIVERSIDAD DE ZARAGOZA

author

Ángel Pueyo Campos

University of Zaragoza

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Connecting cultures, negotiating heritages: The role of cultural heritage in migrants´ integration and social cohesion.

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #29 workshop | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

organizer

Karolina Nikielska-Sekula

University College of Southeast Norway

organizer

Amandine Desille

University of Poitiers and Tel Aviv University

Cultural heritage has gained importance as a new way of talking about a racialized idea of the nation. It may be an indicator of autochthonous belonging (Geschier 2009) yet it can serve to legitimise cultural racism (Balibar 1991). The access to and recognition of cultural heritage within nation states determines belonging at the sociocultural level. In this light, incorporation of immigrants and their heritages into those of new homelands gains a new meaning as a de-colonization and integration factor. While researchers from various disciplines focused on the role of civic and socio-economic rights in migrant’s inclusion, the scholarship on migrants’ cultural heritage as a facilitator of integration is still limited. This workshop, organised under the patronage of the Div-Cult SC, calls for a profound discussion on the role of minority, post-colonial and mainstream cultural heritage in the integration process, addressing by this “cultures and cultural practice in migration research”. The participants will critically engage with the following questions: • Which are the policies towards migrants’ cultural heritage? Are they part of integration policies? • What are the possible ways of inclusion of migrants’ heritage within mainstream society & heritage? • Does the denial/recognition of migrants’ cultural heritage diminishes/enhances the inclusive potential of civic and socio-economic rights? • To which extent heritage is “performed” to fit ideals of “authenticity” and enhance/limit opportunity for integration and social cohesion? • To which extent can migrants’ participation in cultural heritage pave the way for a de-colonial cultural heritage? Following is a discussion on how migrants’ cultural heritage can create new avenues for migration studies. The workshop format will enable to pool the expertise of participants and co-produce knowledge.

participant

Justyna Bell

NOVA - OsloMet

participant

Tina Magazzini

European University Institute

participant

Timothy Jacob-Owens

participant

Carolin Müller

Technische Universität Dresden

participant

Isidora Šobot

TU Wien

participant

Jane Malcolm-Davies

University of Copenhagen

participant

Giuseppe Scotto

University of Liverpool

participant

Marco F Martiniello

CEDEM

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Making New Citizens: Re-examining the Integration - Citizenship Nexus (Panel 2 of 2): Lived Experiences and Practices

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #30 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Roxana Barbulescu

University of Leeds

chair

Sara W. Goodman

University of California, Irvine

DISCUSSANT: Simone Castellani (ISCTE University of Lisbon) This is the second of two panels showcasing the papers of the forthcoming IMISCOE Book "Making New Citizens: Re-examining the Citizenship-Integration Nexus", the objective of which is to provide a contemporary answer on how integration and belonging—the everyday “life of citizenship”—is established and achieved in spite of, or irrespective of, national citizenship rules. The papers elaborate on topics of utmost relevance to research and policy agendas surrounding the integration–citizenship nexus: the hierarchies of integration in different levels of political communities, the different paths of institutional and societal inclusion beyond naturalisation and their meaning for migrants, the sometimes implicit and often concealed logics of deservingness behind what are usually quite standard naturalisation rules, and the openly discriminatory naturalisation rules and practices and their effect on the incentives of migrants to integrate. The panels, as the book, critically re-examine the theoretical and empirical interconnections between integration and citizenship (specifically, naturalization). This second panel showcases new, empirical-grounded analyses of what we term the “life of citizenship”, demonstrating how membership is informally achieved through everyday integration —around and sometimes despite formal citizenship requirements. By providing evidence of a nexus disjuncture, the scholars in this panel contribute to critical dialogues on immigrant integration and political incorporation, relevant for policymakers, civil society actors, and academics alike. PAPER #1 Despite Brexit, London is still one of the best places in the world for a Roma to live”: Brexit, free movement and the politics of (super)diversity AUTHOR(S) NANDO SIGONA and MARIE GODIN (University of Birmingham and University of Oxford) ABSTRACT - PAPER #2 “It just feels weird” – Irish External Voting and the ‘Brexit Irish’ AUTHOR(S) Vikki Barry Brown (Queen Mary University of London) ABSTRACT The Brexit process has served to highlight the lengthy and entangled relationship between Ireland and Britain, bringing to the foreground historical issues and contemporary challenges. The complexities of this entwined relationship are especially evident when considering the ‘Brexit Irish’ – British-born individuals of Irish descent seen to be applying for Irish passports to circumvent the impending removal of their EU citizenship. This may also include those who might not typically be expected to claim Irish citizenship, such as those from Northern Irish Unionist backgrounds. Irish passport applications from the UK have risen steadily since the 2016 Brexit referendum; 2018 saw application increases of 2% and 22% from Northern Ireland and Great Britain respectively. Ireland can be seen to have a generous citizenship offering (albeit one that privileges ancestry over residency) which allows second and third-generation Irish people to apply for passports. Additionally, the 1998 ‘Good Friday Agreement’ set out access to Irish citizenship for all born on the island of Ireland although the extent to which this is recognised by the British government is contested. During 2020, a referendum will take place in Ireland to decide if all Irish citizens living outside of the State be allowed to vote in future presidential elections. Should the referendum achieve a ‘yes’, result, voting in these elections will be extended to the Irish diaspora – including the ‘Brexit Irish’ and Irish citizens living in Northern Ireland. Engaging with data collected through qualitative interviewing during 2018, this chapter will examine how members of the ‘Brexit Irish’ negotiate citizenship, voting rights and political engagement. PAPER #3 Between Integration and Dissociation: Life Experiences of intra-European Movers’ in Romania AUTHOR(S) Bogdan Voicu (ICCV Institute) Alin Croitoru (University of Sibiu) ABSTRACT During the post-communist transition new types of migratory flows emerged toward Romania while others ceased to exist. The new economic context proved to be attractive for certain immigrants who were interested in exploring labour and business opportunities in this Eastern European country. The chapter offers a general overview regarding the main stocks of immigrants in Romania by looking at their dynamic in time, but the core of the analysis is focused on the integration process of a specific category of immigrants. Intra-European immigrants toward Romania, including Eurostars (Favell 2008, Recchi and Favell 2009) are said to avoid integration, or rather to suffer a process of segmented assimilation in communities (Andriusek, 2017). We illustrate the somehow atypical situation of non-Romanian EU citizens in Bucharest. Using interviews with 10 highly skilled non-Romanian EU citizens living in Bucharest, we analyse integration following four key dimensions: occupation, including entrepreneurial tendencies; socialization, in particular with locals; life satisfaction and intentions to stay; and participation to civic activities. We depict a diverse reality, in which integration and being immigrant does not exclude each other and do not exit the paradigm of liquid migration (Engbersen et al, 2014). PAPER #4 Ideas of integration in citizenship laws and citizenship acquisition procedures in Belgium and the UK AUTHOR(S) Djordje Sredanovic (Universite Libre de Bruxelles) ABSTRACT UK and Belgian citizenship laws have been transformed by the introduction of significant integration requirements, starting with the early 2000s in the UK and in 2012 in Belgium. This chapter analyses both the ideas of integration that the letter of the current laws requires from the applicants for citizenship, and the ideas that emerge from the processing of citizenship applications. For the latter analysis I use in-depth interviews conducted between 2016 and 2017 with the different institutions involved in citizenship applications (municipal registers and magistrates in Belgium, Nationality Checking Services and the citizenship team of the Home Office in the UK). The citizenship laws of the two countries draw an image of the legitimate citizenship applicant as free of any suspicion of dangerousness, and strictly adherent to the legal and cultural – especially in terms of language – norms of the country of residence. The candidates to naturalization are further expected, in the UK, to have had a highly regular migratory experience and limited mobility outside UK borders, while the candidates in Belgium are expected to be in paid, and possibly long-term, work. The actual procedures, surprisingly, are not as integration-focused as the letter of the law would suggest, as the high level of legal codification of the citizenship application procedures in Belgium and the routinisation of the procedures in the UK makes the officers more interested in complying with the regulations than in examining the applicants for their integration. Nevertheless, some ideas about the legal, cultural and economic integration of the applicants for citizenship still appear in the procedures and the attitudes of the officers interviewed, introducing a further degree of uncertainty for the applicants. PAPER #5 Interculturalism, Public Space and Citizenship-Making: Overcoming the Detachment caused by Discrimination AUTHOR(S) Ricard Zapata Barrero (Universitat Pompeu Fabra) Zenia Hellgren (Universitat Pompeu Fabra) ABSTRACT In this chapter, we suggest that public space is essential to foster a sense of belonging among immigrants and racialized groups, who are still framed as different in relation to an abstract but taken-for-granted notion of we-ness (which remains strongly connected to being perceived as white and Western in European societies). Highlighting the relevance of interaction across ethnic divides, we propose that intercultural citizenship is a useful conceptual framework to analytically examine how such belonging could be constructed in multi-ethnic urban neighbourhoods. More specifically, we argue that interpersonal contact is key to make citizenship, identity and to develop a sense of belonging. We demonstrate empirically that, for contact to have this meaningful result, it needs to take place under conditions of equality and power-sharing. In practice, this implies not only the absence of discrimination, but also meeting standards of participation and representation of people from diverse backgrounds. To accomplish this, we combine theoretical and empirical analyses. In the first part of the chapter develops a theoretical framework for how intercultural citizenship can be applied to multi-ethnic, urban and suburban neighbourhoods, based on Zapata-Barrero’s extensive work within this field. We then integrate empirical data on immigrants’ perceptions on discrimination and belonging from multisited fieldwork conducted by Hellgren between 2004 and 2019. The narratives we present provide evidence that self-perceived discrimination is a shared experience by people of diverse, non-Western backgrounds, and constitutes an impediment for their identification with society. Simultaneously, we show that experiences of inclusion in the local neighbourhood can counteract negative experiences with the broader society, and this constitute a fertile ground for practising intercultural citizenship.

author

Ricard Zapata-Barrero

GRITIM

discussant

Luicy Pedroza

El Colegio de México

discussant

SIMONE CASTELLANI

author

Zenia Hellgren

Universitat Pompeu Fabra

author

Djordje Sredanovic

FNRS/Université Libre de Bruxelles

author

Bogdan Voicu

Romanian Academy

author

Alin Croitoru

author

Vikki Louise Barry Brown

Queen Mary University of London

author

Nando Sigona

University of Birmingham

author

Marie Godin

University of Oxford

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Global Inequalities, ageing and (im)mobilities

