Sessions

Living as ethnic minorities: characteristics, attitudes and behaviours of people without a migration background that have become a minority

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #47 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Marina Lazëri

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

chair

Kim Knipprath

VU Amsterdam

In this panel, we present outcomes of the Becoming a Minority (BaM) comparative research project. BaM addresses an increasingly relevant social phenomenon: people without a migration background becoming a minority in a number of major European cities, while remaining the national minority. In the overall project, we investigate how these people without a migration background react to becoming an ethnic minority in six European cities through survey data and qualitative interviews. In this panel, senior and junior researchers present the first results of the BaM survey, demonstrating how people without a migration background live as minorities and their attitudes and behaviours within this setting across the different cities. We show how people understand and react to their numerical minority position by identifying the characteristics of those that actually feel like a minority. We further investigate how being a minority reflects on people’s attitudes toward ethnic diversity, and how these attitudes are reflected (or not) in behaviour. We open with a presentation showing that most people without a migration background in a majority-minority context don’t actually feel like a minority, and we explore the characteristics of those that do. We subsequently look at how people without a migration background who live in and engage with diversity view different groups of migrants depending on the spaces where this engagement takes place. We continue with a presentation on identifying patterns of reactions to becoming a minority and how attitudes and behaviours are (mis)matched in these reactions. We close off with a presentation zooming in on the attitudes and behaviours of those who have become an ethnic minority locally and whose partners have a migration background. The presentation aims to investigate whether this additional condition affects how this specific group without a migration background relates to diversity. PAPER #1 Local minority, national majority: Characteristics of people without a migration background that feel like a minority in five European cities AUTHOR(S) Marina Lazëri (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) ABSTRACT In many cities in Western Europe inhabitants without a migration background have become a local minority group among many others in so-called majority-minority neighbourhoods. These inhabitants remain the numerical and cultural majority in their respective countries as a whole. Being a (local) numerical minority does not automatically mean experiencing one’s position as that of a minority, a position related not only to the numerical representation of a group, but also to the group’s experience of (lower) status within society. Using a Social Identity Theory framework, I investigate under which conditions people without a migration background across five cities feel like a local minority while they remain a national majority. The results show only a minority of respondents who live in majority-minority neighborhoods actually feel like a minority. They tend to perceive a larger outgroup size in their surroundings, feel socially marginalized, and have a more exclusive understanding of national identity. Thus, people without a migration background who feel like a minority see the ingroup as a truer reflection of the national community and perceive societal status loss of the ingroup. PAPER #2 How does Exposure to Diversity in Different Urban Spaces affect Perceptions of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity AUTHOR(S) Kim Knipprath (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) Maurice Crul (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) Xuechunzi Bai (Princeton University) Susan T. Fiske (Princeton University) ABSTRACT Recent migration research is increasingly shifting attention to cities and neighborhoods as the key sites of migration-related diversity. Differences in lifestyle, class, ethnicity, or religion become visible in urban localities such as neighborhood bars, shops or cafes. The city and its neighborhoods, thus, are important for understanding how people perceive an increasingly diversifying urban population. In this paper, we focus on the perceptions of those without migration background who are increasingly becoming a numerical minority within today’s global cities. Some scholars argue that amongst those without a migration background, urban diversity could facilitate excessive stereotyping of those with migration background as well as exaggerated perceived cultural and ethnic difference. Other scholars argue that urban diversity could lead to the blurring of group stereotypes and the reduction of perceived differences. Drawing on social cognition and human geography research, we test a theoretical model to explain when and to what extent people cognitively distinguish or generalize across different migrant groups. We argue that cognitive representations of migrant groups are not only shaped by group-based mechanisms but also by spatial mechanisms. That is, the way groups are perceived also depends on the particular urban space in which people encounter each other. Using an urban space typology, we distinguish between public spaces, consumption spaces, institutional spaces and socialization spaces. We hypothesize that these four different urban spaces differentially impact cognitive representations of different migrant groups. We use the Becoming a Minority survey data collected across six cities and 2400 respondents to test our hypotheses. PAPER #3 Reactions of Europeans without a migration background to being an ethnic minority AUTHOR(S) Lisa-Marie Kraus (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Previous research concerned with reactions of ethnic majority members to becoming a minority has consistently predicted negative responses to this anticipated demographic shift. Based on data collected in five European majority-minority cities, that is cities where no ethnic majority exists, I found that in actual majority-minority settings negative reactions are not the norm. In this article, I developed an empirically grounded typology of reaction patterns to being an ethnic minority. Five distinct reactions to being a minority emerged in the sample: (i) segregated enthusiasts (high appreciation of diversity with little inter-ethnic contact), (ii) moderates (average appreciation and inter-ethnic contact), (iii) integrated enthusiasts (high appreciation of diversity with a lot of inter-ethnic contact), (iv) segregated sceptics (low appreciation of diversity with little inter-ethnic contact) and (v) integrated sceptics (low appreciation of diversity with a lot of inter-ethnic contact). Remarkably, most Europeans without a migration background have positive attitudes to living in contexts where they are an ethnic minority. I further explain why some people without a migration background are more open to embrace majority-minority developments than others by scrutinizing the role of socio-economic status, previous exposure to diversity and feeling like a minority. PAPER #4 How does having a partner from another ethnic background influence the diversity attitudes and practices of people without migration background? AUTHOR(S) Miri Song (University of Kent) Maurice Crul (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) Frans Lelie (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Intermarriage has been an important topic in the field of migration and ethnic studies in relation to the academic debate on integration. In this paper we will explore an avenue that is, so far, hardly researched. Where most of the research has looked at the partner with a migration background in an interethnic relationship, we will look at the partner without migration background. The Becoming a Minority (BaM) project looks at the lives of people without a migration background living in ethnically diverse neighborhoods where everybody belongs to a minority now. Making use of the data set of the international BaM Survey which was caried out in majority minority neighborhoods in six European cities, we explore how BaM survey respondents who are in a mixed union differ – or not – in their practices and attitudes towards ethnic diversity. Though they would seem a key group in understanding people’s reaction to diversity, so far little research has been done on how the partners without a migration background are influenced by being in a mixed relationship. They find that people in a union with someone with a migration background are much more open towards cultural diversity, have a much more mixed social circle, and much more often regard migrants as contributing to the countries’ economic wealth. Since almost one in three of the BaM respondents with a partner is in a mixed union, their influence on the general climate in these neighborhoods and cities should not be underestimated.

author

Miri Song

University of Kent

discussant

Alireza Behtoui

Stockholm University

discussant

Paulina Pankowska

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

author

Maurice Crul

Vrije Universiteite

author

Xuechunzi Bai

Princeton University

author

Susan T Fiske

Princeton University

author

Lisa-Marie Kraus

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

author

Frans Lelie

State policies, migrant work and COVID-19: migrant perceptions and positions

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #48 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and the labour market in Europe

chair

Rinus Penninx

University of Amsterdam

chair

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

The Standing Committee on Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe (IILME) proposes two panels on policies, migrant workers and COVID-19 for the 2021 Luxembourg annual conference. We have seen for some years the tensions between state policies to stop refugees from reaching the shores of Europe and policies to enhance labour mobility and migration. And in this ‘time of migration’ (Castles and Miller 1993), the COVID-19 pandemic breaks out, plainly revealing that mobility and migration form a vital source of labour within our societies today. Where borders close and new borders are set up in attempts to prevent the virus from spreading, mobility and migration of labour within and across state lines is both restricted and enhanced. When air traffic came to an almost complete stop over the world, the Austrian government arranged to fly in migrant care workers nonetheless. Despite lockdowns, an air bridge between Germany and Rumania was established, so that Rumanian workers could be flown in for the German asparagus harvest. These are some of many examples where policies accommodate the persistent market demand for migrants as an essential source of labour. How (non)existing, emerging, changing or conflicting state policies and regulations in times of and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic shape labour market opportunities and conditions for migrant work in European labour markets is subject to our two panels. In this second panel, we look at the impact of policies and regulations in times of COVID-19 on the experiences and position of migrant workers and pensioners in the Czech Republic, Finland, the Netherlands and Spain, taking the migrants’ perspective centre stage. PAPER #1 Labour migration in the Czech Republic during COVID-19: between agency and vulnerabilities AUTHOR(S) Olga Gheorghiev (Charles University Prague) ABSTRACT Drawing on extensive empirical evidence as part of the European Research Project SIRIUS, this contribution explores barriers and opportunities faced by economic migrants in the Czech Republic during the COVID-19 pandemic. By taking the MRAs perspectives as fundamental, foregrounding their agency, critical skills, and capacity to ascribe meaning to their actions and experiences. As soon as the state of emergency was declared in the Czech Republic in March, as an attempt to contain the spread of COVID-19, the NGOs focusing on migration issues in the Czech Republic started to register an increasing number of inquiries from MRAs unsure of how the restrictive measures would affect their employment and legal status. Based on the information systematically released by the Consortium of NGOs working on migration, interviews with their representatives, social partners and migrants themselves, significant barriers that migrants faced during this time in the Czech Republic came to light. Although most barriers existed well before the crisis, the pandemic and the governmental measures meant to contain it have significantly exacerbated their effect. At the time, when governmental measures aggravated the situations of precarity that many migrants already faced, a new brand of labour activism developed, characterised by protests and even hunger strikes against employers and recruitment agencies that failed to pay foreign workers their wages. Although small in scale, these disruptive practices were based on effective strategies, opened new possibility of action against structural barriers and contributed to a progressive emergence of new socio-political identities among migrants in the Czech Republic PAPER #2 The Impacts of the Covid-19 Crisis on the Labour Market Integration of Migrants, Refugees, and Asylum Applicants in Finland AUTHOR(S) Muhammed Abdulai (Tallinn University) Quivine Ndomo (University of Jyväskylä) Ilona Bontenbal (University of Jyväskylä) Nathan Lillie (University of Jyväskylä) ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted Finland and several other countries to issue lockdown orders. This resulted in closure of many companies and workplaces, thereby resulting in massive job loss among natives and migrants in Finland. This study adopts a biographical narrative approach to assess the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the labour market experiences of migrants in Finland. In general, migrants in Finland, occupy more precarious positions than natives and are often relegated to ethnicized labour market segments. One might therefore expect them to suffer more than native born Finns from COVID-19 related job losses. On the other hand, the impact of COVID-19 is very different across sectors. We therefore look at sectors with a high level of migrant presence: care, agriculture, cleaning and food services. Workers’ vulnerability manifests in different ways depending on how public health measures and job losses have been distributed. For example, workers with permanent contracts were sometimes unaffected by the loss of work. Food delivery workers report receiving increased workloads, income, and stress, despite the mass shutdown of the restaurant of the industry, while new, admittedly not very desirable, opportunities appeared in agriculture due to restrictions on inward migration. Unlike a typical economic crisis, the impact of COVID 19 crisis on migrant work cannot be easily derived from a traditional analysis of labour market segmentation and ethnicized hierarchies, but is highly contingent on specific factors related to the nature of the disease and the measures taken against it. PAPER #3 Essential, but Precarious Work: Covid-19 and Perceived Employability in the Dutch Logistics Sector AUTHOR(S) Kornélia Anna Kerti (Tilburg University) Brigitte Kroon, Assistant Professor at Tilburg University Charissa Freese, Endowed Professor at Tilburg University Marloes Van Engen Associate Professor at Nyenrode Business School, Assistant Professor at Tilburg University Inge Bleijenbergh, Associate Professor at Radboud University ABSTRACT The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted the precarious working conditions of European migrant workers in Western Europe. Previous research indicated that Covid-19 can be seen as a career shock (Akkermans et al., 2020), defined as a disruptive and extraordinary event that is, at least to some degree, caused by factors outside the focal individual's control and that triggers a deliberate thought process concerning one's career (Akkermans et al., 2018, p. 4). The effects of Covid-19 are thus contingent on the personal, contextual and time dimensions of one’s career (De Vos et al., 2018). As migrants suffer from resource loss cycles and job insecurity, Covid-19 can have important implications for their working conditions and perceived employability (De Vos et al., 2018). This study explores the effects of Covid-19 on the working conditions and perceived employability of Hungarian migrant workers in the Dutch logistics sector. As part of a longitudinal qualitative research design, 10 phenomenological interviews were conducted with Hungarian migrant workers before and after the outbreak of Covid-19. The findings indicate that the extent to which Covid-19 can been seen as a career shock for Hungarian migrant workers is resource-dependent. On the one hand, those equipped with employability skills, such as higher levels of education, language skills and experiences in the Dutch labour market, are able to successfully manage their careers during the pandemic. On the other hand, those with limited resources experience increased working hours and overtime, extended periods of unemployment, and transitions to different sector in their career path. PAPER #4 From privileged retirement to life-threating isolation: An ethnographic study of old age “expatriates” in Spain during the COVID pandemic AUTHOR(S) Olga Jubany (University of Barcelona) Emma Fàbrega Domènech (University of Barcelona) ABSTRACT For retirees, the end of the working life is perceived as a period of freedom in which one can reap the rewards of hard work leading to the “privileged” lifestyle phenomena of retirement migration (O’Reilly, 2000). However, the complexities of the reconstruction of a working life as a retirement life is too often overlooked in labour studies, and the implications of these large collectives as migrants is lacking in academic debate. Both of these absences contribute to the invisibility of retired people in migration processes. The omission of this reality has become particularly relevant in the COVID-19 health crisis, which has had a dramatic impact on this large collective of retirees, as old age qualifies them as an “at risk” group. In this context, old age and health is problematized throughout social policy, as is the so-called “privileged mobility”, not only between countries but also within them. In this way, COVID-19 has brought to the forefront the impact of critical categories such as old age, labour/retirement, health and so called “privileged migration”. This case study analyses the intersection between these critical categories. Building on a two-year ethnographic investigation of British “expatriate” retiree communities in the Costa del Sol, Malaga, and the Costa Brava, Catalonia, the paper reveals the dramatic effects their invisibility has had in terms of mobility considerations, and social policy implications. The paper argues how old-age, mobility and health are actively paying the “cost of invisibility” when the long-awaited retirement-life plan gets upturned by a global health crisis.

discussant

Stefania Marino

Manchester Business School

discussant

Lisa Berntsen

Tilburg University

author

Olga Gheorghiev

Charles University in Prague

author

Muhammed Abdulai

Tallinn University

author

Quivine Ndomo

University of Jyväskylä

author

Ilona Bontenbal

University of Jyväskylä

author

Nathan Lillie

author

Kornelia Anna Kerti

Tilburg University

author

Olga Jubany

Universitat de Barcelona

author

Emma Fàbrega

Universitat de Barcelona

Welcoming Spaces: Opportunities and challenges for newcomers in shrinking areas

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #49 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

chair

PIERLUIGI MUSARO

University of Bologna

chair

Maggi Leung

Utrecht University

Maggi Leung | Utrecht University chair PIERLUIGI MUSARO | University of Bologna chair Melissa Moralli | University of Bologna discussant Karin Geuijen | Utrecht University, School of Governance discussant Current migration scholarship documents on restrictive migration policies and repressive measures against newcomers. At the same time, scholars also noted a proliferation of initiatives and NGOs aimed at hosting newcomers, (co-)creating ‘welcoming spaces’ with citizen, local governments, NGOs, businesses, or migrant themselves. Because of their attempt to challenging ‘anti-migration’ policies and discourses, such initiatives are often highly contested. Their success seems to depend on combinations of collective action, multi-stakeholder collaboration and institutional innovations. However, given the local scale of most of these initiatives, the dispersion in space and political sensitivity, much of what is happening around these ‘welcoming spaces’ remains under the radar. Further, such initiatives are well documented in large metropolitan areas. This session focuses instead on the development of the welcoming capacity of smaller cities, towns, villages, located in ‘shrinking regions’ that are undergoing demographic and economic decline. We intend to focus on the evolution of policies or/and social and physical infrastructures supporting ‘welcoming spaces’. How do ‘welcoming spaces’ appear and evolve? Is there any basis for upscaling? Have some categorical differences (of age, gender, status, etc.) become more or less relevant in shaping these ‘welcoming spaces’? Finally, does inclusive and sustainable development of shrinking improve hospitality of newcomers and increase opportunities for migrants to build meaningful lives? PAPER #1 Against the anti-migration political tendencies. Shrinking regions in Poland as new welcoming spaces for non-EU migrants AUTHOR(S) Justyna Szałańska (SGH Warsaw School of Economics) Marta Pachocka (SGH Warsaw School of Economics) Paweł Kubicki (SGH Warsaw School of Economics) ABSTRACT Despite the anti-migration sentiment of the Polish government of the Law and Justice party since late 2015 and the lack of a general migration and integration strategy at the national level, the pro-immigration actions and practices have been implemented by some actors filling the policy vacuum in this way. The afore-mentioned actors include local governments, NGOs, religious organisations and individuals from both receiving society and migrant communities. Within this context we will further examine the situation of selected small municipalities in Poland defined as shrinking regions with respect to welcoming non-EU migrants. In Poland, the relation between shrinking regions and migration is twofold. On the one hand, poor job opportunities in shrinking regions (in particular, it applies to rural areas and some municipalities) cause internal outmigration and population decline. On the other hand, identified shrinking regions: Podlaskie and Lubelskie Voivodeships, by bordering with Ukraine and Belarus, attract immigrants from the mentioned neighbouring (third) countries. In addition, geographical dispersion of centres for asylum seekers in the discussed voivodeships makes forced migrants stay in these regions, either temporary for the duration of the asylum procedure or permanently, if they decide to settle down in the region. Our paper aims to present early findings from the Welcoming Spaces project, namely mapping non-EU migrants in selected shrinking areas in Poland. We focus on two research questions: who are the migrants coming and settling in the selected shrinking municipalities and what types of programmes and initiatives welcome them there. The paper is based on secondary data (in particular statistical and registrar data) and preliminary findings from the fieldwork. PAPER #2 Welcoming initiatives: social participation of newcomers and social-ecological sustainability AUTHOR(S) Laura Foelske (University of Siegen) ABSTRACT Building on the assumption of the EU-research project Welcoming Spaces, I pursue the thesis that non-EU newcomers can contribute to the revitalization of shrinking regions. Studies show that participation in the labor market (economic viability) and in social life (social well-being) is eminent for the retention of newcomers in German shrinking regions. In Germany, this is often understood as “social participation”. Since welcoming initiatives are understood as organizations, the research focuses on organizations that aim the social participation of newcomers (labor market and social life) and social-ecological sustainability. Organizations should aim socially and ecologically sustainability for two reasons. First, social sustainably, because this means they aim to bring newcomers into “quality jobs” (includes social security, health and safety laws, protection against dismissal and so on). Secondly, ecologically sustainable, because this means they aim to achieve climate goals (stop climate change) and invest in green future-oriented companies, which will make the region economically competitive. Examples of such organizations are labor market integration services, that bring newcomers into green jobs (ecotourism, social agriculture). In Germany, these initiatives are either run by the public or private sector. These organizations participate in governance processes, network on different levels and aim social participation of newcomers and social-ecological sustainability. In my research project, I will explore these types of organizations and their networks from a sociological and social work perspective, investigating the following research questions: How do social-ecological welcoming initiatives organized and create welcoming spaces to promote the social participation (into the labor market and social life) of newcomers? PAPER #3 Exploring welcoming spaces in Europe: a narrative approach AUTHOR(S) Maurizio Bergamaschi (University of Bologna) Alice Lomonaco (University of Bologna) Paola Parmiggiani (University of Bologna) ABSTRACT Nowadays, the number of examples of ‘welcoming spaces’ for migrants – refugees and other migrant groups – in ‘shrinking regions’ that are undergoing demographic and economic decline in Europe is growing. Such initiatives are often citizen-driven but can equally be the outcome of initiatives by local governments, NGOs, businesses, or they can be migrant-initiated. Going against ‘anti-migration’ currents, most initiatives are often highly contested. Their success seems to depend on combinations of collective action, multi-stakeholder collaboration and institutional innovations. Given the local scale of most of these initiatives, the dispersion in space and political sensitivity, much of what is happening around these ‘welcoming spaces’ remains under the radar. The possibilities for upscaling such initiatives are hence under-explored. Drawing upon these premises, this paper aims at presenting the first phases of a research project which investigates and supports practices and processes of revitalisation and sustainable development in shrinking areas, achieved while providing opportunities for newcomers. Underling both limits and opportunities, the paper will present some of the initial results of the new Horizon 2020 project “WELCOMING SPACES”, with a specific focus on the link between narratives, representations and actions, and how these dynamics can lead to local development processes. In particularly, this explorative analysis will show the processes of de-construction, re-construction and enactment of alternative narratives concerning migration, while also promoting social inclusion and sustainable development. PAPER #4 Welcoming Spaces and Sustainable Development: migrant-oriented welcoming and social inclusion initiatives in Galicia (Spain) AUTHOR(S) Leticia Santaballa (ESOMI, University of A Coruña) Laura Oso (ESOMI, University of A Coruña) ABSTRACT Galicia is one of the Spanish regions most severely affected by shrinking, due in part to the mass migration of Spaniards to Latin America and Europe during the 19th and early 20th centuries. During the 1990s, the region began to receive immigrants: on the one hand, Galician descendants (mainly from Latin America) and, on the other hand, immigrants with no previous connections to Galician emigration. In recent years, the rural municipality of Celanova has received kind of immigration that could be described as a “return to the roots”, arriving mainly from Venezuela, a trend that resulted in a series of welcoming initiatives. However, “retaining” these new residents of Galician origin has proved to be a more complex matter. In turn, Burela stands out for its reception of migrants from Cape Verde, drawn initially by the demand for workers in the thriving building and fishing industries. This borough stood out for of its use of Welcoming initiatives, although in recent years, there has been an apparent deterioration in intercultural coexistence and higher levels of segregation among the migrant-origin population. This paper, through the results of a qualitative fieldwork (semi-structured in-depth interviews carried out in these two municipalities compares the reception initiatives targeting the migrant population (returned and non-EU-country nationals), and reflects on their impact on social inclusion and sustainable local development, assessing the underlying factors for the success or failure of Welcoming initiatives. PAPER #5 Welcoming Spaces for Whom? Developing Intersectional Approaches to Studying Bottom-up Initiatives for and by Migrant Newcomers in Rural and Shrinking areas AUTHOR(S) Jana Finke (Utrecht University) ABSTRACT The particular challenges faced by migrant newcomers in shrinking areas in the Netherlands and other countries, may range from (forced) physical displacement, the absence of specialized services and education, a lack of (migrant) networks and employment, to xenophobia. Those particular challenges are intricately linked to wider national and international inequalities, resulting from spatial downscaling, which affect all inhabitants of shrinking areas (Glick-Schiller & Çağlar 2011, 2016). This presentation proposes theoretical perspectives and empirical examples to illustrate how different spatial and social inequalities intersect in shaping life in shrinking areas, and may be tackled simultaneously in bottom-up initiatives for and by migrant newcomers. Who feels welcome in spaces that arise from such initiatives? How can we analyse their potential and limitations in tackling inequalities faced by migrant newcomers in particular, and inhabitants of shrinking areas more broadly? Transcending divides between the literature on shrinkage, regeneration, and migration, this presentation proposes an intersectional approach (Crenshaw, 1989) that considers the interaction of the spatial axis of shrinkage, with social axes like migration history, legal status, ethnicity/racialization, gender, social class and age (see Amelina & Lutz, 2018). It engages with critical perspectives on de-migranticization (Dahinden, 2016) and transnationalism (Amelina & Lutz, 2018). The conceptual approach will be illustrated by empirical examples of bottom-up initiatives for and by migrant newcomers from shrinking areas in the Netherlands. The focus lies on initiatives that give rise to welcoming spaces which foster social connection, collective learning & education, and political agency of inhabitants with and without migration background.