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #31 panel | SC Older Migrants

chair

Vincent Horn

University of Mainz

chair

Dora Sampaio

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

The intersections between ageing and migration are a well-researched topic in the ‘Global North’. This now invites us to explore these intersections within other spatial configurations and geopolitical contexts, including movements between the ‘Global North’ and ‘Global South’, as well as intra-regional and ‘South-South’ mobilities, which have not been studied systematically yet. Therefore, this panel examines transnational experiences of ageing and their intersections with global inequalities, and the new opportunities as well as disparities that they generate. It will bring together qualitative research examining multi-directional connections between ageing and (im)mobilities. We consider how notions of ‘privilege’ along the lines of race, class, gender, age, sexuality, dis(ability), economy, and citizenship come to matter over the life course in shaping one’s right to move in later life, or one’s ability to choose where and how to age. Some are able to freely move across borders and seek opportunities in other countries, while others have their mobilities forced or curtailed. Many of the inequalities that underlie these border-crossings reflect ‘gaps’ of different kinds: in formalized and informalized social protection, in feeling a sense of belonging and purpose, as well as in being able to secure livelihoods. We see how demographic processes in one country have far-reaching impacts on economies, identities and lifeworlds in other countries, reflecting unequal and historically constituted interdependencies. PAPER #1 "Makeshift Ageing": Making a living among older displaced persons in urban Cameroon AUTHOR(S) Nele Wolter (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Germany) ABSTRACT The recent political upheaval in Cameroon between separatist groups and the national government’s military has caused a significant flux of displaced people migrating from the Anglophone regions seeking refuge in the Francophone part of the country. Whereas some people hide in the forests, the larger part of the displaced migrates from rural to urban areas where they seek not only security but also economic and social re-establishment. Bafoussam, the regional capital of the West and a transit center in Cameroon, links the two linguistic areas and provides a well-established infrastructure. Thus, many displaced heading from rural Anglophone villages to urban areas in the Francophone regions cross this city either to settle temporarily with family or friends or to move on to other cities in the country. Many of these migrants are young, but there are also numerous older people seeking refuge in the city where they might find some economic possibilities but encounter limited social protection and discrimination at the same time. Drawing on ethnographic research in the (peri)-urban areas of Bafoussam, this paper explores the practices that older displaced people develop to reconfigure their everyday lives and to make a living in their temporary homes. It examines the strategies older people creatively use in this temporary stage to gain an income and how they use their social infrastructures to improvise in their pending lives in a new social environment that is characterized by marginalization and inequalities. The paper shall provide insights into the (socio-economic) capabilities and adaptabilities ageing migrants develop in later life when confronted with an improvised future and the fact that they might not be able to return to their homeland. PAPER #2 Mobilities in old age to Kenya. Social relationships in a postcolonial context AUTHOR(S) Karin Müller (Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz) Cornelia Schweppe (Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz) ABSTRACT Retirement migration has become a prominent field of research since the 1990s. Until recently, it mainly focussed on intra-European migration processes, with a focus on the Mediterranean Region, mainly Spain. However, since a few years a new development can be observed: Older people from rather affluent countries of the „global North” migrate to poorer countries of the “global South”. In this paper, we will turn to these developments, specifically to migration processes of older Europeans to Kenya. These migration processes mainly lead to the Kenya’s South Coast – a prominent and wealthy international tourist destination that is simultaneously marked by extreme poverty and social inequality. We will analyse the social relationships of older European migrants with the local population, which are marked by deep intersecting inequalities with regard to race and economic wealth. The paper is based on the project “Retirement migration to Kenya”. The methodological approach consists of narrative guided interviews with European older migrants as well as participant observations. The data were collected in several field trips to the South Coast of Kenya PAPER #3 Privileged Mobilities of highly skilled Thai-American retirees AUTHOR(S) Tassya Putho (University of Surrey, UK) ABSTRACT One often overlooked scenario at the intersection of ageing and migration is the case of long-time migrants and their movements in later life. This study explores the mobility practices and residential strategies of a particular group of highly skilled retirees of Thai descent, who mass migrated to the United States in the post-war era of the 1970s. As former economic migrants, these individuals have worked and settled in the United States for a period averaging 38.5 years and have all become naturalised American citizens. Despite their growing attachment to the United States, they still maintain close transnational ties with family and friends back in Thailand and contribute to the economies, livelihoods, and relationships across their two lifeworlds. Results from 39 semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Thai-American retirees found that, upon retirement, their rights to move and abilities to choose where and how to age had become more prominent in the face of their privileges pertaining to class, age, economy, and citizenship. While more than half had opted to remain in the United States in later life, a large portion had chosen to return to settle in Thailand. Moving beyond the dichotomy of staying or returning, it was evident that most still favoured back-and-forth movements and fluid mobilities that reflected a fluid sense of belonging and purpose in later life. PAPER #4 Forced Returns, Privatized Retirement and Elusive Social Protection: Ageing Labour Migrants in Asia AUTHOR(S) Megha Amrith (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Germany) ABSTRACT Much of the literature on ageing labour migrants has highlighted the ambivalence of return in later life. This ambivalence often centres around a choice being involved and how migrants negotiate their lives, networks and care transnationally. This paper focusses on a rather different case of labour migrants facing ‘forced’ or ‘compulsory’ returns in later life. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork with migrant domestic workers (from countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India) who have spent decades working in Singapore on ‘temporary’ contracts. In spite of their long years of labour, the immigration regime in Singapore states that they must return to their home countries at the age of 60, with no pathways to permanent residence or citizenship available. The paper examines how state-based social protections are limited, or in some cases entirely absent, for returning labour migrants, giving rise to a proliferation of private courses teaching returnees how to save and grow their money. Individuals are increasingly made responsible for their own futures, which remain precarious and require returnees to plan income-generating activities once they stop working abroad. Meanwhile, parallel schemes in migrants’ countries of origin are emerging for citizens from higher-income countries to purchase retirement visas and spend their ‘golden years’ in retirement communities (privatized spaces that are not accessible to returning labour migrants). This case sheds light on the inequalities that shape one’s later life possibilities and how they are structured along intersecting lines of class, gender and citizenship. PAPER #5 Determinants of the integration of older refugees in the Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Jolien Klok (Erasmus University Rotterdam) Meta van der Linden (Erasmus University Rotterdam) ABSTRACT From the literature we know that the hardships inherent to being a refugee are more intensely felt by older than by younger refugees, as they are less flexible to adapt to new situations (Al Ajlan, 2019; Bolzman, 2014). However, what this inequality in experiences between younger and older refugees mean for the integration process has hardly been systematically studied (Hatzidimitriadou, 2010; Slade & Borovnik, 2018). In this paper, we aim to show how age matters in socio-cultural integration (contact with native Dutch and feeling Dutch) into the host society. We do so by factors previously identified by (older) refugees scholars as facilitating integration like: language comprehension, availability of support networks and good health, (Ager & Strang, 2008; Godziak, 1988; Hatzidimitriadou, 2010; Slade & Borovnik, 2018). We employ unique, quantitative data from the EUR Bridge project, situated in the second largest city of the Netherlands, Rotterdam. It includes 1004 refugees with (temporary) residence permits who arrived shortly after the 2015/2016 ‘refugee crisis’. We employ SEM to show the complex age-related underpinnings of socio-cultural integration, of which good health seems to be crucial. We thereby improve knowledge on older refugee socio-cultural integration and intend to show which determinants are particularly important to improve older refugee integration.

author

Nele Wolter

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

author

Karin Müller

Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz

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Cornelia Schweppe

University of Mainz

author

Tassya Putho

University of Surrey

author

Megha Amrith

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

author

Jolien Klok

author

Meta van der Linden

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Gender & Sexuality 1

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #32 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

chair

Begüm Dereli

Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Cross-border Migration and Gender Boundaries in Central Eastern Europe – Female Perspectives Ágnes Erőss Geographical Institute RCAES Váradi Monika Mária Institute for Regional Studies, Central and North Hungarian Research Department, CERS Doris Wastl-Walter University of Bern In post-Socialist countries, cross-border labour migration has become a common individual and family livelihood strategy. The paper is based on the analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with two ethnic Hungarian women whose lives have been significantly reshaped by cross-border migration. Focusing on the interplay of gender and cross-border migration, our aim is to reveal how gender roles and boundaries are reinforced and repositioned by labour migration in the post-socialist context where both the socialist dual-earner model and conventional ideas of family and gender roles simultaneously prevail. We found that cross-border migration challenged these women to pursue diverse strategies to balance their roles of breadwinner, wife, and mother responsible for reproductive work. Nevertheless, the boundaries between female and male work or status were neither discursively nor in practice transgressed. Thus, the effect of cross-border migration on altering gender boundaries in post-socialist peripheries is limited. === A Chain of Female Justice in the Israeli Documentary Oy Mama (Noa Maiman, 2010) Liat Steir-Livny Sapir Academic College and The Open University The issue of migration of foreign workers to Israel has been in the public agenda in recent years. There are Israeli intellectuals, scholars and activists who are struggling against the implementation of deportation decisions and are struggling to allow foreign workers and their children to stay in Israel. In this struggle, they sometimes combine the Holocaust with the foreign workers’ plea. They raise the claim that the lesson of the Holocaust should affect the shaping of a sensitive policy towards the foreign workers, sometimes even more than the obligation arising from the rules of international law. The case study of the talk is the documentary film Oy Mama (Noa Maiman, 2010). In the film, Noa combines the story of her grandmother Fira (who is a Holocaust survivor) with the documentation of the relationship between Fira and her Peruvian caretaker, Magna, and Magna’s five year-old daughter, Firita, who are about to be deported from Israel. The talk will analyze how by using their voices, Noa preserves the stories of contemporary migrants to Israel, which is neglected in hegemonic discourse. Moreover, the talk will analyze the way Noa represents a chain of female connections, solidarity and justice – the way Fira, who was saved by a Polish woman in the past, tries in present-day Israel, to save her Peruvian caregiver, Magna, and Magna’s five-year-old daughter, Firita, from deportation. === Are women the „keepers of the culture“? A study on the gender-specific transmission of national and ethnic identities using latent growth curve models Randy Stache University of Marburg While the influence of ethnic and national identification on integration outcomes has undergone extensive research, the transmission of these identities from parents to children has so far received less attention. A popular hypothesis is the assumption that women are the "keepers of the culture": Ethnic identity is primarily passed on from mothers to daughters. The argument is justified by a gender-specific ethnic socialization, in which daughters have to bear more responsibility in the household and for whom external contacts are more strongly regulated. The few empirical studies, however, show an inconclusive picture for this hypothesis. Using data from the CILS4EU study, the contribution focuses on this gender-specific transmission and the development of identities using latent growth curve models. This data covers second generation migrants and their parents, and analyses can draw on information from three waves across the UK, Germany and Sweden. This approach makes it possible to trace the development of ethnic and national identities during the phase of ethnic socialisation in adolescence over time and under mutual influence. A multi-group analysis of the four parent-child dyads allows analysing whether mothers and fathers pass on their identities to sons or daughters to a different extent. First results indicate that, contrary to the "keepers of the culture" hypothesis, the developments between boys and girls and the transmissions from the parents seem to be equal. === No sex before marriage? Attitudes and experiences of young men and women from cultural communities in which sex and relationships before marriage are not allowed. Sawitri Saharso Dept Sociology VU Amsterdam Romy Claassen Jort van Hoogstraaten Milica Jokic In 2018 the rapper Boef (scoundrel) kicked up a national row in the Netherlands, because he called the three young women of Moroccan descent who offered him a lift after a night of partying ‘kechs’, street language for ‘whores’. Later, he explained that good girls don’t go out, they stay with their mama at home. It was suggested in several commentaries that ‘Boef’ would represent the views of young migrant men of Islamic background more generally. But just as interesting is: who do the three young women stand for? Do they represent a trend among young women of migrant origin to claim and get more (sexual) freedom? In this paper we discuss how the intersecting axes of gender and ethnicity play out in the domain of sexuality in a migration context. We report how young migrant men and women stemming from cultural backgrounds in which relationships and sex before marriage are not allowed, deal with this norm. We have asked them both about their own views and about their practices. The paper is based on interviews with 32 young women and 23 young men of different migrant origin in the Netherlands. They are mainly of the second generation. The majority is of Muslim background, others are (Orthodox) Christian, Hindu or Jewish. We see a diversity in how the young people negotiate the norms with which they were raised. All young women, except for the strictly religious ones, had had sexual relationships with young men, ranging from cuddling to heavy petting and full sexual intercourse. The young men adhered to a strict sexual morality and claimed they would never marry a woman who was not a virgin. They also felt responsible for the reputation of their sisters, but a remarkable finding was that, contra the popular belief that young men enjoy more sexual liberties, they themselves too wanted to stay a virgin until marriage.

author

Ágnes Erőss

Geographical Institute RCAES Hungarian Academy of Sciences

author

Váradi Monika Mária

Institute for Regional Studies, Central and North Hungarian Research Department, CERS

author

Doris Wastl-Walter

University of Bern

author

Liat Steir-Livny

Sapir Academic College and the Open University

author

Randy Stache

Philipps-Universität Marburg

author

Sawitri Saharso

Free University/University of Humanistic Studies

author

Romy Claassen

author

Jort van Hoogstraaten

author

Milica Jokic

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Un/doing culture, un/doing boundaries? The figure of the ‘refugee camp’ as a representation of border zones

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #33 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Ulrike Krause

Osnabrück University

chair

Anett Schmitz

University of Trier

chair

Caroline Schmitt

Universität Klagenfurt

CHAIR: Caroline Schmitt (Alpen-Adria-University Klagenfurt, Austria) For decades, authorities have been using camps to shelter, protect and control refugees - but instead of embodying ‘safe havens’, refugee camps constitute highly ambivalent spaces and specific forms of border zones with diverse representation processes. They are characterized by institutional power relations, political regulations, administrative structures and rules. Although camp borders rarely consist of passive and fixed fences, the camp setting itself somewhat serves as a bordering practice, separating its inhabitants from the host countries’ societies. Yet camps are not static but dynamic and present ‘living spaces’ of diversity and collective action, where inhabitants create, (re)produce, challenge and transform ‘culture’, ‘home’ and ‘belonging’ to establish an place for Refuges. Cultural practices may create feelings of togetherness, but also demarcations, fear, and rejection. They develop the spatial setting of collective accommodation under challenging conditions. The panel addresses the ambivalence of refugee camps and questions how camps are shaped by ‘un/doing culture and boundaries’ in motion. From a relational approach, the panel assumes that the institutional camp construct is not ‘just there’, but constantly ‘made’. Camps are thus produced and negotiated in social interactions involving political actors, administrative staff, social institutions, inhabitants, and non-residents. This constellation of various actors of different functions, origins, gender, social backgrounds strongly influences the negotiation processes of un/doing the (borders of) camps. With specific perspectives, each presentation in the panel explores how these practices of ‘un/doing culture and boundaries’ in motion characterize camps. As a result, different, yet also overarching aspects of camps as sites of power vs. powerlessness, resistance and agency vs. vulnerability, restriction vs. opportunities and ultimately sites of sociocultural practices and boundaries are discussed. PAPER #1 Camp Culture? Permeable, liminal and durable border practices in shared accomodations for refugees in Bavaria AUTHOR(S) Lea Gelardi (University of Eichstätt) ABSTRACT This paper relates to a previous empirical research project (2018) on organisational and infrastructural characteristics of a so-called “transit centre“ in Bavaria. In 2017 transit centres got introduced as a new accommodation type for asylum seekers and got transformed into “ANKER centres“ in 2018. The centres aim to accelerate asylum procedures and facilitate prompt deportations. The previous research focused on practices which explicit mechanisms of exclusion, isolation, restriction, regulation and control. This is why traditional camp theories (Goffman, Foucault, Agamben) were used for the analysis of the data. However, the specific characteristics of the accommodation need a modification or extension of the relevant concepts. The data showed that the practices in and around the accommodation can be seen as borders which are permeable and productive, not fixed. Isolation and exclusion practices appear as dynamic and changeable bordering processes which are performed and contested. This is why the current research focuses on analysis dimensions known from border and boundary studies: permeability, liminality, durability (Schiffauer et al.). They can be observed as an interplay of i.a. legal, material, spatial (camp) borders. The data indicates that borders become fluent and cannot explicitly be located. The borders of the institution do not end at the material borders (fences, gates etc.) of the camp. Hence, it should be seen as a liminal zone. Therefore, within the framework of an analytical ethnography more empirical data will be generated by focusing on permeable, liminal and durable border practices in ANKER centres and inhowfar they produce a specific “camp culture”. PAPER #2 The ambiguous borders of refugee camps in Jordan AUTHOR(S) Lucas Oesch (Luxembourg) ABSTRACT We often imagine a refugee camp as an enclosed place made of canvas tents, surrounded by fences. The borders of the camps are assumed to be clear-cut: Between the camp and the state territory on which it is set-up, between the camp and the nearby cities, between humanitarian life in the camp and ordinary and political life outside of camps, between the provision of aid in the camp in comparison to urban context, and so on. By referring to refugee camps in Jordan, this presentation argues that the borders of the refugee camp are rather ambiguous. I will especially refer to the supposedly urban ‘border’, whereas the distinction in the urban landscape between the camp and surrounding neighborhoods becomes blurred; the hypothetical temporal ‘border’, whereas the limit between temporariness and permanency fades away in a situation of permanent temporariness; and the allegedly ‘border’ in the provision of assistance, whereas humanitarian aid – usually limited to time of crisis – and development intervention – often provided for long term post-conflict reconstruction – become intertwined in the camp. PAPER #3 Today’s effects of climate change. Nomads in (in)formal refugee camps in Somalia AUTHOR(S) Samia Aden (Kassel) Samira Aden (Berlin) ABSTRACT Climate change is currently one of the main topics of our time. Debates in politics, society and different scientific disciplines have increased. Under the name of “Fridays for Future” students worldwide protest and are joined by “Scientists for Future” who are investigating solutions against climate change. Discussed are consequences for ‘our’ future as well as the need to act, change the way of living and how we are using our natural resources. But who is meant, when talking about ‘us’ and ‘our’ future? We argue that the climate discourse can be seen as a eurocentric and privileged one since aspects of global power relations are underrepresented. The debate doesn’t reflect on the fact that the global south and indigenous people are affected by climate-related disasters already and also will be affected by it in future, the most. Western industrial countries are mainly responsible for the climate change and people from the global north talk about it dominantly. At the same time, people who are affected from climate crisis today are less responsible for global warming, but their voices are often not heard and silence. Our talk presents how former Nomads in (in)formal refugee camps in Somalia, who lost their livelihood due to drought, negotiate and reflect on their individual experiences in the camps. Using group discussions carried out in different areas in Somalia in August and September 2019, we will reconstruct the paradoxes between discourse and responsibility for climate change, development help and everyday life experiences.

discussant

Anett Schmitz

University Trier

author

Lea Gelardi

Center for flight and migration, Catholic University Eichstätt-Ingolstadt

author

Anna-Lisa Müller

University of Osnabrück

author

Lucas Oesch

University of Luxembourg

author

Samia Aden

University of Kassel

author

Samira Aden

Berlin

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Refugee parents’ engagement with education: Part 1

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #34 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Marta Zofial Moskal

University of Glasgow

Forced migration has become an increasingly hot topic in migration studies over recent years, due to increases in human mobility resulting from political, economic and environmental crises and conflict. The academic field has tackled migration and its connection to education and social inequality in different ways and across various disciplines. As such, the experiences of the children of migrants and the role of migrant parents in their educational pathways have received considerable attention. However, there is only a small volume of literature available on the schooling experiences of refugee children in particular, and even less so on their families’ engagement with education. This panel therefore explores the ways in which asylum-seeker and refugee parents - and families more broadly - engage with education. It specifically addresses refugee parents’ and families’ challenges and opportunities in engaging in the education of their children in formal and non-formal settings; and the outcomes of this engagement for their own and their children’s inclusion, sense of belonging and/or well-being. The selected papers, garnered during an open call in November 2020, represent a range of disciplines, a wide geographical area and the work of both early-career and more established scholars. The comparative nature of the selected papers also highlights the role of distinct institutional structures in shaping the experience of refugee parents. The panel is the first of two proposed on this topic, due to an overwhelming response to the Standing Committee EduSoc’s call and abundance of high quality submissions. Further details on those selected are provided below. PAPER #1 Refugee parents’ engagement in childcare institutions in Germany: Between structural barriers and personal insecurities AUTHOR(S) Anna Siede (Leuphana University Lüneburg) ABSTRACT Inclusion in early childhood education and care (childcare) can significantly affect the arrival process of refugee families with small children. While children can get to know other children as well as language and customs, it can also have social implications for parents. They can meet other parents and get to know the habits and customs relating to their role as parents in Germany. This is particularly relevant, as childcare can be the first contact point with the German education system for refugee parents with children under the age of six. Previous research has indicated that it may be challenging for refugee parents to find their way in the education system, including based on language barriers, and that volunteers often accompany this process. However, there is little research concerning the perspectives of refugee parents in this regard. Against this background, this paper examines how refugee parents perceive their engagement in childcare institutions and which role voluntary supporters play in this context based on 17 qualitative, open interviews with refugee parents of small children carried out in 2019 and 2020 in Lower-Saxony, Germany. The research is based on constructivist grounded theory methodology and is embedded within the interdisciplinary research project “Integration through trust” at Leuphana University Lüneburg. The paper speaks to interpretive policy research, taking the perspective of the recipients of integration policy, and links to the theoretical concept of trust. On this basis, it examines different forms of parental engagement and touches upon benefits as well as challenges described by parents. Challenges relate in particular to structural barriers as well as to personal insecurities concerning the role as parents in a new environment. In many cases, voluntary supporters play an active role in overcoming such challenges, including by providing practical support as well as security. PAPER #2 Equipping African mothers with refugee background to effectively engage with middle schools AUTHOR(S) Stacey Wilson-Forsberg (Wilfrid Laurier University) Oliver Masakure (Wilfrid Laurier University) ABSTRACT Over the past two decades, many families from Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan have resettled in the city of Waterloo, Ontario after protracted displacement in refugee camps where they had limited access to basic education. Compared to parents raised in Canada, these parents, especially mothers, face added barriers to initiating and maintaining a high level of involvement with their children's schooling and schools. Many African mothers lack knowledge of the middle school system in Canada and the confidence to engage with teachers. In addition, African refugee parents are often viewed by Canadian school authorities as lacking the competencies to engage in their children’s education. In this respect, Canadian school authorities ignore their pre-conflict social roles, identities, and knowledge, and overlook the fact that they had stable lives prior to becoming refugees. This proposed conference panel will be an excellent fit to present findings from our study of how African mothers with refugee backgrounds learn to effectively engage with schools when their children are in grades 7 and 8. Our ongoing research is a collaborative and holistic effort in partnership with a local neighborhood organization Adventure4Change, the local school boards, and the African mothers participating in the project. Its goal is to create opportunities for mothers to interact with teachers, guidance counsellors, and school administrators on an ongoing basis so that they can prepare their children for the important transition to high school. During the presentation we will endeavour to (1) identify the barriers faced by African mothers with refugee backgrounds when attempting to understand and engage with their children's middle school, and (2) describe how these mothers can more confidently engage with educators and administrators by applying a novel theoretical framework that emphasizes the connection between refugees' agency and civil engagement. PAPER #3 Family-school partnership in monolingual national education systems for newly arrived migrant students: İstanbul and Hamburg cases AUTHOR(S) Abdullah Atmacasoy (Middle East Technical University & Universität Hamburg) ABSTRACT Refugee education has evolved from local provisions to global support to national systems with the aim of including refugee children into mainstream education (Dryden-Peterson, 2016; UNHCR, 2012). To facilitate this transition in an inclusive way, countries are urged to develop more responsive and resilient education systems that recognize the rights and needs of any newly arrived migrant students. This talk focuses on the qualitative findings of multiple case studies in İstanbul and Hamburg. These findings are part of a cross-cultural multiphase mixed-methods study on exploring language education programs and determinants of destination language proficiency for newly arrived migrant students in their transition to monolingual national education systems. The qualitative data draw on i) persistent classroom observations in language support programs for refugee students at lower-secondary schools, semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected ii) 23 refugee students, iii) six refugee parents, iv) 20 teachers, v) 13 school administrators, and vi) nine key informants including researchers and coordinators at education authorities. The findings provide a comparative perspective on the role of family-school partnership in a centralized, i.e. İstanbul, and decentralized education system with an established inclusion system for newly arrived migrant students, i.e. Hamburg. Irrespective of the unique features of these two diverging contexts, parents and schools in both contexts agree on the necessity to strengthen family-school partnership and assert to make best use of available resources. This talk will elaborate on the different understandings of inclusion by parents and schools, the lack of a common ground to discuss mutual efforts of all parties, and the significance of compromising on shared strategies. PAPER #4 Narrating migration: Refugee inclusion on parent councils in France and England AUTHOR(S) Jacob Garrett (Sciences Po) ABSTRACT In many nation states throughout the European region, parents have the right and expectation to voluntarily participate at schools through legally codified parent councils, yet these councils remain little understood as a vehicle for productive civic integration of refugee parents. This absence in the scholarly literature and European institutional initiatives is surprising given the established finding that schools are the primary public institution where immigrants interface with others and participate civically. This paper utilizes newsletters, social media pages, and meeting minutes of parent councils to compare immigration narratives in France and England. Through narrative analysis, this project uncovers norms of inclusion/exclusion utilized by FCPE and APEB in France and Governing Bodies in England. While structurally different each organization elects parent representatives to a school council and directly elicits parent input into school administration. The objective of the paper is to identify and assess narratives of immigrant parent involvement in school councils in three ways: 1) membership on councils, 2) linguistic translation of council materials, and 3) direct outreach to immigrant parents through council initiatives. At stake in the comparison between French and English parent councils is the difference in formal powers allotted to parent representatives. In the French parent council structure, parents have advisory powers only and interact with municipal and national officials in formal meetings on a bi-annual basis. In English public schools parent representatives are given formal decision making powers over the school budget, administrative and teacher hiring, and the academic direction of the school. This contrast in formal powers leads to the driving concern of the paper: does more direct decision making power in school administration for lay parents lead to greater inclusion or greater exclusion of refugee and immigrant families?