discussant

Karin Geuijen

Utrecht University, School of Governance

discussant

Melissa Moralli

author

Justyna Szalanska

SGH Warsaw School of Economics

author

Marta Pachocka

Warsaw School of Economics

author

Paweł Kubicki

SGH Warsaw School of Economics

author

Laura Foelske

University of Siegen

author

Maurizio Bergamaschi

University of Bologna

author

Alice Lomonaco

University of Bologna

author

Paola Parmiggiani

University of Bologna

author

Leticia Santaballa

ESOMI, University of A Coruña

author

Laura Oso

ESOMI

author

Jana Finke

Utrecht University

Multi-method approaches in migration scenarios

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #50 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Carsten Keßler

Aalborg University Copenhagen, Department of Planning

chair

Karolina Sobczak-Szelc

Current migration research builds on a wide range of methods, particularly when it comes to scenario-based research exploring future migration. This panel will discuss the challenges of combining and meaningfully integrating methods as diverse as interview-based case studies, demographic cohort-component projection methods, work with novel data sources (e.g. social media), Delphi studies, and methods based on machine learning. It will address the challenges of such multi-method approaches in migration research based on our work in the H2020-funded Future Migration Scenarios for Europe (FUME) project. FUME focuses on understanding the patterns of migration at multiple levels, from the international over the national and regional to the local level, and employs a range of methods to this end. The panel will feature 5 papers presenting different methods applied, and, in some cases, even developed in FUME. The presentations will focus on the challenges of integrating the results from other methods as input and delivering outputs that are useful for colleagues further down the workflow, who often use other methods yet again. A thorough discussion of the pitfalls of such transdisciplinary mixed-methods work, which often also faces challenges regarding the languages and practices in different disciplines as well as ethics issues, will help both the FUME project team and other researchers working in similar settings to advance our understanding of combining and integrating multiple methods in migration research. PAPER #1 The contribution of origin country case studies to the formulation of future migration scenarios AUTHOR(S) Karolina Sobczak-Szelc (University of Warsaw Centre of Migration Research) Lanciné Eric Nestor Diop (Department of Politics and Society, Aalborg University) Stefano degli Uberti (Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies, Italian National Research Council) Konrad Pędziwiatr (Cracow University of Economics) ABSTRACT Among migration scholars there is an increasing demand for models enabling to establish migration scenarios providing ‘reliable numbers’ on future migrants to Europe. Models need to take into account different contextual factors such as culture, economy, environment, as well as motives, aspirations and intentions of potential migrants at regional and local levels in countries of origin. Based on the experience of the four case studies of the FUME project (Iraq, Senegal, Tunisia and Ukraine) that provide the qualitative contribution to overall project objective of understanding present migration patterns to formulate future migration scenarios, the paper aims at discussing the issues at stake and the strategies adopted to address this gap. We introduce the components of the methodological approach (including on-line and field research methods) and how each step of the analysis is conceived to fuel the next stage of the research aimed at exploring the migration decision-making processes of the potential migrants. The greatest methodological challenge is to design a common modus operandi that allows to cast light on the socio-cultural, economic, political, environmental and personal factors, that influence the individual and collective aspirations and decisions of prospective migrants. The key research questions are: A) How to advance understanding of possible future migration trends through qualitative methodological and analytical approaches? B) What does it mean methodically to pursue a migration decision-making approach in order to envision the future international migration patterns for Europe? C) What opportunities and challenges exist in terms of knowledge sharing, and integration of qualitative evidences and results, in a mixed methods migration research project? PAPER #2 Integrating expert opinions and data to estimate and forecast international migration AUTHOR(S) Arkadiusz Wiśniowski (Department of Social Statistics, The University of Manchester) Ji Hye Kim (Department of Social Statistics, The University of Manchester) ABSTRACT Migration scenario-based projections and probabilistic forecasts are typically driven by either data, or expert opinion. Relatively few approaches integrate the two sources of information. Migration data provide evidence of ranges and variability of the phenomenon in the past and may thus be useful in assessing the unknown (current and future) levels and uncertainty of migration. However, it is well acknowledged in the literature that migration data are often inadequate, incomplete or entirely missing. Therefore, expert opinion, which typically is used to assess the future levels of migration, can be used to provide information about the inadequacies of the data, plausibility of scenarios and narratives, and assessing detailed characteristics of migration. In this study, we review and evaluate the recent approaches of integrating international migration data and expert opinions that have been obtained by using a Delphi survey. The Delphi method permits eliciting and refining group judgements. It has three main features: 1) anonymous responses, 2) iterations and controlled feedback, and 3) aggregated response. It helps to reduce bias due to an individual’s dominance and may allow varying opinions of experts from different fields to converge. We also present the Delphi approach on eliciting information on importance of migration drivers, as well as its skills and gender composition in the next 10 years, from the European Union policymakers’ perspective. We propose how this information can be incorporated in projecting future migration and population. PAPER #3 Global bilateral migration projections accounting for diasporas, transit and return flows, and poverty constraints AUTHOR(S) Jacob Schewe (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research) Albano Rikani (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research) Lucas Kluge (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research) ABSTRACT Anticipating changes in international migration patterns is useful for demographic studies and for designing policies that support the well-being of those involved. Existing forecasting methods do not account for a number of stylized facts that emerge from large-scale migration observations and theories: existing migrant communities – diasporas – act to lower migration costs and thereby provide a mechanism of self-amplification; return migration and transit migration are important components of global migration flows; and poverty constrains emigration. Here we present hindcasts and future projections of international migration that explicitly account for these non-linear features. We develop a dynamic model that simulates migration flows by origin, destination, and place of birth. We calibrate the model using recently constructed global datasets of bilateral migration. We show that the model reproduces past patterns and trends well based only on initial migrant stocks and changes in national incomes. We then project migration flows under future scenarios of global socio-economic development. Different assumptions about income levels and between-country inequality lead to markedly different migration trajectories, with migration flows either converging towards net zero if incomes in presently poor countries catch up with the rest of the world; or remaining high or even rising throughout the 21st century if economic development is slower and more unequal. Importantly, diasporas induce significant inertia and sizeable return migration flows. Our simulation model provides a versatile tool for assessing the impacts of different socio-economic futures on international migration, accounting for important non-linearities in migration drivers and flows. PAPER #4 The impact of future migration on European cities: a strategy of downscaling migration scenarios to the local level AUTHOR(S) Petra de Jong (Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute) ABSTRACT As international migration has major implications for societies and economies, forward looking analyses of migration are valuable tools for many domains of policy making. Over the past decades, scenario methodologies therefore have been increasingly applied to describe possible developments regarding the future of migration. Existing migration scenarios have typically focused on global challenges in the demographic, economic, political and environmental domain and the impact these challenges might have on migration flows between world regions or countries. However, small-scale local knowledge on migration is essential to avoid misleading results associated with the limitations arising from the use of global or national patterns only. In other words, migration scenarios need to be ‘downscaled’ for more realistic projections of migrant flows and its impacts on future populations. To address this issue, this study aims to explore new ways to translate migration scenarios at the global or national level into local settlement patterns of migrants. The study investigates how migrant movement patterns in metropolitan areas of European cities (Copenhagen, Krakow, Amsterdam and Rome) might evolve under different scenarios relating to potential demographic, socio-economic, political and environmental challenges. By making regional migration projections for a number of core receiving cities, the study contributes to our knowledge on how local-level drivers of migration may shape the spatial distribution of migrants in the future, and how this may affect the social cohesion in the receiving cities. With this exercise, we aim for a better understanding of the patterns, motivations and modalities of migration at multiple geographical scales.

discussant

Tuba Bircan

Interface Demography (DEMO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Lancine Eric Diop