discussant

Lucy Hunt

University of Oxford

author

Anna Siede

Leuphana University

author

Stacey Wilson-Forsberg

Winfried Laurier University

author

Oliver Masakure

Wilfrid Laurier University

author

Abdullah Atmacasoy

Middle East Technical University / Universität Hamburg

author

Jacob Garrett

Sciences Po

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The making of procedural (in-)justice in asylum claim-making, determination and reception

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #35 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Zeynep Yanasmayan

chair

Sophie Andreetta

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

Procedural justice is a fundamental aspect of legal systems ensuring fair treatment of people in their interactions with state officials. This panel focuses on the making and perception of procedural (in-)justice in the field of asylum determination and reception. Together with its twin-panel looking at state-migrant interactions from a multi-scalar perspective, it contributes to interdisciplinary socio-legal scholarship that critically accompanies current developments in asylum and immigration policies. Contributions reflect on the role of procedural safeguards within the citizenship-based framework of administrative law and explore the challenges this poses for asylum appeal judges as well as analyze hearings as a central procedural element in asylum adjudication. They uncover how procedural regimes of information, participation and bureaucratic decision-making are built around specific legal concepts and how such bureaucratic regimes effect protection seekers’ sense of procedural fairness and their discursive strategies to navigate this complex legal field. Taken together, these papers explore empirically how specific procedural safeguards or legal principles in place against the arbitrary use of state power, are invoked, altered, discarded, and reinvented by actors involved. They trace the various senses of procedural (in)justice that emerge in these interactions, analyze the organizational, material and discursive contexts in which specific notions of procedural (in)justice are shaped and eventually suggest a number of conceptual and theoretical arguments to better understand the role of procedural justice in asylum claim-making, determination and reception. PAPER #1 Just another benefit? Swedish judges’ efforts to integrate asylum claims into the general administrative law framework AUTHOR(S) Livia Johannesson (Stockholm University) ABSTRACT Research has demonstrated many kinds of procedural injustices in asylum determination procedures, however, one foundational injustice has been overlooked in both legal practice and in research on asylum determinations. This aspect does not originate from inaccessibility to procedural safeguards, but from liberal democratic states’ inability to acknowledge that asylum seekers lack the right to have rights, as famously phrased by Hanna Arendt. Based on an interview study of Swedish administrative judges’ reasonings about differences and similarities between asylum appeals and appeals from citizens towards the state, I demonstrate that asylum seekers are disadvantaged in Swedish court processes because of the taken-for-granted notion of nation states as assurances of human rights, which positions asylum seekers outside the realm of those with the rights to have rights. Asylum seekers are treated as everyone else who asks for a benefit from the Swedish state – but simultaneously lack the very foundation on which to claim rights from the Swedish state. Without questioning the findings in previous studies that prejudices, narrative styles, and skepticism influence asylum determinations, I argue that the unique situation of being an asylum seeker in terms of what kind of rights that are at stake has not been fully integrated in the literature on injustices in asylum determinations. PAPER #2 Judicial discretion and procedural inconsistencies in European asylum courts AUTHOR(S) Nicole Hoellerer (University of Exeter) Nick Gill (University of Exeter) ABSTRACT Drawing on 850 ethnographic observations of asylum appeal hearings in Europe, the paper discusses inconsistencies in legal asylum procedures from a socio-legal perspective, with a particular focus on judicial discretion. Human rights discourses may give the impression that regardless of where an asylum appeal takes place, an asylum appellant experiences a consistent and fair procedure. Our research, however, explores procedural inconsistencies that may impact on the access to justice. We argue that oral court hearings have to be viewed as interactional and contextual events, in which procedural norms and safeguards underpinning legal and bureaucratic interactions are susceptible to various forms of judicial discretion, and are invoked and transformed during the actual interaction in court hearings. By using ethnographic examples, we trace judicial reactions and responses through how hearings unfold; the impact of judges explicitly revealing their thinking and legal reasoning, as well as their personal experiences during hearings; and the impact of judicial discretion on what kind of questions s/he may ask the asylum appellant, and on how the legal procedure is conducted. We conclude that asylum court hearings are contextual and discretionary events and that a socio-political, ethnographic lens is ideally suited to reveal these aspects of their character. PAPER #3 The Governance of “Vulnerable” Migrants, or How Material Conditions Determine Fundamental Rights AUTHOR(S) Sophie Andreetta (University of Liege) Sophie Nakueira (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology) ABSTRACT The last few years, the philosophical and the legal meaning of “vulnerability”, the advantages and the pitfalls of the concept have been intensively discussed by human rights scholars (Fineman 2008, Butler 2004, 2009). This paper aims to contribute to these reflections by exploring how vulnerability is understood, appropriated and translated into bureaucratic practices based on two case-studies: the reception of asylum seekers in Belgium, on the one hand, and the resettlement practices within refugee camps in Uganda on the other hand. Those two cases will help demonstrate that “vulnerable groups” and the corresponding safeguards or protections are often defined in a flexible manner, depending on the resources available to public institutions on the one hand, and on specific group’s capacity to advocate for their “vulnerable” status on the other. Our ethnographic data indeed showed that beyond innocence, deservingness or apparent weaknesses (Eastmond & Ascher 2011, Smiths & Waite 2019, Mesaric & Vacchelli 2019), civil servants and aid workers assessed “vulnerability” based on internally defined categories, the exact borders of which are contingent upon gender stereotypes, migration flows, state budgets and organizational concerns. PAPER #4 A child-centred approach to asylum law and policy as a way for countering the procedural (in)justice: building on evidence and asylum-seeking children’s views AUTHOR(S) Barbara Gornik (Science and Research Centre Koper) ABSTRACT In contemporary states, political space is typically reserved for adults, leaving limited opportunities for children’s participation in democratic processes. This holds even more true for asylum-seeking children, who have been furthermore politically under-represented and often find themselves in an extremely precarious position due to their immigrant status. When it comes to (in)justice in asylum procedures, the question of their participation is an important one. However, migrant children’s opportunities to participate and represent their interests are frequently contingent on the goodwill of adults; children often do not have a say in the decisions made about them in various institutional settings or they are afforded only minimal opportunities to participate and engage with adults. This situation does not arise out of a legal gap. On the contrary, the international legal basis for the participation of children and young people was established back in 1990 with the well-known Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC); this article legally binds all State Parties to ensure that children have the right to express their own ‘views freely in all matters affecting the child’. The paper responds to the identified lack in migrant children’s participation by discussing a cross-national framework of a child-centred approach to asylum law and policy. It explores the possibilities how to ensure their agency, while on the other hand, it builds on the findings obtained from fieldwork with asylum-seeking children in reception centres and camps in Italy, France, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Slovenia and Austria.

author

Livia Johannesson

Stockholm University

author

Nicole Hoellerer

University of Exeter

author

Nick Gill

University of Exeter

discussant

Larissa Vetters

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

author

Sophie Nakueira

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

author

Barbara Gornik

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Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 1

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #36 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Volha Vysotskaya

University of Luxembourg

Ethnicities spatial effect on cross-border regions Comparative analysis for culture aspect from territorial and relational perspectives, the cases of Basque and Upper Rhine in EU border regions. Ahmed Bakry Heidelberg University Anna Growe Heidelberg University Cultures are one of the most significant factors that affect regional development and border interactions. The existence of face-to-face, trust, and culture similarities can reinforce the informal socio-institutional setup for better integration and innovation. It can take various shapes and can be manifested in different forms. Based on that, border regions and communities are not the same in terms of; Gesellschaft and gemeinschaft type, ethnicity existence, place identities, and culture values (Raagmaa, 2002). Such factors and communities’ characteristics effect on both; the level of border culture interactions and its territorial hubs. This paper is offering a new innovative tool to measure culture values aspect; territorially and relationally in two different borders contexts. Basque community case region between Spain and France, which is characterized by high ethnicity attributes till the time being. The other Case for the Upper Rhine region between Germany, France, and Switzerland, and it is representing Gesellschaft community type. The paper is based on both qualitative and quantitative data set analysis. The paper starts with identifying culture and ethnicities, and their spatial role in regional development, especially for border areas. Followed by introducing both cases and their border culture analyses. According to the comparison it is deduced the massive culture border interactions in the Basque case, which might be related to the ethnicity existence. Keywords: Ethnicities, Cross- border culture network, Place identity, Relational & territorial === `Where my neighborhood ends': inclusion and exclusion criteria in subjective constructions of a Social Housing Neighborhood Marta Neves University of Southern Denmark This study draws upon cognitive maps and in-depth interviews with 15 unemployed women residing in a Portuguese social housing neighborhood (Bairro de Contumil) to examine their subjective construction of the neighborhood’s boundaries. Due to the internal homogeneity (socioeconomic and architectonic) of Social Housing Neighborhoods (SHN) in Portugal, one could assume that the boundaries of the SHN would be unanimously drawn by its residents. Against this expectation, the mental maps of the interviewees vary substantially and none of the participants limits her neighborhood definition to the social housing area. Consistent among the participants are the reasons guiding the inclusion and exclusion of spaces in their neighborhood definitions. The study uses place attachment and place identity theory to shed light on how emotional connections with place and humans guide the residents' boundary work. The in-depth interviews reveal complex relations between place attachment, human relations, spatial cognition, and the use of space. === How does immigrant residential mobility relate to ethnic community borders in a recent immigration country? An analysis of Prague and Central Bohemia Ivana Křížková Charles University Adam Klsák Charles University Martin Šimon Czech Academy of Sciences Increasing immigration to Czechia has been creating new challenges for public policy and urban planning. Immigrants are more spatially mobile than the domestic population and thus represent an increasingly relevant population group influencing the social-spatial differentiation. The possibility of immigrant residential segregation into ethnic spatial communities has been concerning policy makers and the general public. Focusing on the most immigrant-dense region of Czechia, Central Bohemia, this paper examines the residential mobility of foreign citizens in relation to crossing the borders of ethnic spatial communities. The paper analyses register-based stock and flow data on the residential distribution and relocations of foreign citizens between 2005 and 2018 and focuses on three major immigrant groups: Ukrainian, Russian, and Vietnamese citizens. The results indicate that although immigrants tend to prefer moderately ethnically diverse areas rather than areas with strongest or weakest ethnic concentrations, co-ethnic presence unfolds in diverse ways in individual immigrant groups’ spatial mobility, depending on the prevailing character of migration and cultural distance from the majority population.

author

Ahmed Osama Abdelhamid Bakry

Heidelberg University

author

Anna Growe

Heidelberg University

author

Marta Rodrigues Neves

University of Southern Denmark

author

Ivana Křížková

Charles University

author

Adam Klsák

Charles University

author

Martin Šimon

Czech Academy of Sciences

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Education & Social Inequality 2

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #37 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Sebastian Carlotti