Politics and Society, Aalborg University

author

Stefano degli Uberti

National Research Council (Italy)

author

Konrad Pędziwiatr

Centre of Migration Research

author

Arkadiusz Wiśniowski

University of Manchester

author

Ji Hye Kim

Department of Social Statistics, The University of Manchester

author

Jacob Schewe

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

author

Albano Rikani

Potsdam Institute for climate impact research

author

Lucas Kluge

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

author

Petra de Jong

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

Experiences of Discrimination and Exclusion in Austrian Schools – Perspectives of Pupils and Refugee Teachers

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #51 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Michelle Proyer

University of Vienna

Since Melisa Erkurt’s bestselling book „Generation Haram“ (2020), the topic of inequalities and segregation in the Austrian school system and the experiences of the so-called „educational losers“ made its way into mainstream media. The need for more diversity among teachers, especially migrant and refugee teachers, becomes more and more obvious. Yet, refugee teachers in spite of their language proficiency, work experience and university degrees are faced with immense obstacles when trying to enter the school job market. We want to analyse this ambiguity from three complementary perspectives. First, we focus on the pupils‘ perspectives and experiences with discrimination. Second, we analyse refugee teachers‘ perceptions of their path to re-enter the school job market by conducting a situational analysis of two group interviews. Third, refugee teachers themselves take up the stage to share their work on their experiences. Throughout or work, we aim at a participatory research approach which is reflected in the co-authorship of this panel, including university students, university professors and assistants as well as refugee teachers. PAPER #1 Re-Constructions on Experiences of Discrimination Narrated in Pupil Groups AUTHOR(S) Michael Doblmair (Department of Education, University of Vienna) Jacqueline Hackl (Department of Education, University of Vienna) Lisa Hourmozis (Department of Education, University of Vienna) Stefanie Prem (Department of Education, University of Vienna) Daniela Schober (Department of Education, University of Vienna) Helene Aigner (Department of Education, University of Vienna) ABSTRACT The reconstructions presented are the result of a bachelor thesis-seminar following a research internship at the university of Vienna. The seminar aimed at an intense discussion of diverse dimensions of discrimination and the elaboration of the necessary profound methodological skills to be able to conduct research on discrimination experiences via group discussions with pupils. In the group talks with pupils experiences of discrimination were thematized and all participates were given room to talk about diverse experiences with discrimination – especially in school contexts. The collected data material was analysed in ways of interpretative and reconstructive social science (Rosenthal 2015). The principle of openness central to this research paradigm enables us to follow an abductive research process integrating the narrators’ relevancies as well university students’ research interests to develop hypotheses and foci. Thus we can present a wide range of outcomes and conclusions on peer-, school- and class-room-culture-aspects, intersectionality-experiences, changes over the course of the discussions, as well as conditions and contexts of solidarity and development of agency (under discriminatory conditions). Our presentation consists of contributions from students who wrote their bachelors thesis on different aspects and dimensions of experiences of discrimination, as well as a meta consideration of the emancipatory possibilities using a reconstructive approach. PAPER #2 Ambivalences in the Conflicting Positions of Being a “Refugee” and Being a “Teacher” AUTHOR(S) Jelena Stanišić (Department of German Studies, University of Vienna) Jacqueline Hackl (Department of Education, University of Vienna) ABSTRACT The certificate course “Educational Basics for Displaced Teachers” was a one-year requalification program offered at the Postgraduate Center of the University of Vienna in 2017-2020. It covered the educational basics of the Austrian teacher training program. The course’s goal was to get internationally trained teachers with forced migration background access to their (former) professional field: the school job market and specifically secondary schools in Austria. In our contribution, we share our results of a Situational Analysis (Clarke 2005) from two group interviews with course participants. With this method, we can not only show the discursive positions available to the participants, but also those not taken. Considering the interview setting and the content, the concepts of “refugee” and “teacher” turned out to be the most fitting axes for the maps. We decided to create two separate maps in order to show the shift of positions throughout the course period. It became obvious that the path to entering the job market as a teacher is not as straightforward as initially assumed and hoped. Furthermore, taking part in the certificate course does not seem to enable the participants to take up a position as a teacher without their refugee experience playing a role. Instead, they are confronted with the conflicting position of being a refugee and being a teacher at the same time: While it provides them with the possibility of acting as a teacher, it others them (Said 1978) at the same time and devalues their expertise. By focussing on the participants’ perspectives, we show their experiences at the intersection of migration/race and profession/class within the university as well as in schools and while looking for a job. We highlight their perception of discriminatory structures in this field and reflect critically on the created need for requalification and its underlying deficit-oriented constructions. PAPER #3 Refugee Teachers Catalogizing of Discrimination and Exclusion in Austria AUTHOR(S) Sahar Hashemi (Faculty of Historical and Cultural Studies, University of Vienna) Davood Zeinlou (Center for Teacher Education, University of Vienna) Jacqueline Hackl (Department of Education, University of Vienna) ABSTRACT This paper sets on from the questions that were arising in various situations: We were treated by colleagues and authorities in a way, that made us wonder: is this unequal treatment or inequality or something personal or even racism? Or is it just a feeling? So we decided for a scientific approach following Sara Ahmed's work on brick walls, diversity work and her method of catalogizing (Ahmed 2017). To us, being experienced and trained teachers, who came to Austria as refugees, it is most important to be able to re-enter our beloved profession. We already had our degrees in our home countries, we participated in additional studies in Austria and learned the German language to an officially sufficient niveau – still we do not find equal chances to work as teachers in Austria, even though there is much heterogeneity and diversity in schools here. However only so much, when looking at pupils, far less when looking at teachers. We don’t expect (too) much, as we only want to finally have a job. We could be a big help to Austrian teachers, finding a better way together to handle a teaching situation in diversity – and bringing language skills that are also needed in a society with so many languages in it. Still we find it troubling to find work in schools. We are told so often that the middle school type „NMS“ is the maximum for refugee teachers – no way into grammar schools for us. In the schools with many pupils with migration background we are at least from some perspective wanted. We can reframe that as being also ascribed special skills, being ascribed able to work with children with migration background, being ascribed to be able to make connection with parents, to have special understanding – we reframe this as not only good for “those kids” but for all children in school and the society beyond school. It is about seeing the good in every child, about appreciation instead of levelling out to the so-called normal.

discussant

Henrike Terhart

University of Cologne

discussant

Gertraud Kremsner

University of Leipzig

author

Michael Doblmair

Department of Education, University of Vienna

author

Jacqueline Hackl

University of Vienna

author

Jelena Stanisic

author

Davood Zeinlou

Center for Teacher Education, University of Vienna

author

Sahar Hashemi

author

Helene Aigner

author

Lisa Hourmouzis

Universität Wien

author

Daniela Schober

University of Vienna

author

Stefanie Prem

Universität Wien

Complementary pathways for refugee protection in the EU: Current state of affairs and the way forward 1

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #52 workshop | SC Migration Politics and Governance

organizer

Zvezda Vankova

Lund University

organizer

Albert Kraler

ICMPD

The recently adopted European Commission proposal for a new European Pact on Migration and Asylum places a major emphasis on developing legal pathways to refugee protection, both by building on existing resettlement efforts as well as by further developing so-called complementary pathways to protection, such as humanitarian admission schemes or study or work-related schemes. Reflecting its long history, resettlement has been extensively studied, both in its historical forms and what has been termed “new resettlement” operated largely by UNHCR from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, research on complementary pathways is still largely limited to a handful of policy studies commissioned by international organisations or the EU. Furthermore, since the concept of complementary pathways for refugee protection is a relatively novel policy idea, there is not much experience on the ground at the national level in the EU with this concept. The aim of this workshop is to bring together different lines of research and practice in the context of active refugee admission policies, with a specific focus on complementary pathways. In order to do so, the workshop aims at bringing together academics, practitioners and refugees to discuss current state of affairs, including emerging initiatives supporting the establishment of different complementary pathways, practical obstacles, the participation of different actors and organisations involved. In order to do that, the proposed workshop will consist of two parts of 90 minutes each. The first panel will be devoted to academic presentations examining different complementary pathways for refugee protection. The second panel will entail a discussion with practitioners and possibly refugees themselves presenting their experiences with these new instruments.

participant

Martin Wagner

International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)

participant

Luc Leboeuf

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

participant

Florian Tissot

Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, Germany

Migration Politics & Governance 2

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #53 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