University of Pisa

"Speak Mandarin, Be a civilized person!" - An ethnography of Mandarin promotion among internal ethnic-minority migrants in China Qi Gui KU Leuven This paper analyzes the effects of the mandarin promotion among Uighur and Kazakh internal migrants in China, using the biopolitics and embodiment experience as the key theoretical premise. Based on the life histories of 2 ethnic minority residents in the Guangzhou region, this research found out 1) Mandarin serves as a body technology and a measurement of civilization in contemporary China; 2) Mandarin promotion gradually penetrates and embodies into ethnic migrants’ everyday life. Hence, panoptic surveillance is generated, which created differential borders, subjectivities, and hierarchies among China’s citizenship; 3) This One-size-fits-all language conformity policy transformed internal ethnic minority migrants from the geographical periphery to socially and culturally marginalized groups. As a result, it destroyed cultural pluralism and facilitated social inequality in terms of job opportunities. Keywords: Internal migrants, language inequality, Uighur, biopolitics, mandarin promotion, China studies === Social capital, socio-economic conditions and self-rated health among migrants: A comparative analysis between Sweden and Greece Stefania Kalogeraki University of Crete, Greece Migrants represent an important segment of the European population, understanding their health status and the main determinants of health becomes a critical issue not only for migrants themselves but for the whole of Europe. Research investigating the interplay between migrants’ socio-economic disadvantages and health across countries with diverse integration policies is relatively rich. However, little is known about the potential mediating role of integration policies on migrants’ different forms of social capital which might further affect their health status. The paper using survey data from the EU-funded LIVEWHAT project examines the potential mediating role of integration policies on migrants’ social capital but also on their socio-economic disadvantages in shaping self-rated health in Sweden and Greece. According to the most recent Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX 2015) the specific countries have distinct features in their integration policies. The findings demonstrate that in countries with more restrictive integration policies such as Greece, migrants’ socio-economic disadvantages play a key role in shaping poor self-rated health. On the contrary, in countries with more inclusive integration policies such as Sweden, lack of specific forms of social capital makes migrants more vulnerable to poor self-rated health. It is recommended that areas of policy priority should include the improvement of migrants’ socio-economic living and working conditions, specifically of those residing in Greece. Moreover policy efforts that aim to reinforce social support and trust as well as to provide opportunities for migrants’ civic engagement in both countries could positively affect their health status. === Inclusion of Migrant Background Pupils in Elementary Schools in the City of Prague: Recent Practices and New Pandemic-Related Challenges Yana Leontiyeva Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences Renata Mikešová Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences The paper explores how the elementary schools in Prague before and during the pandemic outbreak develop and practice activities aimed at foreign pupil’s (age 6 to 15) inclusion. The research combines quantitative and qualitative approaches, including official statistical data about school participation of children with other than Czech mother tongue, online questionnaires with school management and follow-up interviews with teachers, parents and NGOs about the perceived needs of non-Czech pupils and the activities addressed to them. Beside the comprehensive analysis of general school policies and practices of the pre-pandemic situation the authors focus on how the outbreak has created new challenges for the inclusion activities devised for pupils with different mother tongue. === Transnational youth mobility and cultural capital: Activating educational habitus from Ghana in German schools Laura J. Ogden Maastricht University This paper proposes a youth-centric, transnational research approach to migrant education that investigates the role of young people’s mobility and agentive use of cultural capital throughout their transnational educational trajectories. A growing proportion of youth in the Global North have a migration background, and national school systems are increasingly concerned with preparing students for a globalised future. Yet the cultural capital of migrant youth who have successfully navigated between different national educational contexts has remained invisible in research. Migration and education research has focused on factors within the country of residence that influence educational outcomes and prioritised parental transmission of cultural capital. International student mobility research views educational migration as a strategy (largely of the elite, and often instigated by parents) to accumulate cultural capital through Western qualifications and cultural knowledge to be used upon return to the country of origin. These literatures ignore young people’s schooling experiences in the country of origin and their own agency in accumulating and using cultural capital transnationally. Based on multi-sited ethnographic research with young people who have schooling experience in both Ghana and Hamburg (Germany), this paper explores how an educational habitus is developed through their transnational mobility trajectories, during which they experience relationships with extended family members and schooling in Ghana. This habitus is then activated during their transitions to Hamburg schools through three types of cultural capital: their self-image, study behaviours, and teacher-student relationships. This embodied cultural capital enables them to maintain high academic performance, leading to institutional cultural capital in the form of educational credentials in Hamburg.

author

Laura J Ogden

Maastricht University

author

Stefania Kalogeraki

University of Crete

author

qi gui

author

Yana Leontiyeva

CMR

author

Renata Mikesova

Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences

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Migrants’ perceptions of the EU. Imaginaries, policies and symbolic management across Europe and beyond (PERCEPTIONS Panel 2)

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #38 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Diotima Sarah Bertel

SYNYO GmbH

chair

Sergei Shubin

Swansea University

This panel presents the empirical research findings of the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project. We will discuss how migrants perceive migration to Europe as well as the narratives of journalists and policy makers and how this (potentially) relates to each other. Perceptions on (migration to) Europe are structured by prevailing and each continuously reinforcing narratives that are spread through (social) media, by policy makers and personal networks. These perceptions vary along migration trajectories as they are part of social constructions that are repeatedly reinterpreted through a series of stories and highly impacted by information campaigns and migration management by policy makers. This panel presents five different case studies that allow us to understand how narratives on migration to Europe are constructed per stakeholder, differ along the migration path, and have repercussions for future narratives on migration to Europe in countries outside Europe. This series of case studies departs from information campaigns in the region of origin (case study 1, focus on information campaigns in The Gambia), imaginaries and narratives on migration during the migration journey and when arriving in Europe (case study 2, focus on migrants in Morocco and Spain; and case study 3, focus on migrants in Cyprus and Greece) and in their destination countries (case study 3, focus on migrants in Belgium; and case study 4, focus on policy makers and first line practitioners in the UK). In doing so, these case studies demonstrate the importance of including a multi-actor framework to examine how discourses and narratives on migration to Europe are constantly shaped and reinforced. Moreover, they help us to reflect on how perceptions on migration and migration to Europe could lead to problems, unrealistic expectations, security threats and much more. Special attention will be given during the discussion on how these findings should be translated into and implemented in policies and practices. PAPER #1 Information Campaigns: the role of journalists in disseminating narratives about Europe in The Gambia AUTHOR(S) Valentina Cappi (University of Bologna) Pierluigi Musarò (University of Bologna) Gabriele Puzzo (University of Bologna) Alagie Jinkang (University of Bologna) ABSTRACT Faced with food insecurity, unemployment, broken infrastructure, poor education and twenty-two years of dictatorship, Gambian youths continue to migrate to Europe through the so-called ‘back way’ with the hope of improving the life conditions of themselves and their families (Altrogge and Zanker, 2019). Since the increase in migration flows in 2015 and the consequent management dilemma, European information campaigns have been initiated in The Gambia as a strategy to influence prospective migrants behaviour (Fiedler, 2019). However, due to the complexity of the phenomenon, literature evaluating the impact of these awareness campaigns is scarce and studies portray them as non-effective (Rodriguez, 2019). Nevertheless, targeting the entire community, taking advantage of mass and social media, tailoring the language to the cultural context, and using real-life testimonies to tell their stories (Browne, 2015) are identified as best practices that can make a positive impact. Within the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project framework, our aim is to explore, through an online survey, the role and practices of Gambia Press Union journalists in the dissemination of information campaigns and narratives about Europe (job expectations & opportunities, access to welfare, etc.). Furthermore, the research will expand on the communication strategies and channels (newspapers, radio, local tv, social media, caravan tours, attaya crews, etc.) used to reach journalists’ audiences. To conclude, the study will also identify limitations and opportunities for the implementation of best practices to bolster the impact of the information campaigns. PAPER #2 Across the Strait: migrants’ narratives on Europe in Morocco and Spain AUTHOR(S) José M. González Riera (Euro-Arab Foundation for Higher Studies - University of Granada) Patricia Bueso Izquierdo (Euro-Arab Foundation for Higher Studies - University of Granada) ABSTRACT In the last three decades Morocco has become a key transit country, mainly for sub-Saharan nationals on their way to Europe. At the same time, it continues to be the origin of a sizeable amount of Moroccan citizens migrating to the EU. Additionally, Morocco is consolidating as a host country, mainly for sub-Saharans (Khrouz & Lanza, 2015), many of whom reside irregularly despite of the two regularisations that the country has recently implemented (Benjelloun, 2017). A question often raised is which visions of the final destination move so many people to undertake such a costly and often perilous journey. This paper aims at comprehending the ways in which the perceptions and narratives of Spain/Europe are framed amongst migrants in Morocco on transit to Spain/Europe as well as potential Moroccan migrants. Such views will be then contrasted with those of migrants who have already arrived to Spain. Based on the assumption that these imaginaries are affected by migrants’ experiences, we aim at analysing the evolution of this narrative plasticity, assessing the ways in which the migration itinerary interacts with the perceptions and narratives from the country of origin to the final destination. We will depict the evolution of various patterns of narrative itineraries in parallel to the migration journeys. This paper is based on the empirical research findings stemming from the fieldwork conducted in Morocco and Spain. The key outcomes will be discussed in terms of a better management of the migration flows and the development of migratory policy recommendations. PAPER #3 Migrants’ imaginaries and lived realities in Cyprus AUTHOR(S) Fiona Seiger (Erasmus University Rotterdam) Aria Louis (Caritas Cyprus) Elisabeth Kassinis (Caritas Cyprus) ABSTRACT A geographical crossroads in a politically complex region—itself divided due to an unresolved conflict—Cyprus has witnessed an increase in the number of people seeking refuge and/or asylum. Since 2018, Cyprus has had the highest number of asylum seekers per capita in Europe; more than Greece and Malta and many times the EU average. Whilst migrant arrivals from Syria continue to make up the largest demographic group of new arrivals, Cyprus is now also experiencing a growth in the number of people arriving from countries in Africa (especially West Africa). Weak local systems are providing inadequate support to address the resultant needs, with the asylum and welfare systems unable to close the gaps in the systems meant to receive, process and ultimately integrate new arrivals. This paper draws on data collected in the Republic of Cyprus among asylum seekers, refugees and first-line practitioners within the context of the PERCEPTIONS project. Many young West Africans arrive with idealized notions of Europe and with limited knowledge of the political and geographical situation of Cyprus. Drawing on in-depth interviews, we investigate how these imaginaries of Europe come about, and how these have changed over time and through lived experience in the EU’s borderland. We aim to tease out how imaginaries are (re)constructed in concert with migration infrastructure, notably networks of agents and brokers situated in countries of origin facilitating movement from West Africa to Cyprus, information technology, local contexts of arrival, as well as with the wider migration and asylum policies in Europe. PAPER #4 A Belgian case study on migration trajectories and life after migration: Is there a mismatch between imaginaries and lived realities? AUTHOR(S) Rut Van Caudenberg (CeMIS - University of Antwerp ) Lore Van Praag (CeMIS - University of Antwerp ) Amal Miri (CeMIS, University of Antwerp) ABSTRACT Raising awareness among (potential) migrants about the reality of (life after) migration has been high on the policy agenda in Belgium. Since 2015, the Immigration Office launched, among other things, letter-writing campaigns to asylum seekers to ‘debunk the wild stories (…) that created an image of Belgium as “El Dorado”' (Belgian Chamber of Representatives, 2016) and more general information campaigns to ‘counter rumours and disinformation that are often spread via social media among potential migrants who contemplate leaving their home country’ (De Block, 2019). While political authorities argue that these campaigns are effective, they are heavily criticized by civil society and human rights organisations and are considered to be developed in a broader policy context of migration deterrence that risks undermining the human rights of refugees. Moreover, the underlying assumption of such campaigns is that migration behaviour is often motivated by false perceptions of life in Belgium, and Europe more generally. Against this background, in this presentation we focus on the narratives of the subjects of these campaigns, i.e. the migrants themselves. Drawing on in-depth interviews with recently arrived migrants in Belgium, collected in the context of the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project, we unravel how imaginaries of Belgium (and Europe) are constructed and contrasted against lived realities as a migrant. Furthermore, we analyse the role these imaginaries played in migration decisions. By doing so, we aim to better understand the way in which migrants engage with and are affected by official migration management discourses and how perceptions impact actual migration behaviour. PAPER #5 The symbolic management of migration in the UK AUTHOR(S) Petra Saskia Bayerl (Sheffield Hallam University) Karen Latricia Hough (Sheffield Hallam University) Kahina Le Louvier (Northumbria University) Sergei Shubin (Swansea University) ABSTRACT From the “hostile environment” policies implemented since 2012 to plans of using nets to prevent individuals crossing the English Channel, various strategies have been used to manage migration to the United Kingdom. These strategies are often given centre stage via communication campaigns in the media. These do not only include policies and legal frameworks, but are crucially based on the use of symbols, language, emotional and cognitive means. In this paper, we build on extensive qualitative interviews conducted throughout the UK with key policymakers and first-line practitioners conducted as part of the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project to better understand the perceptions that underpin these policies. We focus on practitioners' perspectives, which received limited attention and are often overlooked in the broader “host society” responses. We consider the ways in which practitioners make cross-border movements visible and knowable by shaping everyday spaces (social media accounts) and life-processes (health and social routines) of migrants. In particular, we use an interpretive policy analysis approach to investigate the use of symbolic objects (e.g. boats, vans, lorries and phones) in policies and communication campaigns. We explore how these symbolic objects draw on specific migration narratives, sensibilities and memories to manage perceptions and shape migrant identities. This allows us to investigate how contrasting conceptions of migration are framed in discourse, recreated in the imaginary, interpreted and performed by different actors. We conclude by examining the importance of such reasoning on policy making in light of the future withdrawal of the UK from the EU.