Humanitarian corridors: circumvention or compensation of borders closure? Maurizio Ambrosini university of Milan Resettlement of refugees in third countries has seen a growing intervention by various non-state actors in the last few years. In Canada, first country in the world for such policy, the majority of resettlements are managed by agreements between state and non-State actors. Also in Europe private sponsorship schemes are developing. In this framework, a relevant initiative has been taken by several religious actors in Italy (the Federation of Italian Evangelical Churches, the Waldensian church, and the Catholic community of St. Egidio), which have established what have been called “humanitarian corridors” to enable the safe arrival of refugees from Lebanon and to give them reception and integration opportunities once they arrived. Through this strategy, approximately 1,500 people have reached Italy, which is a small number but nonetheless demonstrates that humanitarian corridors could be an alternative to dangerous journeys across the Mediterranean Sea. A new corridor from Ethiopia was subsequently opened (only managed by Catholic institutions), with about 500 arrivals. After arrivals, refugees are welcomed in a widespread way by local groups of volunteers. France and Belgium have joined the project by signing agreements with the same partners to establish a similar policy. The paper will provide an evaluation of the project, on the basis of documents and interviews with key-informants. In particular, it will discuss its relationship with restrictive policies in this field: how the cultural message of the project challenges borders closure for asylum seekers. === Secondary movements and the impact of mobile controls at the Brenner border: the experience of migrant Nigerian women victims of trafficking Serena Caroselli IUAV University Michela Semprebon IUAV University This paper explores how “mobile controls” have been implemented at the Brenner border between Italy and Austria and what impact they have had on the lived of migrant women victims of trafficking. These controls are among the mechanisms that characterize secondary movements from and towards northern Europe and that have taken the shape of Italy-Austria-Germany trilateral agreements - inspired by Article 25 et seq. of the Schengen Border Code. It is a form of migration and border governance that allows Member States to reintroduce border control for reasons of public security and serious internal security risks. With the creation of the Schengen area, Italian and Austrian institutions acted to remove the symbolic and material border of the Brenner border, but in fact the coercive function of the border has remained to date. Mobile controls have been repeatedly re-established through the transnational agreements mentioned, with the main aim of preventing the entry of “undesirable” and “inadmissible” bodies. Migrants who are re-admitted to Italy following a take-back procedure, connected to the Dublin III Regulation, are directly affected by these provisions. Furthermore, the movements of some individuals are less visible and hence not counted in official statistics but are even more negatively affected by these mobile controls. It is for example the case for migrant women from Nigeria, associated with human trafficking and this paper will focus on their experienced and the violation of their rights. === Russian biopolitical management of migration as a consistent approach to reproduce the submissive labor migrant Daniel Kashnitsky National Research University Higher School of Economics After the collapse of the Soviet Union the new Russian migration law has been forming rather as hoc, they were often contradictory and incoherent. As international labor migration from the countries East Europe and Central Asia increased in the years 2000 and early 2010s, the Russian government attempted to create a more cohesive migration policy: it introduced a work permit system for labor migrants from non-visa countries in 2016, encouraging bi-lateral agreements with Central Asian countries for pre-organized recruitment and other measures. These reforms were positioned to introduce some procedural order but did not create wider access to social entitlements such as labor protection, social security or medical care. The goal of our study was to investigate how undocumented migrants use formal and informal strategies to overcome the barriers on their way to receiving medical care in Russia. We have identified five strategies of seeking medical care in Moscow. Self-treatment (1) free emergency care (2), planned medical care sought in private migrant clinics (3) medical care provided via networks of solidarity and other informal strategies (4), and finally, the return home (5). Based on my empiric data and the perspective of medical care I argue that the current Russian biopolitical management of migration has a goal to have a stringent control of the migrant body. The agency of labor migrants should remain as low as possible by reproducing ‘legal uncertainty’. A large share of labor migrants is tolerated as a silent and submissive workforce to benefit state-driven capitalism. The reforms mentioned above were largely driven by the economic interest of state authorities and large employers. At the same time, with the rise of modern communication technologies transnational networks create wider access to coping strategies, based on resilience and flexibility. === Venue-shopping for labour migrants? The strategic use of Preferential Trade Agreements Philipp Lutz University of Geneva Sandra Lavenex University of Geneva Paula Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik University of Geneva Western democracies face competing pressures in the regulation of international migration that force governments to balance needs for economic openness with demands for political closure. The public policy literature suggests that facing opposing demands, governments may resort to strategies of venue-shopping whereby they shift political decision-making to institutional fora in which such opposition is reduced. This paper examines to which extent preferential trade agreements constitute a venue to meet economic demand for certain types of economic mobility while circumventing political constraints, thereby perpetuating the ‘liberal paradox’ that predominates in liberal democratic immigration systems. Based on an original database of migration provisions in trade agreements (MITA), the paper examines OECD countries’ and the EU’s strategic venue-shopping for the liberalization of labour mobility on the basis of all preferential trade agreements concluded by these countries since the 1990s. While disclosing a hitherto under-investigated facet of contemporary labour migration, the findings have important implications for our understanding of the logics driving the inclusion of non-trade issues in preferential trade agreements and of the venues through which liberal democracies govern desired forms of economic migration in times of growing anti-immigration sentiment. === MUSLIM REFUGEES INTEGRATION IN GERMANY: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE BETWEEN COLOGNE AND DRESDEN MARYAM GHASEMI University of Lisbon In 2015, escaping from the civil war in Syria, a remarkable number of asylum seekers headed to Germany in search of safety and protection. Their integration has been the main challenge at the federal, state, city, and local levels and, of course, the refugees themselves. The issue of refugees' integration is on the agenda, regarding the labour market, education, housing, healthcare, and contact with the host society. The challenges brought about by the German Chancellor's decision to open the door to Muslim refugees in 2015 led to the strengthening of the PEGIDA movement and the anti-immigrant party AfD. The existing literature on migration studies shows that the local context has been recognized as a crucial factor for migrants' and refugees' integration processes and outcomes. Drawing on qualitative information gathered in 11 interviews conducted in (Cologne and Dresden) with local actors, the presentation seeks to analyze contextual factors such as local integration policies, social networks, and host societies' attitudes that play an essential role in developing Syrian Muslim refugees' integration process and outcomes in two different political, economic, and social settings. The finding shows that Cologne and Dresden, considering structure and context, have some particular challenges and common challenges. Accommodation in Cologne is a big problem. Muslims' presence is challenging for Dresden that the current environment directly impacts refugees' communication and host societies' attitude towards refugees. In terms of the labour market, the Germans authorities have rigid rules. The policy in the renovation of the residence permit shows there is a paradox in policy and practice. Keywords: Refugees, Integration, local context, Muslims, Syrian, Germany

author

Maurizio Ambrosini

university of Milan

author

Sandra Lavenex

University of Geneva

author

Paula Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik

author

Michela Semprebon

University of Iuva Venice

author

Serena Caroselli

IUAV University

author

Daniel Kashnitsky

National Research University Higher School of Economics

author

Philipp Lutz

University of Bern

author

MARYAM GHASEMI

Migrant worlds in the digital era: The repertoires and politics of (dis)connecting

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #54 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Jana Kuhnt

Digitalization is changing the ways that migrants navigate and negotiate lives, during journeys, settling into new communities, and maintaining translocal networks across borders. This panel draws on research done in Europe, Australia, South America, and East Africa to build on how migration researchers understand migrants’ experiences using digital technologies to navigate and negotiate social, economic, political, and intercultural processes in their lives. Navigation represents passive activities, in which migrants use digital tools to work within the boundaries in the places they live; negotiation includes activities that seek to use digital tools to change the context and boundaries around them. The panel papers cover the micro to the macro level. This includes very personal processes, such as elderly migrants learning to navigate the use of new technologies to maintain contact with family in countries of origin, and refugee and asylum migrants negotiating post-migration challenges and new realities of life in their host country. At a more macro level panelists will cover systemic issues, such as navigating the rules and regulations that govern who has the right to access digital technology or use online tools to politically and socially organize. Drawing on empirical data gathered via in-person and online interviews as well as (digital) participatory methods, the panel will show how digital navigation and negotiation take place in different migration contexts, highlighting the unique aspects of each case while finding connections between the different regions upon which researchers can continue building theory. PAPER #1 Being offline and online in a situation of forced immobility: the example of the Brenner border in northern Italy AUTHOR(S) Claudia Lintner (Free University of Bolzano) ABSTRACT This article focuses on the concrete policies of exclusion and border practices in the northern Italian border zone and their impact on refugees’ immobility experiences as both online and offline actors. In doing so, the article has adopted a multidimensional understanding of mobility, as a physical as well as a virtual experience. It is shown that new forms of involuntary or forced immobility are instigated as a result of migration and border regimes. However, the development of new technologies have challenged the mainly physical understanding of mobility and immobility. Indeed, more than ever before, social media platforms, phone applications, etc. have released mobility from its purely physical meaning by adding the virtual dimension of mobility. Additionally, and crucial to the chapter’s line of argument, there is an emerging strand of studies that focuses less on the individual benefit of ICT in refugees’ trajectories and more on questions related to access and affordability capabilities. By adopting a qualitative research approach, the results show, that in the Italian-Austrian border zone, the physical mobility of refugees and thus the spaces where they are permitted to be, have been systematically reduced and limited. However, the policies and practices of exclusion no longer discriminate and marginalize on a physical level but have also been effective in reducing the virtual dimension that characterizes mobility. In order to exercise this form of mobility, having access to connectivity, as well as electricity and thus relying on digital infrastructures that are accessible for all (for example, free internet provided via Wi-Fi hotspots throughout the city) is crucial. Instead, as the mapping and analyses of the data show, public connectivity provided by public Wi-Fi hotspots has changed from a human right into an instrument of power that has imposed new inequalities and new exclusion forms. PAPER #2 Enacting care in the age of digital multiplicity: Ageing migrants’ digital practices during a global pandemic AUTHOR(S) Earvin Charles Cabalquinto (Deakin University) ABSTRACT The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has put the world on halt. Many individuals were ‘stuck’ in various locations as a result of a lockdown, travel restrictions, and border closures. In this paper, I present how elderly people from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) people in Melbourne, Australia use mobile communication technologies to navigate the spatial and temporal stasis created by the global pandemic. More particularly, I focus on how a range of mobile devices, social media channels, and mobile applications shapes the elderly CALD people’s capacity to transfer and receive ‘crisis care’ among their close and distant support networks during a lockdown. By conducting in-depth interviews among 15 elderly CALD people, the study highlights the typologies of mobile crisis care practices, including ambient, persistent, enhanced, and disconnective. These different forms of digitally-mediated care practices present the layered, complex and diverse dimension of care. In sum, the study illuminates a critical perspective on foregrounding mediated practices as enablers of possibilities and burdens in a time of uncertainty. PAPER #3 Smartphones as personal digital archives? Re-centering migrant authority as curating and storytelling subjects AUTHOR(S) Koen Leurs (University of Utrecht) Myria Georgiou (London School of Economics) ABSTRACT This presentation addresses the smartphone as a complicated technology of forced migration: a device that accompanies those who move, but which also records and catalogues digital traces within life contexts of conflict, uprooting, migration and resettlement. We conceptualize smartphones as personal digital archives: migrants’ curation of their own stories on their own portable devices. The smartphone is a technology, an artifact, a network - that fits in a pocket but which carries records of the pleasures and pains of at least a lifetime. As an autonomous, mobile and personal technology of prosthetic witnessing and storytelling, it generates, filters and shares testimonies of uprooting, migration, and resettlement outside representational systems of mass media. Personal digital archives, we argue, reflect the migrant gaze and constitute mobile subaltern subjects’ record of forced migration. Inductively learning from fieldwork conducted across five sites in Europe over five years (Utrecht, Amsterdam in the Netherlands; Berlin, Germany, London, UK and Athens, Greece), we analyse how the personal digital archive records and reflects the mediation of migration in its three dimensions: symbolic, affective, and material. By focussing on personal digital archives, we recenter the authority of migrants as witnessing subjects of their own life stories. Their archives as autonomous migrant records provide a powerful basis to reflect upon and potentially contest mainstream western journalism cultures, which too often reduces migration to a spectacle and the migrant to a dehistoricized figure with little agency or voice. PAPER #4 The Digital Here and the Digital There: How displaced people in Brazil and Kenya use digital technologies to navigate (trans)local lives AUTHOR(S) Amanda Paz Alencar (Erasmus University Rotterdam) Charles Martin-Shields (German Development Institute) ABSTRACT For people displaced by economic, social, and political shocks, access to digital technologies create channels through which translocal networks are maintained, and local uncertainties are managed. Vigh’s concept of social navigation highlights refugees’ agency in difficult situations and to move under multiple forces that contribute to creating uncertainties. Relevant research highlighted various strategies refugees develop to cope with crisis situation. We use data collected from displaced communities in Brazil and Kenya to analyze how different groups negotiate uncertainty and insecurity in the places they settle and how digital technologies play a role in these negotiations. In each country there are groups that are analogous to one another; Venezuelans in Brazil and Congolese in Kenya blend in, while Haitians and Somalis maintain visible and robust translocal support networks. The first level of negotiation, access to digital technologies, occurs within administrative contexts that prevent access. Without formal identification, displaced people cannot just buy mobile phones and data packages in Brazil and Kenya – they must navigate networks of fellow refugees and host country nationals to gain internet access. Once that pre-requisite is met, they then have different digital strategies for negotiating socioeconomic uncertainties that come with displacement. For Venezuelans and Congolese, blending in and navigating life within Brazil and Kenya are possibilities. For Haitians and Somalis, though, social and economic stability are functions of translocal diaspora networks connected via social media. Our data shows that a relational approach to digital negotiations is key to understanding uncertainty in contexts of forced displacement.

author

Koen Leurs

University of Utrecht

discussant

Daniela Jaramillo-Dent

Universidad de Huelva

discussant

Rashid Gabdulhakov

Erasmus University Rotterdam

author

Claudia Lintner

Free University of Bolzano

author

Earvin Charles Borja Cabalquinto

Deakin University

author

Myria Georgiou

London School of Economics

author

Amanda Paz Alencar

Erasmus University Rotterdam

author

Charles Patrick Martin-Shields

Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik/German Development Institute (DIE)

Visiting Migrants 1

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #55 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Russell King

University of Sussex

For migrants the world over, visits ‘home’ and being visited by relatives and friends are an essential part of the migrant experience. Such visits are eagerly anticipated and vital to transnational family connection. Yet, surprisingly little attention has been given by migration scholars to these visits. Twenty years ago, anthropologist Baldassar published her pioneering book Visits Home, on visits between Australia and Italy. This remains virtually the only in-depth study, although a scattered literature of journal articles has evolved from scholars in transnational migration, diaspora studies, mobilities, and tourism. The title of the workshop is deliberately ambiguous, with the word ‘visiting’ being used both in its verbal and adjectival sense. Adjectivally, visiting migrants are migrants engaged in visiting home. Verbally, we refer to the non-migrant relatives and friends who are visiting their migrant co-nationals abroad. Either way, visits are social and cultural encounters circumscribed by expectations, performativity and rituality (e.g. gift-giving, hospitality) in which transnational familyhood is reasserted and affective bonds renewed. There are several ways that visits can be conceptualised. As short-term mobilities, visits are temporally enfolded within the longer time-frames of migration and diaspora formation. Visits are often an element of transnational ties; and for longer-established diasporas, visits to the ancestral homeland are an essential part of diasporic identity. Regular visits to the homeland can be a preparation for a subsequent return migration; or they can be a substitute for permanent return. The three panels bring together scholars of different career stages, including several PhD students. Collectively, they explore the cultural landscape of visiting migrants in many differing parts of the world and from interdisciplinary perspectives. The panel organisers have already made plans for either an edited OA book or journal special issue. PAPER #1 Home Visits: charting a century of secular pilgrimage and digital homemaking between Italy and Australia AUTHOR(S) Loretta Baldassar (University of Western Australia) ABSTRACT “…when I Skype with the sister it’s like she’s there with me” (migrant 2020s). Our relationships to place and distance are socially constructed and change over time in response to social transformations, including political, technological, and cultural, as well as our individual and collective processes of ageing. In this paper, I compare the forms of migrant visiting experienced by different cohorts and generations over a century of Italian-Australian migration history. Drawing on ethnographic longitudinal data on the transnational relationships of several families, I compare the changes in the methods, modes and meanings of migrant visits over time. Patterns of visits home in the past represented secular pilgrimage and cultural renewal, including of diaspora identities. In contrast, patterns of migrant visiting today reflect active transnational lives, including youth mobile transitions. But what of the ageing migrants who long for home visits but can no longer make the journey back? And what of the immobility of pandemic lockdown, which restricts us all to digital forms of homemaking? Can digital visits replace physical ones? I examine how transnational practices, including the social uses of new technologies and visits home, are pertinent to processes of ageing, transitions, identity and belonging in both the sending and receiving communities. An aim of the paper is to use home visits as a frame to bring together both the Italian emigration and immigration literatures, which to date have been largely mutually exclusive. PAPER #2 Cruel intimacies and the nearly utopian mobilities of Italian migrant personal relationships AUTHOR(S) Michael Humbracht (University of Surrey) Scott Cohen (University of Surrey) Allan Williams, (University of Surrey) ABSTRACT Most research on transnational relations focuses on migrant relationships that manage to connect, which tends to equate valued intimacy with forms of adaptation to others and the persistence of ethno-national kin obligations. In contrast, this paper highlights migrant personal relationships where migrants and important relationships have struggled to adapt to transnational life and contact diminishes, yet also takes on heightened value and affective intensity. Drawing from a multi-sited ethnography that includes interviews with migrants and friends and family at distance, we examine the affective and ethical dimensions of ICTs and visits within the personal relationships of highly skilled Italian migrants in London. Deploying the concepts cruel optimism and polyrhythmia, the paper finds relationships are constructed through an affective politics that situates both diverging mobile lifecourse trajectories and feelings of attachment. These politics emerge through contrasting rhythms of visits and ICTs that provoke ethical reflections on whether relationships at a distance constitute ‘real’ intimacy. Informants suggest intimacies feel uncomfortable and ‘unreal’, leading to infrequent and sporadic contact. In contrast, informants also suggest that despite difficulties, intimacies can ‘feel normal’, imbuing relationships with a sense of value and optimism that ‘real’ intimacies will materialise in unspecified, distant futures. Thus, in contrast to assumptions in migration research that valued intimacy relates to adaptation and kin obligation, we argue relations hover in a state of impasse: feelings of intimacy both disable possibilities for an integrated sense of belonging yet also construct a sense of hope that enables relationships to be sustained and meaningful connections. PAPER #3 Youth’s visits to ‘origin’: a road to increased self-confidence and resilience? AUTHOR(S) Karlijn Haagsman (Maastricht University) Valentina Mazzucato (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT Tourism and leisure studies as well as studies on transnational education highlight that time spent abroad through exchange programs, gap years, extended holidays and for study can be a transformative learning experience for youth. Research has shown that these forms of international mobility can, for example, lead to improved language skills, greater flexibility, acculturative resilience, self-confidence and self-direction, which enhance their career and personal development upon return. These are all reasons why governments and schools are keen to invest in exchange programs and international trips for students. Extended stays or visits that youth of migrant background make to their or their parent’s country of origin are, instead, less celebrated. Some European countries go as far as to institute financial penalties for students who miss parts of the school year due to such trips. Yet hardly any large-scale evidence exists, either positive or negative, on the effects that such trips have on the psychological well-being of young people of migrant background. Using unique survey data collected amongst 1700 youth in Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium particularly for this purpose, we build on qualitative studies on the value of home visits, to investigate on a large-scale the mechanisms that link international mobility to an ‘origin’ country to young people’s self-esteem and resilience. In particular, we study whether these mechanisms work differently for youth who visit their or their parent’s country of origin (N=771) compared to youth who engage in other types of travels. PAPER #4 Work as affective care: Brazilian ageing parents’ visits to their (un)documented children in the United States AUTHOR(S) Dora Sampaio (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity) ABSTRACT In reference to the broad question of labour, the literature on non-migrant relatives visiting their offspring abroad has mainly focused on work and care within the household (e.g. caring for grandchildren). This paper ventures beyond the household's confines in order to explore practices of paid work carried out by older parents visiting their children. The paper draws on qualitative research with Brazilian older parents who work outside the household while visiting their children in the United States. The work outside the children’s household entails paid short-term informal activities alongside family members (e.g. housekeeping) and working independently of their offspring (e.g. babysitting, kitchen help). Because their children are often undocumented and thus transnationally immobile, these visits are often prolonged for as long as possible to a maximum of the legally permitted six months. Moreover, for lower-income families engaging in work while visiting partly relieves the financial burden of these trips and generates savings. Building on these findings, the study makes two distinct contributions to the study of visits in migration contexts. Firstly, it emphasises the broader repertoire of activities and roles performed during extended visits; and secondly, it draws attention to the different temporalities of visits, specifically prolonged stays. The multi-faceted nature of visits abroad reveals a financial dimension to care where paid work acts as a form of affective care. As such, emotional and financial goals are revealed as deeply intertwined and mutually constitutive.

author

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

author

Karlijn Haagsman

University Maastricht

author

Dora Sampaio

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

discussant

Md Farid Miah

University of Sussex

author

Loretta Baldassar

The University of Western Australia

author

Michael Humbracht

University of Surrey

author

Scott Cohen

University of Surrey

author

Allan Williams

University of Surrey

Changing Cultures: Arts and culture as agents and means of change in migration societies; Session 1: theoretical and methodological considerations

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #56 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Marco F Martiniello