author

Valentina Cappi

Università di Bologna

author

Karen Hough

CENTRIC - Sheffield Hallam University

discussant

Milena Belloni

author

PIERLUIGI MUSARO

University of Bologna

author

Gabriele Puzzo

Università di Bologna

author

Alagie Jinkang

University of Bologna

author

José María González Riera

Euro-Arab Foundation for Higher Studies

author

Patricia Bueso Izquierdo

Euro-Arab Foundation for Higher Studies - University of Granada

author

Fiona-Katharina Seiger

Erasmus University Rotterdam

author

Rut Van Caudenberg

CeMIS

author

Lore Van Praag

CeMIS

author

Karen Hough

CENTRIC, Sheffield Hallam University

author

Amal Miri

University of Antwerp

author

Aria Louis

Caritas Cyprus

author

Kahina Le Louvier

Northumbria University

author

Petra Saskia Bayerl

Sheffield Hallam University

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Debating contradictions emerging from the everyday experiences and family practices of migrants in different receiving contexts

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #39 workshop | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

organizer

Rosa Mas Giralt

Leeds University

organizer

Martha Montero-Sieburth

Amsterdam University College

This interactive workshop will bring to the fore critical issues surrounding the everyday lives and practices of migrant families and youth in different receiving contexts. Everyday practices are approached from a relational perspective which highlights the interdependent lives of adults, children and youth within families, and how this affects their decisions to migrate, their different mobility trajectories and how they respond to the social and institutional contexts they move to. We address the fluidity that accompanies the adaptations and contradictions that migrants and their significant others encounter when settling in their receiving societies, from initial reception to longer term residence. Through debating these adaptations and contradictions, the workshop aims to problematise common mainstream narratives about migrant incorporation. This includes, for instance, that migrant families’ access to societal benefits will become seamless once they ‘integrate’ and learn the local language; that education will streamline their children’s future social trajectories towards success; or that, once migration difficulties or trauma have been overcome, they will experience non-disruptive linear trajectories where children and family members will thrive and experience upwards social mobility. We are concerned with how families can actually do family or parenting in, and how children and youth respond and resist, the reception or social systems and norms of the receiving society. In the first part of the workshop, participants will introduce the contradictions or challenges they have identified in areas such as youth and educational outcomes; sports initiatives and integration; access to welfare and family wellbeing; trauma and family adaptations; mothering and asylum seeking; or recognition and belonging. In the second part, participants and audience will be invited to debate the issues and identify the research stances needed to confront such challenges.

participant

Kate Smith

University of Huddersfield

participant

Noemi Garcia-Arjona

Laboratoire VIPS 2 (Violences, Innovations, Politiques, Socialisations et Sports), Université Rennes 2 (France)

participant

Domiziana Turcatti

University of Oxford

participant

Hana Alhadi

Associate Expert for Unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee minors at Srednja gozdarska in lesarska šola Postojna in Slovenia

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Methodological issues in researching migration attitudes

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #40 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Steffen Pötzschke

GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences

PAPER #1 Using Twitter to explore people’s views on migration. AUTHOR(S) Piotr Teodorowski (University of Liverpool) ABSTRACT Social media usage has radically increased over the last decade. Twitter especially became a forum to discuss politics both by politicians and ordinary voters. This offers qualitative researchers new opportunities to study people’s opinions by searching, capturing and analysing users (Tweeters) short messages (tweets) of up to 140 characters. Methodological challenges of conducting qualitative research on Twitter remain under-discussed. This study explored Tweeters’ views on migration at and around the last day of the United Kingdom membership in the European Union (31 January 2020) and their feelings and expectations towards the future reciprocal migration regime between the United Kingdom and the European Union. NCapture, a web-browser extension enabling the gathering of Twitter data directly into NVivo, was utilised to collect tweets using hashtags #Brexit, #BrexitDay and #BrexitEve. Although initially, it was unclear which hashtag(s) would go viral among Tweeters. Tweets were collected on seven different days covering data captured between 23 January and 10 February. In total, 250,095 tweets were extracted, but only 888 tweets met the inclusion criteria. The dataset was coded twice, assigning sentiments towards Brexit as positive, negative, or neutral and using inductive thematic analysis. Based on the experience from conducting this study, the presentation will discuss opportunities, challenges, and possible limitations of using Twitter for qualitative research with a particular focus on searching data (access and cost), analysis, ethics (consent and confidentiality). Recommendations will be given for future research on Twitter exploring unpredictable and contentious political events. PAPER #2 Yet lie they do: a list-experiment for estimating anti-immigrant sentiment and social desirability bias AUTHOR(S) Sebastian Rinken (Institute for Advanced Social Studies, Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC)) Sara Pasadas-del-Amo (Institute for Advanced Social Studies, Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC)) ABSTRACT The measurement of anti-immigrant sentiment (AIS) is treacherous. Manifestations of animosity, or even misgivings, might be associated with racism and xenophobia. Thus, survey respondents with unwelcoming attitudes may make incorrect statements when asked about their feelings toward immigrants, or indeed other attitude facets regarding international migration. To reduce such measurement error (commonly labelled “social desirability bias”, SDB), survey methodologists have developed various anonymity-maximizing techniques. One such is the list-experiment, also known as item-count-technique (ICT), which consists of dividing the sample in treatment and control arms with a view to comparing the mean scores obtained when asking about the number of items that elicit a specific attitude or assessment. The item of interest is included only in the treatment group’s list. Since no request is made to identify the relevant items, just the number, the method assumes that respondents will answer truthfully. Comparison with the percentage obtained by a direct question on the same sensitive item is supposed to reveal the scope of SDB. This paper reports on a list-experiment on AIS fielded in Spain in the framework of a study on immigration attitudes financed by the European Fund for Regional Cohesion and the Spanish Ministry of Science (project ref. CSO2017-87364-R). Contrary to expectations, aggregate ICT-based estimates of AIS almost coincide with those based on the DQ. At face value, this result suggests the absence of social desirability pressures. However, hidden beneath those aggregate values lurks evidence of SDB substantial enough to question the list-experiment’s “no liars” assumption. PAPER #3 Can we use social media data to study public opinion towards immigration and immigrants? Advantages and challenges AUTHOR(S) Álvaro Mariscal de Gante Martín (Institute for Advanced Social Studies-Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC) Juan Manuel García González (Universidad Pablo de Olavide) ABSTRACT The recent rise of computational social science has triggered an important and useful discussion on whether big data may complement or even replace traditional methods. Regarding migration research, it has been proven that certain social media data (SMD) is useful to track migration flows, yet much less is known about whether these data sources could give us information about public opinion towards immigration and immigrants. This subject is especially relevant given that survey methods often suffer from internal validity problems related to self-reported data: interviewer-related measurement error, limited length of the questionnaire, context effect or recall and social desirability biases. Whereas SMD may help to address these methodological obstacles using “organic”, free, and real-time data, it also implies new and complex challenges such as representativity issues, accessing and structuring the data or lack of rigorous information about users’ preferences. Moreover, the different SMD data sources pose distinctive opportunities and constraints, which may determine whether we can address different subjects, validate our findings, or collect the data itself. For instance, while Facebook provides users’ reactions to specific posts, Twitter allows a more general approach without giving information about users’ preferences as such (so Natural Language Processing is required). Regarding public opinion towards immigration, we firstly analyze the advantages and challenges that SMD entails compared to surveys. Then, we address the potential and limitations of three of the main SMD and online search data sources: Facebook, Twitter, and Google Trends. We conclude by presenting several suggestions for future research. PAPER #4 Using Twitter data to track migration sentiment during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic AUTHOR(S) Francisco Rowe (University of Liverpool)

author

Piotr Teodorowski

University of Liverpool

author

Sebastian Rinken

Institute for Advanced Social Studies (IESA-CSIC)

author

Sara Pasadas-del-Amo

Institute for Advanced Social Studies, Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC)

author

Álvaro Mariscal de Gante

Institute for Advanced Social Studies-Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC)

author

Juan Manuel García González

Universidad Pablo de Olavide

author

Francisco Rowe

University of Liverpool

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Researching Migration and Integration Policies

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #41 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Evren Yalaz

GRITIM

PAPER #1 The civic and political integration of Muslims in Europe: an assessment using propensity score matching AUTHOR(S) Natalia C. Malancu (Institute of Citizenship Studies (InCite) - University of Geneva) Laura Morales (SciencesPo Paris) Marco Giugni (University of Geneva) ABSTRACT Europe's recent migrant crisis has further increased Muslims’ societal salience, which in turn has led to greater scrutiny of their civic and political inclusion. Although studies on these dimensions of integration document, depending on the considered outcomes, both differentials and similarities in patterns between Muslims and non-Muslims, the causal link between Islamic faith or identity and integration outcomes are understudied. We reassess the claim of the differential integration of Muslims by addressing individual and contextual confounding predictors through propensity score matching methods. In doing so, we are able to provide an unbiased estimation of our factor of interest: 'being Muslim.' To our knowledge, there are no similar attempts in the Muslim immigrant integration literature. Using cross-national survey data, we employ propensity score-based matching techniques meant to reduce the imbalance in the confounders. Aside from contributing a technical layer, the paper provides a comprehensive analysis of Muslim/non-Muslim immigrant/non-immigrant political and civic participation. PAPER #2 Assessing economic costs of excluding vulnerable migrant groups from regular health care: a vignette approach AUTHOR(S) Ursula Trummer (Center for Health and Migration) Sonja Novak-Zezula (Center for Health and Migration) ABSTRACT The main argument for improving access to health care for marginalised groups like vulnerable migrant groups has often been primarily based on human rights claims and ethical principles of equity. However, the respective public health policy debates often raise the economic argument of unbearable extra costs to justify exclusion of such groups from decent health care provision. The “Thematic Study on cost-analysis of health care provisions to migrants and ethnic minorities” (2014-2015), commissioned by the International Organization for Migration, Brussels as part of the EQUI-Health study (co-funded by DG Sanco), addressed economic costs of excluding vulnerable migrant groups from regular health care, with a focus on irregular migrants and Roma with irregular status in four EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Italy and Spain). It aimed to evaluate costs of provision versus costs of neglecting health care provision for migrants in an irregular situation. The interdisciplinary project team, consisting of Sociologists, Psychologists, Economists, and Health experts, implemented an empirical analysis using a mixed methods approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods. It collected available evidence (real life cases) on health care provision for irregular migrants as starting point to develop vignettes (model cases) of health care in different settings. These vignettes were then economically analysed with a micro-costing-approach. The presentation provides insight into the process of developing and implementing methodology in an interdisciplinary team and in close connection to grass root organisations providing health care to irregular migrants as the sites for data collection for real life cases. PAPER #3 A dialogical-relational approach in immigrant integration studies: ontology, methodology and a case study AUTHOR(S) Raivo Vetik (Tallinn University) Nawal Shaharyar (Taliinn University) ABSTRACT This paper will present a dialogical-relational approach to the issue of immigrant integration, based on the relational sociology of Pierre Bourdieu and the dialogical theory of culture of Mikhail Bahtin. We will focus on the ontological presumptions and operationalization of the dialogical-relational approach. In addition, a short case study will illustrate the approach. In the ontological section, current relational approaches in migration and integration studies will be discussed, highlighting the following authors: Somers (1993), Favell 2001, Isin (2003), Bertossi (2012), Xiang (2015) and Schinkel (2017). It will be argued that all these authors have made important contributions in the field. It will be also argued that the authors represent the so called ‘resistance turn’ in migration and integration studies, which tends to be one-sided both ontologically and politically, and that is why they remain monological. The dialogical-relational approach based on Bourdieu and Bakhtin will be outlined next, which goes beyond the existing relational approaches in the field. Our aim is to find a balance between different voices both in the ethnopolitical and academic fields, along the dialogical theory of culture of Bakhtin. The section on methodology will focus on the notion of ‘national identity’ in terms of construing either strong or weak types of cultural and social boundaries between majority and minority ethnic groups (Alba 2003). Thus, national identity is understood, along Bourdieu, in terms of positioning in asymmetrical social field, to highlight the issues of group formation and recognition/misrecognition in creating subject positions of strong and weak identities (Harre and Langenhove 2002). The case study will analyze the dynamics of national identity in Estonia, based on data from a survey study ‘Integration monitoring of Estonian society’ in 2014, 2017 and 2020, commissioned by the Estonian government and carried out by the presenters. PAPER #4 Migration decision-making and its four key dimensions AUTHOR(S) Mathias Czaika (Department for Migration and Globalisation, Danube University Krems, Austria) Jakub Bijak (University of Southampton, UK) Toby Prike (University of Southampton, UK) ABSTRACT Migration decisions are taken in the context of personal needs and desires on the one hand, and uncertainty regarding outcomes of alternative options on the other. Information about the future and its opportunities is incomplete, and whether migration turns out as a personal success or failure depends mostly on circumstances that are ex ante unknown and ex post not fully under the control of the migration decision-maker. This article elaborates on four dimensions we consider critical in approaching the complex process of migration decision-making: first, the formation of migration aspirations, second, the cognitive rules for searching and evaluating information about migratory options, third, the timing and planning horizons for preparing and realising migratory decisions, and fourth, the locus of control and degree of agency in taking migration decisions. Based on a review of the current state of evidence, we identify avenues for future empirical research addressing knowledge gaps along these four dimensions of migration decision-making.

author

Jakub Bijak

University of Southampton

author

natalia c. malancu

author

Laura Morales

SciencesPo Paris

author

Marco Giugni

University of Geneva

author

Ursula Trummer

Center for Health and Migration

author

Sonja Novak-Zezula

Center for Health and Migration

author

Raivo Vetik

Tallinn University

author

Nawal Shaharyar

Tallinn University

author

Mathias Czaika

author

Toby Prike

University of Southampton, UK

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Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 4

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #42 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Mark van Ostaijen

Being illiterate in a literate society: experiences and strategies of asylum seekers, refugees and social welfare professionals Hanne Vandermeerschen HIVA - University of Leuven Peter De Cuyper HIVA - University of Leuven Over recent years, we have witnessed an increased influx of immigrants from non-EU countries across Europe. The group of immigrants is highly diverse, yet a non-negligible share of (newly arrived) immigrants in Europe are illiterate, or low literate. However, this subgroup of immigrants often remains invisible, and there is little academic knowledge available to support evidence-based policy making for this group. Therefore, the aim of this study is twofold. First, we want to bring insight into the experiences of low literate and illiterate immigrants in their host society (where literacy is the norm) and the difficulties they face. Secondly, we identify strategies to provide adequate support for these immigrants. In this qualitative research, relying on semi-structured interviews with both recently arrived immigrants (asylum seekers and refugees) and social welfare professionals, we investigate what barriers are encountered by low literate and illiterate immigrants, what strategies are put into place by immigrants to deal with their lack of literacy, and what support is offered by care workers in order to facilitate these immigrants’ daily life and integration process. The study was conducted in Belgium in 2019, in 6 different (collective) reception centres as well as in a selection of 8 municipalities where other, more individual forms of accommodation for newly arrived immigrants is foreseen. Findings show that there is a lack of awareness of literacy problems among care workers in collective reception centers, and avoidance strategies are often put into place by the immigrants. Results also show the importance of investing in a social network and the need for intensive guidance. Policy recommendations are drawn from the results. === Social innovations as a way to foster integration and creation of local welcoming culture in rural areas of Central Europe Serhii Svynarets Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography (IfL) Dr. Tim Leibert Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography (IfL) Over the last decades, numerous rural areas of Central Europe turned into new immigration destinations attracting regular and irregular non-EU migrants leading to a rapid (ethnic) diversification. Many of these areas see the inflow of immigrants as a way to deal with long-lasting processes of demographic change. However, rural areas can represent challenging places for integration due to a lack of structural support by stakeholders, (ethnic) support networks, spaces to interact with locals as well as local welcoming culture. Thus, many migrants struggle to integrate into rural societies and use rural regions only as a ‘stopover’ on their way to urban centers. The ARRIVAL REGIONS project (Interreg CENTRAL EUROPE) aims to develop and test social innovation approaches to support economic and social integration of non-EU migrants in rural areas. One of the approaches is “Empowering Migrants’ Integration in Burgenlandkreis, Germany” (EMI BLK) – a series of weekend camps for migrant and local youth during which participants are involved in various teambuilding activities. The aim is to create a platform for informal communication between ethnic groups and build up participants’ competences in intercultural dialogue through everyday practices. We find that this approach is promising, though facing some challenges including difficulties to activate local youth to participate, competition between stakeholders dealing with integration of non-EU migrants, and need to professionalize the concept to make it sustainable. In our contribution, we discuss whether similar innovative approaches can be used for the creation and strengthening of local welcoming cultures in other rural regions. === Stand-up for integration: Expats’ stand-up comedy and its effects on the social integration of migrants and the expat community Olivera Tesnohlidkova Masaryk University Over the past several years, the Czech Republic has been witnessing two seemingly unrelated social trends—an increase in the numbers of expats and migrants, and the increasing popularity of stand-up comedy. Throughout this paper I will discuss their common denominator—stand-up comedy performed by expats. I will present the results of an ethnographic research project based on participant observation of 12 stand-up performances; semi-structured qualitative interviews with the comedians; and informal conversations with organizers and audience members. Although the social impacts of migrant stand-up comedy are largely unexplored, existing research indicates that it can be a useful tool in fighting prejudices about immigrants and ethnic minorities. Stand-up comedy is a cultural space in which performers “reconstruct and challenge stereotypes [by] resignification” of contestable ideas (Michael 2013: 142) by “making the migrant perspective the point of reference” for the host society (Bower 2014: 363). Building upon these ideas, I will explore the relationship between expats’ stand-up comedy and the social integration of migrants and expatriates in the Czech Republic, focusing specifically on cultural integration and interactive integration. By exploring stand-up comedy as a cultural and public space for building and strengthening the social relations between migrants and the locals, this paper will reflect on the benefits of soft integration measures and will provide new insights relevant for developing and implementing integration strategies. References: Bower, K. 2014. “Made in Germany: Integration as Inside Joke in the Ethno-comedy of Kaya Yanar and Bülent Ceylan.” German Studies Review 37(2):357-376. Michael, J. 2013. “American Muslims stand up and speak out: trajectories of humor in Muslim American stand-up comedy.” Cont Islam 7:129–153.

author

Hanne Vandermeerschen

HIVA - University of Leuven

author

Peter De Cuyper

HIVA - University of Leuven

author

Serhii Svynarets

Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography (IfL))

author

Tim Leibert

Leibniz-Institut für Länderkunde

author

Olivera Tesnohlidkova

Masaryk University

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‘Qualitative network analysis for migration studies: beyond metaphors and epistemological pitfalls’

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #43 workshop | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

organizer

Janine Dahinden

University of Neuchatel

organizer

Louise Ryan

London Metropolitan University

In this proposed workshop we bring together contributors to a Special Issue of the journal Global Networks (to be published early 2021), to explore how: 1. qualitative and mixed methods social network analysis have the potential to address epistemological pitfalls in migration research overcoming the metaphoric use of networks as well as nation-state and ethnicity-centred epistemologies. 2. applying a qualitative approach to social networks not only changes how we research networks but also what we understand them to be. 3. adopting a reflexive approach enables us to de-migranticise our research turning the role of migration and ethnicity for social networks into an empirical question rather than taking them as an essentialist starting point for investigation. While seeking to go beyond metaphors and delve into the tool box of SNA, in order to gain deeper understandings of social networks, we argue that this cannot mean purely quantitative research techniques. We draw upon the early roots of social network research, within anthropology, to find inspiration and consider the contribution of qualitative approaches to analysing dynamic social relationships and to including neglected aspects like meaning making and agency. The workshop brings together, on the one hand, speakers from our Special Issue who, using qualitative and mixed methods approaches, focus on a diverse range of geographical and social contexts. On the other hand, we include further specialists on social networks within migration studies. In so doing, the workshop offers new methodological and epistemological insights into the conceptualisation and research of migrants’ social networks.

participant

Joris Schapendonk

Radboud University

participant

Basak Bilecen

University of Bielefeld

participant

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

participant

Alessio D'Angelo

University of Nottingham

participant

Michael Eve

University of Eastern Piedmont

participant

Miranda J. Lubbers

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

participant

Matthieu Bolay

University of Neuchatel

participant

Thomas Faist

Bielefeld University

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Methodological implications of researching deportability and deportation: Session 2 The access to the "field"

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #44 workshop | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

organizer

Agnieszka Radziwinowiczówna

CMR

organizer

Ibrahim Soysüren

University of Neuchatel

Over the last two decades, the promotion of the deportation of foreigners and its extensive implementation have gone hand in hand with a growing interest in the topic among researchers in humanities, social sciences and legal studies. One of the outcomes of this interest is the term “deportation studies” (Coutin, 2015) coined and increasingly used to define research on numerous aspects of the deportation of non-citizens. One can argue that this field of inquiry is solely defined by the research topic, the deportation of foreigners, that can be defined as the “compulsory removal of ‘aliens’ from the physical, juridical and social space of the state” (Peutz and De Genova 2010:1). During this workshop we will argue that there are methodological aspects of deportation studies that make this area of inquiry distinct. They will be analysed during the three sessions of the workshop. Session 1 discusses methodological challenges related to working with various actors of the “deportation corridor” (Drotbohm and Hasselberg 2015), such as law enforcement agencies and non-governmental organisations. Papers in Session 2 analyse the access to the field: recruitment challenges and positionality of the research participants and the researchers. Session 3 discusses the methodologies of data collection: bilingual and multilingual research, longitudinal research, as well as projective and interactive techniques in deportation studies. The authors of the papers will present the methodological aspects of their own empirical research in Africa, Asia and Europe. This workshop continues discussions started in September 2020 during a seminar at the University of Wolverhampton. This is an open workshop that welcomes all the researchers interested in the topic.