CEDEM

There is a strong belief that artistic and cultural practices of immigrants and their descendants contribute to changing our understanding of cultures and identities in migration societies. They provide the input that enables us to move beyond the imagined homogeneous communities, as Benedict Anderson described them, towards narratives of identity and belonging that are more apt to capture the current post-migrant realities in many cities and countries both in Europe and beyond (Bhabha, 2004). Such a narrative change, in turn, is essential for a more equal and just society since it will help to prevent exclusion and discrimination (Foroutan, 2019). At the same time, there is empirical evidence that such a change has not even happened yet within the structures facilitating artistic and cultural practices in these contexts. The gate keepers at important points of entry, such as publishing houses, theatres or museums, as well as in the media and in academia prevent change with regard to both the artists and the contents receiving public attention (Berkers, 2009; Koren und Delhaye, 2017). The three sessions we propose depart from the assumption that there is cultural change, but that it has not (yet) reached the utopian ideals expressed in the artistic and cultural practices of immigrants and their descendants. This implies that researchers need to adjust the tools they use for observing change, but also that joining forces with arts and culture may be a way to increase the impact of both research and the artistic and cultural practices of immigrants and their descendants. We take these observations as a starting point for a theoretical, methodological and empirical reflexion on how to conceive, measure and research change in this context as well as for a discussion of joint ventures for change between arts, culture and research. The first session is dedicated to a theoretical and methodological discussion of how to conceive, measure and research change. PAPER #1 Post-migrant literary history: a new theoretical and methodological approach to make visible change through migration in national literary fields and beyond AUTHOR(S) Wiebke Sievers (ISR, Vienna) ABSTRACT This contribution will present the theoretical and methodological approach I have developed to write what I call post-migrant literary history. My aim is to make visible change towards a more inclusive literary field. My approach draws on Bourdieu’s literary field theory. Bourdieu’s The Rules of Art allows us to understand authors and their works as part of a societal process of change. In that respect, it is an ideal point of departure to grasp how literary fields have changed in response to immigration. However, Bourdieu regards immigration as marginal for literary developments. It is therefore necessary to develop a new approach that allows to apply Bourdieu’s ideas to processes of change initiated by immigrants and their descendants. My new approach highlights how strongly processes of autonomisation, as Bourdieu describes them in The Rules of Art, are related to processes of nationalisation in literary fields. The fight of writers and other actors in literary fields for relative autonomy from the political and the economic fields involved the drawing of boundaries towards immigrants and their descendants on four levels: language, literary traditions, literary themes and the right to state support. These mechanisms have become naturalised in literary fields to such an extent that they were long also accepted by immigrants and their descendants. Only when they began to fight these mechanisms of exclusion in and through their literary works did immigrants and their descendants become more visible in literary fields. PAPER #2 Continuity or change? How migrants’ musical activities (do not) affect symbolic boundaries AUTHOR(S) Ana Mijic (University of Vienna) Michael Parzer (University of Vienna) ABSTRACT This paper will discuss how the artistic and cultural activities of migrants and their descendants affect symbolic boundaries in the field of music. We use Andreas Wimmers’ ‘boundary-making approach’ to grasp the various dynamics in the musical field. Wimmer sees ethnic boundaries as the result of acts of social classification (dividing the social world into ‘us’ and ‘them’), that offer scripts of action – ‘how to relate to individuals classified as “us” and “them” under given circumstances’ (Wimmer 2013). On this basis, we suggest distinguishing between two fundamental modes of how artistic and cultural activities in the field of music affect boundaries: boundary changing and boundary shifting. Boundary changing refers to processes in which the characteristics and the meaning of boundaries are transformed. This becomes most visible in ‘boundary blurring’ which is characterised by reducing the importance of ethnicity (or nationhood) as a principle of categorisation and social organisation (Wimmer 2013, 61). In the field of music this is the case, when certain musical activities by migrants are becoming so ‘usual’ that ethnic labelling is unnecessary to categorise this music While in boundary changing the boundary’s topography is not affected at all, this is the case in processes of boundary shifting. An example is ‘boundary expansion’ that becomes most visible on an institutional level, where the migrants’ musical activities are located either at the centre or the periphery of cultural production. We apply this concept empirically to migrants’ musical activities in Austria over the last 60 years. PAPER #3 How to research 'cultural change' in migration societies? Conceptual and methodological issues AUTHOR(S) Rikke Gram (IMIS, Osnabrück) Lars Bädeker (IMIS, Osnabrück) Antonie Schmiz (Freie Universität, Berlin) ABSTRACT In recent years, diversity (or, as could be argued, the lack of it) in both exhibitions and behind the scenes of German museums has become both a focus of research, and increasingly a concern within the museums and on a federal political level in Germany. In order to grasp these changes, it is important not only to look at the museum institutions, but to understand the cultural and political landscape in which they are embedded, both on a local, federal and national level. This paper addresses challenges that arise when researching changes in migration societies by focusing on cultural institutions, especially but not only museums. We are asking how this apparent opening of the institutions and interest in the subject of migration and diversity affect our possibilities for doing research in, on and with these institutions. This paper reflects on two German cities, Dresden and Osnabrück, from the multi researcher project KultMIX, which looks at cultural production in the migration society. We aim to show the importance of focusing on these politically powerful institutions when researching the impact of migration on national cultures as well as to unfold the methodological considerations one needs to have when conducting such research. PAPER #4 Culture changes but cultural institutions not? AUTHOR(S) Joanna Jurkiewicz (IMIS, Osnabrück) Jens Schneider (IMIS, Osnabrück) ABSTRACT Migration as a driver of cultural change has not only led to reflexions about the role of cultural institutions (such as museums or theatres) in producing narratives on belonging or nations (Levitt 2015), but also to criticism of the institutional structures themselves (Bayer/Kazeem-Kamiński/Sternfeld 2017: 17). Manifold approaches have evolved that discuss how cultural institutions can more aptly represent migration societies, ranging from targeting new audiences (Almanritter 2017, Mandel 2013) or promoting cultural education (Mandel 2016, Mörsch 2019, Ziese/Gritschke 2016) to theories on postmigrant society (Foroutan/Karakayali/Spielhaus 2017; Yıldız/Hill 2015; Yıldız/Hill 2018) or superdiversity (Vertovec 2008; Schneider 2018). These have inspired artistic projects, educational programs and sometimes also institutional change. However, these promising developments still seem to be exceptional. While the debates seem to be all-encompassing and happening in various cultural institutions in diverse forms, we hardly notice any change in institutional structures. The paper aims to identify reasons for this discrepancy based on qualitative research on museums and theatres in four German cities. It aims to answer why all these narratives of change are hardly accompanied by significant institutional change, and what makes the latter so difficult. For this purpose, we will compare how the institutions conceive their own role as well as the role of immigrants and their descendants in this process of change.

author

Wiebke Sievers

ISR

author

Jens Schneider

IMIS

author

Joanna Jurkiewicz

Institut für Migrationsforschung und interkulturelle Studien (IMIS), Universität Osnabrück

author

Rikke Gram

IMIS

discussant

Umut Erel

Open University

author

Ana Mijic

University of Vienna, Department of Sociology

author

Michael Parzer

University of Vienna

author

Lars Bädeker

Universität Osnabrück

author

Antonie Schmiz

Freie Universität Berlin

Education & Social Inequality 1

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #57 panel | SC Education and social inequality

Impact of COVID-19 on International Students in Germany: Challenges and Vulnerabilities Prof. Dr. Carola Bauschke-Urban Fulda University of Applied Sciences Dorina Dedgjoni, M.A. Fulda University of Applied Sciences Stephanie Michalczyk, M.A. Fulda University of Applied Sciences The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected the internationalization of higher education by posing unprecedented challenges for international students. COVID-19 has once again underscored the educational inequalities that international students face, particularly those coming from the Global South (Bilecen, 2020). The current crisis seems to further exacerbate already existing inequalities, especially between those students who have access to online communication tools and the internet, and those who do not (see Marinoni et al., 2020; Bilecen, 2020; Adnan& Anwar, 2020). Further research has also shown the negative impact of the Covid-19 crisis on students’ mental health (Husky, 2020; McCarthy, 2020; Peters et al., 2020). This paper draws on findings from the research project “Migration, Diversity, and Social Change in the Engineering field” and examines the challenges international students are facing during the pandemic, including those regarding online teaching. Based on 30 qualitative interviews, it describes how the spread of the crisis is increasing pre-existing social inequalities and affecting international students’ experiences in Germany. Our findings show that the pandemic was broadly disruptive to international students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, many of whom reported living on very low income due to the loss of part-time jobs. Furthermore, some interviewees worry that the pandemic will delay graduation, thus affecting their future integration into the labor market. The findings also indicate a lack of institutional support and strong feelings of social isolation from those international students who could not relocate during the pandemic. On the other hand, distance-learning solutions were ineffective in the case of students who relocated to the Global South during the COVID-19 crisis, as many of them could not access the provided material due to a lack of equipment or internet access. === Social inequalities and the exclusion of immigrants from welfare programmes in 4 European countries: an in-depth analysis of parliamentary speeches irene landini Luiss Guido Carli University Among the experiences lived by both EU and extra-EU immigrants during their integration processes in European destination countries, social inequality is still a recurring phenomenon. The present paper especially focuses on social inequality in formal and political terms, i.e., unfavorable treatments reserved to immigrants in national laws, policies, politicians’ discourses. It is a fact that a political view promoting nativism as the main guiding principle in social provision has progressively gained ground in several European countries. This is known as “welfare chauvinism”, giving preference to natives over immigrants in accessing social programs. The wide literature on this has until now neglected the topic of the justificatory arguments behind welfare chauvinism itself. This is especially relevant in the light of the Western democratic principle of non-discrimination on the basis of ethnicity or nationality which is indeed at the core of welfare chauvinism itself. The article aims therefore at providing a deeper understanding of the justificatory arguments behind welfare chauvinism in politicians’ official public discourses. It specifically investigates whether and how these justifications are nested within the specific contexts considered, i.e., how they vary according to different types of welfare regimes, specific social programme and different categories of immigrants. The article pursues that by means of a qualitative content analysis of several selected parliamentary debates across 4 different European countries in most recent years. It emerges that the justifications vary across different social programmes, types of welfare regimes and categories of immigrants. Yet, at the same time, some common patterns are observed. === Mental health of newcomer youth in European secondary education: Refugee and non-refugee migrant mental health profiles and the role of family separation, daily stressors and discrimination in resettlement Caroline Spaas KU Leuven An Verelst UGhent Natalie Durbeej Uppsala University Marianne Opaas Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies Year after year, a proportion of refugee and migrant children and youth resettle within European borders. This study aims to further our understanding of their mental health profiles and, as such, support the development of adequate mental healthcare services for newcomers. We analyze and compare the mental health profiles of refugee and non-refugee migrant adolescents, and examine the role of migration-related family separation, material stressors in resettlement, and discrimination in newcomer mental health. Descriptive statistics and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used for the analysis of self-report questionnaire data of 1366 adolescents (11-24 years old) from 83 schools in five European countries. Both refugee and non-refugee migrant adolescents reported high levels of post-traumatic stress symptomatology, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Family separation predicted post-trauma and internalizing symptomatology, only in refugees. Daily stressors in resettlement related to lower levels of well-being in all newcomers, and higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral difficulties in refugee participants. Perceived discrimination in resettlement was found to be associated with increased levels of mental health problems in our sample. Our study confirms that adolescent newcomers in European secondary education are at significant risk for the development of mental health problems, with refugee adolescents showing the greatest levels of vulnerability. This supports the need for the development of accessible mental healthcare services for newcomer youth. In developing these services, it might be relevant to complement individual support for newcomer adolescents displaying symptomatology with broader preventive care modalities for all newcomers. === Mental disorder and subsequent income loss among young women with and without migrant background in Norway Kamila Angelika Hynek Norwegian Institute of Public Health Melanie Straiton Norwegian Institute of Public Health Background: Mental disorders are associated with several work-related outcomes such as loss of income. However, studies investigating the effect of mental disorders on work-related income by migrant background are lacking. Aims and methods: This study aimed to assess the change in work-related income following the uptake of outpatient mental healthcare (OPMH) treatment, a proxy for mental disorder, in young women with migrant background by using national register data. Additionally, we looked at how this varied by income level. The study population consisted women aged 23-40 years residing in Norway for at least 3 consecutive years between 2006 and 2013 (N=640,527). By using a stratified linear regression with individual fixed effects, we investigated differences between the majority women, descendants and eight migrant groups. The interaction analysis was conducted in order to examine the differences in income loss following the uptake of OPMH treatment among women with and without migrant background. Results: Results show that OPMH treatment was associated with a decrease in income for all groups. However, the negative effect was stronger among those with low income. Only migrant women from EU Eastern Europe with a high income were not significantly affected following OPMH treatment. Conclusion: Experiencing a mental disorder during a critical age for establishment in the labour market may not only affect income but also subsequent workforce participation and dependency on social welfare services, regardless of migrant background, resulting in large economic costs for both the individual and for the society as a whole. === Unemployment and the risk of mental disorder among migrant women Melanie Straiton Norwegian Institute of Public Health Kamila Hynek Norwegian Institute of Public Health Karina Corbett Norwegian Institute of Public Health Background: Migrants face disadvantage in the labour market and are less likely to be employed than the majority population. The gap is greater for migrant women than men. Decades of research on the general population shows that employment has positive effects for mental health while unemployment is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders such as depression. There are few longitudinal studies looking at the relationship between workforce participation and mental disorders among migrants and none consider differences between different migrant groups. Method: This study aimed to investigate the association between unemployment and outpatient mental health service use (a proxy for mental disorder) among migrant and majority women. Using national register data, we followed women who were employed at baseline over a period of 3 years (2011-2013) to determine if the receipt of unemployment benefit (min. 3 months) was associated with increased risk using outpatient mental health services (OPMH). Further, we introduced an interaction effect to determine if the association between unemployment and use of outpatient mental health services was greater for migrant than for non-migrant women. Preliminary findings: Our source population included 785,463 women who were employed during 2009-2011, 9% were migrants. The incidence of OPMH use was 4.17 per 100,000 person days (migrants=5.00; non-migrants=4.10). The incidence of OPMH use was higher for those who were unemployment for at least 3 months (7.12 per 100,000 person days) or who were otherwise out of the workforce (6.39) than for those in employment (3.92). According to preliminary survival analyses, unemployment increased the risk of OMPH but the association was weaker for migrant women. However, closer investigation of different migrant groups will be conducted. Conclusion: Findings will shed light on the social and health inequalities between migrants and non-migrant women.