participant

Susanne U. Schultz

Bielefeld University

participant

Almudena Cortés

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

participant

Alessandro Forina

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

participant

Nevena Nancheva

Kingston University

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Discrimination and racism in cross-national perspective 1: New Methods for Measuring Discrimination and Racism

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #45 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Didier Ruedin

SFM

Chair: Didier Ruedin Discussant: Nissa Finney, University of St Andrews For a long time, racism has been studied without references to discrimination and was mainly conceived as a specific expression of prejudice. The retreat from blatant forms of racism that are no longer tolerated today to more subtle and systemic forms of racism has paved the way for studies on ethnic and racial discrimination and inequalities. In response to the IMISCOE statement on structural racism and racial justice in the context of Black Lives Matter, this panel unites papers that advance new methods for measuring discrimination and racism. To date, studies about discrimination typically do not refer specifically to racism, and the methodological gains in measuring discrimination have not transferred directly to the measurement of racism. This panel will debate how far racism and ethnic and racial discrimination are distinct, how they relate to each other, and how methodologies can be combined to better capture discrimination and racism. The papers propose innovative experimental approaches, including new variants of survey experiments and list experiments. PAPER #1 Introducing a vignette experiment to study the mechanisms of ethnic discrimination on the housing market AUTHOR(S) Abel Ghekiere (Vrije Universiteit Brussel ) Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe (Vrije Universiteit Brussel ) Stijn Schelfhout, Stijn Baert (UGent) Fanny D'Hondt (UGent) ABSTRACT Ethnic discrimination on the housing market has been a subject of research for years (Flage, 2018). Recent studies prove that discrimination in the search for housing is still a prominent problem for ethnic minorities. While the field experiments, like correspondence tests, and recently mystery calls, are widespread, other alternative attempts to objectively measure mechanisms of discrimination on the housing market are scarce. In line with research on the labour market we stress that to reduce ethnic discrimination in the rental market, we need understanding in its underlying mechanisms. This is the first paper that introduces a vignette experiment in a large population to do so. With the help of a specified vignette experiment we distinguish between different forms of mechanisms behind the discriminating agent, being: (AT) agent taste-based discrimination, (CT) costumer taste-based discrimination, (NT) neighbourhood taste-based discrimination and (S) statistical discrimination. We examine whether different characteristics of clients (property owners who want to rent out their dwelling) and the neighbourhood the property is situated in change the discriminatory decisions by the real estate agent in a population of over 700 students in real estate. PAPER #2 Measuring discrimination in Europe: A comparison of recent official surveys AUTHOR(S) Berta Álvarez-Miranda (Complutense University of Madrid) Elisa Brey (Complutense University of Madrid) ABSTRACT How is discrimination operationalized in surveys? What differences are there among main questionnaires targeted at the general population and their supplements targeted at minorities? What differences are there in questions on discrimination related to race and racism and related to gender and sexism? The definition of discrimination in governmental research and policy varies widely, and its measurement is fraught with challenges. One is to measure the many and cross-cutting social traits and social realms in which a person may be discriminated. Other challenges are to combine measures of both the attitudes and behaviours of both the subjects and objects of discrimination. Another is to calibrate the fact that interviewees with higher educational status tend to perceive themselves as members of a discriminated minority more often than those with lower educational status, whom in fact run higher risks of experiencing discrimination. We aim to discuss epistemological and methodological difficulties in operationalizing discrimination based on a comparison of the following official surveys: Equality, non-discrimination and racism (2019); Special Eurobarometer Discrimination in the EU (2015); Percepción de la discriminación en España (2013); 4) National Barometer of Prejudice and Discrimination in Britain (2018); Diskriminierung in Deutschland (2015); Trajectoires et Origines (2019-2020). PAPER #3 The "fair" immigrant-native wage gap: a survey experiment AUTHOR(S) Eva Van Belle (Université de Neuchâtel) ABSTRACT The last decades have seen a surge in research on ethnic wage discrimination. These studies mostly focus on measuring the extent of wage discrimination by disentangling discrimination from other sources of wage differences (e.g. differences in human capital or language skills). While knowing the extent of wage discrimination is without a doubt important, a lot less is known about the mechanisms underlying discrimination and the attitudes of the general population concerning these inequalities. In this paper, we replicate the survey experiment published by Auspurg, Hinz and Sauer (2017) on attitudes towards the gender wage gap, by adapting it to an ethnicity-based setting. We survey people in the US and Switzerland and show them ten fictitious profiles of workers, who randomly differ in terms of gender, age, occupation and ethnic background. For each of these profiles, the gross earnings are given, and participants are asked to rate the fairness of these earnings. This experimental setting allows us to determine whether people believe that workers with an immigrant background should earn the same as natives, or whether they believe there is such a thing as a “fair” ethnic wage gap. PAPER #4 Overstating your welcome: Immigration, in-group preference and (in)tolerance in Ireland AUTHOR(S) Frances McGinnity (Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin) Mathew Creighton (UC Dublin) ABSTRACT Survey data can provide important insights on attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic and religious minorities, yet there is a concern that respondents give ‘socially desirable’ responses. This paper uses the first list experiment in Ireland fielded as part of a nationally representative Economic Sentiment Monitor to reveal the gap between what people say in public about their attitudes to minorities in Ireland, and what they say when they can anonymously express their views in a survey experiment. Newcomers to Ireland confront a context of reception shaped by large-scale historical emigration and more recent immigration. The latter is defined by an increasingly diverse set of origin contexts both within and outside the EU. Drawing on social identity theory, we ask to what extent are attitudes toward immigrants – defined by EU-origin, race and religion – selectively expressed? By comparing direct questions with list responses, results show that support for Black or Polish immigrants is overstated when expressed overtly. In contrast, overt and covert sentiment toward Muslim immigrants does not differ. Support for immigration framed by race and/or linked to the EU is overstated, but religion, Islam, is afforded no such protection in Ireland. We suggest that religion triggers antipathy rooted in a socio-cultural in-group preference that is more easily expressed overtly.

author

Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe

University of Ghent

discussant

Nissa Finney

University of St Andrews

author

Abel Ghekiere

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Stijn Schelfhout

UGent

author

Fanny D'hondt

Ghent University

author

Berta Alvarez-Miranda

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

author

Elisa Brey

Complutense University of Madrid

author

Eva Van Belle

NCCR - on the move

author

Fran McGinnity

Economic and social Research Institute

author

Mathew J Creighton

University College Dublin

author

Stijn Baert

UGent

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Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 2

Wed July 7, 15:45 - 17:15, Session #46 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Vinod Sartape

Central European University

Everyday Regulations and Syrian Refugees’ Encounters with Regulatory State Authorities in Turkey Ezgi Irgil The University of Gothenburg When the policies implemented on refugees are categorised as restrictive by researchers or policy-makers, do refugees also perceive the regulations as restrictive or do they have other input as well? Despite a vast literature on refugee policy analysis in the literature, it lacks addressing refugees’ perspectives in implemented policies. Moreover, while these policies focus on border controls, reception-protection, and integration in which regulation of everyday life in the neighbourhood is rarely addressed. Thus, I ask how refugees experience regulatory local state authority in their everyday lives. Contributing and expanding the refugee governance literature, I develop the concept of everyday regulations in which regulatory state authorities adopt practices to manage, organise, and control daily lives of refugees in neighbourhood spaces. Consequently, I argue that refugees demonstrate acceptable and reprehensible reflections depending on the objectives and implementation on the on everyday regulations. I support my argument with empirical analysis based on the forty semi-structured interviews with Syrian store owners and Syrians working in stores owned by Syrians in the city of Bursa that I conducted during September and October 2019. === Signs for All: A Linguistic Landscape Analysis of Covid-19 Messaging in Hackney (London) Erika Kalocsanyiova Institute for Lifecourse Development, University of Greenwich Ryan Essex Institute for Lifecourse Development, University of Greenwich This paper looks at how public health advice and guidance on Covid-19 manifested itself through public signage in six inner-city areas of Hackney, London. Lessons learned from recent public health crises suggest that acceptance of public health messaging partly depends on meeting the specific communication needs of all populations, including migrant and minority ethnic groups. Evidence is emerging that the Covid-19 pandemic is disproportionately affecting people from black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) communities. This raises new questions about the need for targeted communications, particularly in areas like Hackney where 39% of residents are foreign born and over 45% of population is made up of multi-ethnic or BAME communities. In May 2020, Hackney ranked third among the regions worst hit by the pandemic in England with an age-standardised mortality rate of 127.4 deaths linked to Covid-19 per 100,000 residents. The data for this paper comprises 1200+ signs photographed between May and July 2020 in six Hackney neighbourhoods with different levels of deprivation. Data was collected in three phases to document the linguistic landscape of the lockdown, through the easing of restrictions, to the reopening of society. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to investigate the presence and prevalence of communications aimed at BAME communities and other vulnerable groups. Drawing on this empirical work and the review of relevant research in the field of health and risk communication, this contribution will direct attention to the lack of targeted messaging during the first wave of the pandemic. It will also show how public signage around Covid-19 evolved and responded, or failed to respond, to changing conditions and needs as the crisis unfolded. In doing so, this paper advances knowledge about the role of public signage in effective health communication, especially in deprived inner-city neighbourhoods with high proportions of immigrant residents. === Young people with Muslim background creating healing dialogues Helena Oikarinen-Jabai Aalto-University In my presentation I will discuss the exhibition Numur - I and Islam, which was organized as part of a participatory research project Young Muslims and Resilience (2016-2018, University of Helsinki). In the art exhibition eighteen young adult participants/co-researchers with a Muslim background participated in researching their relationship to Islam by creating art productions based on their sense of belonging and resilience. Interestingly, many participants stated that they leaned on Sufism or esoteric Muslim practices in their working processes and expressed their approach also in their productions. In their art works the participants initiated multiple ways to approach belonging, tradition and the knowledge that being in between different cultural, religious, gender and other normative positions enabled them to explore. Referring on spirituality and Sufism helped them to present narratives and stories in which they could challenge the dogmatic ideas of religion, reconstruct their personal relationship with Islam and create fresh ideas related to their familiar (concrete and abstract) spaces and sense of belonging. I think that their approaches and ideas can also be traced to our common philosophical heritage, which is partly based on the spirituality and practices of different religions. By using art, the participants could embody this legacy, create spaces for themselves and open landscapes for discussions between Muslim believers and people with different religions and worldviews. In this way they were pioneers and creators of healing encounters and dialogues needed in our time and in the future. === Breaking the dichotomy: intercultural conviviality in high diversity Chilean neighbourhoods Mauricio Urrutia Varela LSE In an unprecedented immigration context, this dissertation addresses an overlooked topic: intercultural conviviality among migrants. Analysing the “Neighbourhood conviviality and interculturality in high diversity neighbourhoods” survey applied in 2019, the aim is to break the tendency to analyse the migratory phenomenon from the “Chilean - immigrant” dichotomy. By answering “what are the problems of conviviality - if any - between migrants in high diverse neighbourhoods” and subsequently analysing how migrants characterise their relationships of conviviality, this dissertation aims to shed light to the broader discussion of Chileans – immigrants conflict perception. After analysing policy context and drawing from conviviality literature, the results show that differences appear in some indicators between countries from “older” and “recent” waves of migration. Also, that neighbourhood has an essential role in the trajectory of migrants as their responses can vary significantly from one neighbourhood to another. Overall, no considerable evidence of conviviality issues is found for the five larger communities in high diversity neighbourhoods and relationships tend to characterise as cordial and respectful. Besides, cosmopolitanism and civility attitudes are observed, which are related to, and enable intercultural convivial relations. Lastly, it is concluded that conflict perception between Chileans and immigrants would be more related to a threat perception for public service use and labour competition rather than nationals - immigrants conviviality issues (as already documented) and significant conviviality issues amongst immigrants.

author

Erika Kalocsanyiova

University of Greenwich

author

Ezgi Irgil

University of Gothenburg

author

Helena Oikarinen-Jabai

Aalto-University

author

Mauricio Urrutia

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