author

Carola Bauschke-Urban

Fulda University

participant

Dorina Dedgjoni, M.A.

Fulda University of Applied Sciences

author

Stephanie Michalczyk

Social and Cultural Sciences/Fulda University of Applied Sciences

participant

Irene Landini

Luiss Guido Calri University

participant

Kamila Angelika Hynek

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

participant

Melanie Straiton

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

author

Karina Corbett

Norwegian Institute of Public Health

participant

Caroline Spaas

KU Leuven

Migrant Transnationalism 4

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #58 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

Family strategies and migration: the formation of a mixed transnational social space in the Atlantic Jorge Malheiros Centre of Geographic Studies (CEG-IGOT-ULisboa) Katielle Silva Centre of Geographic Studies (CEG-IGOT-ULisboa) Between 2010 and 2015, the Portuguese migration context changed significantly as a result of the impacts of the crisis, which resulted in negative net migration (reduced inflow and return of immigrants) and an increase in Portuguese emigration. Within this process, some Portuguese-Brazilian couples moved to Brazil, where economic and social opportunities seemed more favourable; however, between 2016 and 2019, this flow seems to have fluctuated between the two spaces, eventually favouring Portugal as a destination. Eventually, the current COVID19 pandemic may have, once again, impacted on the direction of the flows. Combining quantitative data about births and marital statuses with qualitative data collected in interviews with Luso-Brazilian couples, we will explore: macro and micro factors that push people in one direction or the other in the social space of the Atlantic; transnational practices and their meaning; and future migration projects and their implications for stay in Portugal or Brazil. This research will cover Portuguese-Brazilian couples who have undertaken migration pathways of three types: lived together in Portugal, migrated to Brazil and returned to Portugal; lived together in Brazil and returned to Portugal; and lived together in Portugal and returned to Brazil. In a context of globalization of migration flows, with growing opportunities for transnational relationships, this work reinforces the relevance of analysing how family negotiation rooted in two spaces influences the crossing of borders (departure and return), contributing to the reflection around classical dichotomic categories of migration studies as emigrant-immigrant or migration (departure) and return. === „Like never before...“: ambivalence in everyday transnationalism in the context of covid-19 Irma Budginaitė-Mačkinė Vilnius University Agnieszka Trąbka SWPS University, Warsaw & Jagiellonian University, Krakow Lately a lot has been said about the impact of Covid-19 on migrants, highlighting the detrimental effects of border closing and forced immobility. Our paper aims to demonstrate a more nuanced impact of the unfolding pandemic on young Polish and Lithuanian migrants in Britain. We draw on the findings of the longitudinal comparative study ‘CEEYouth: young migrants from Poland and Lithuania in the context of Brexit’ to illustrate a variety of effects the pandemic has on individual trajectories, life course transitions, and (changing) transnational practices. For instance, while imposed restrictions limit opportunities to visit family members for some, others manage to spend more time in the country of origin thanks to the flexible on-line work arrangements. Moreover, Covid-19 could result in either postponing life-course transitions (postponed weddings, moving back to parents etc.), or – on the contrary – accelerating them (e.g. moving in faster with a partner). Furthermore, amplifying the existing risks (Beck, 1998) already present in Brexit Britain, in some cases the pandemic transforms return intensions: extended holiday visits inspire some to consider moving back; while others feel forced to return due to loss of job. Building on the literature on everyday transnationalism (e.g. Erdal and Oeppen, 2013), combining it with research on ambivalent transnationalism (e.g. Bryan, 2012) and return migration intentions (e.g. Carling and Pettersen, 2014), we argue that the effects of pandemic should be analysed through intersectional lenses. Depending on interviewees’ characteristics, the pandemic both creates opportunities for having a quality time and curbs personal trajectories at the same time. === Remittance Sending Behaviour Along Migration Trajectories: The case of Senegalese, Ghanaian, and Congolese Migrants Wendy Flikweert TBC Ozge Bilgili UU In this paper, we examine the remittance sending behaviour of Ghanaian, Congolese, and Senegalese migrants along their migration trajectories to Europe. We aim to understand to what extend and why their remittances sending behaviour may show differences when they consider themselves to be ‘en route’ or settled. Drawing on the capabilities approach, we hypothesise that migrants on the move experience legal and economic precariousness and have lower capacity, and hence probability to remit. Moreover, we argue that migrants with close family members and assets in the origin country have higher incentives to remit, but are less likely to do so if they are on the move, given their lower capacity. Overall, we do not find support for the argument that being on the move decreases the probability to send remittances. Instead, our results demonstrate that migrants’ capacities, related to their legal and economic situation, to remit are affected by their migratory condition. Surprisingly, we illustrate that migrants on the move are more likely to be employed and send remittances compared to settled migrants. We argue that these migrants may consider their situation to be insecure, despite their employment status, and want to keep closer contact with their country of origin. We therefore conclude by highlighting the importance of including a (im)mobility perspective in the study of remittances and the need of a fuller understanding of how frictions and experiences along more complex migration trajectories affect remittance sending behaviour. === Why Staying? Mobility Intentions among Transnational Immigrants in Switzerland Roxane Gerber Institute of Demography and Socio-economy IDESO, University of Geneva, nccr - on the move Laura Ravazzini Institute of Sociology, University of Neuchatel, nccr - on the move Mobility and re-emigration intentions of immigrant populations are influenced by many factors. Neoclassical migration theories consider that migrants’ decisions to return or move to another country are taken when the expected goals are achieved, or on the contrary, when integration is perceived as unsuccessful. New theories include other events or dynamics that may influence re-emigration intentions such as relationships with family members and particularly with those who stayed abroad. New ways of living indeed have emerged with globalization, increasing mobility and the development of new ways of communication. In line with these societal changes, transnational families whose members are dispersed across national boundaries are challenging the nation-state paradigm. Our paper examines the intentions of re-emigration of immigrants in Switzerland, and more particularly of those with transnational family ties. By using two new and complementary surveys, the Migration-Mobility Survey (MMS) and the Transnational Ageing Survey (TA), we gather information on those who intend to stay in Switzerland and those who would rather move further. The MMS allows to have a longitudinal approach on recently arrived immigrants’ intentions and actual behavior, while the TA depicts the decisions of those who decided to stay in the long run (i.e. after 55 years old) and might rethink mobility during retirement. These surveys provide useful insights about intentions to re-emigrate during different stages of the work life, from early career to the end of the working life, of migrants and their families. nccr – on the move. The Migration-Mobility Survey (MMS). https://nccr-onthemove.ch/research/migration-mobility-survey/ nccr – on the move. The Transnational Ageing Survey (TA). https://nccr-onthemove.ch/research/transnational-ageing-survey/

author

Jorge Malheiros

Centre of Geographical Studies (CEG) of the University of Lisbon

author

Agnieszka Trabka

SWPS University

author

Ozge Bilgili

University of Utrecht

author

Roxane Gerber

University of Geneva, nccr on the move

author

Laura Ravazzini

Institute of Sociology, University of Neuchatel, nccr - on the move

author

Katielle Silva

IGOT/ULisboa

author

Irma Budginaite-Mackine

Vilnius University

author

Wendy Flikweert

Parents as Researchers: Community-based Methodological Approaches to Maintain Language and Culture

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #59 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Martha Montero-Sieburth

Amsterdam University College

chair

Jorge Delgado Sumano

Embassy of Mexico in the Netherlands

Chair: Martha Montero-Sieburth, Amsterdam University College, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Chair: Jorge Delgado Sumano, Embassy of Mexico in the Netherlands, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Discussant: Domiziana Turcatti, University of Oxford, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Abstract: In concert with this year’s IMISCOE theme, this panel presents a participatory qualitative-research project conducted in the Netherlands in which bi-cultural Mexican parents have developed methodological tools and approaches to teach Spanish language and Mexican culture (history, geography, and ethics) to their second-generation children. Initiated by the Embassy of Mexico in the Netherlands and using primary school textbooks (CONALITEG) donated by the Mexican Secretariat of Education, embassy staff, Mexican parents, teachers, and an ethnographer developed a collaborative methodological process to identify parent profiles and needs, analyze textbook content, review basic education curriculum, identify language issues, and develop teaching guides. Planned was a program that includes interactive workshops, encounters, and lectures for parents to create a multiplier effect geared to maintaining Spanish and the recognition of Mexican culture for future generations. The rationale is that even though the Netherlands upholds plurilingualism, and schools teach children not only Dutch but English, German and French and to a lesser degree Spanish, 1.5 and 2nd generation binational children learn Spanish and 2 to 3 other languages at home. Yet, even with such support, research in the Netherlands (Montero-Sieburth and Cabrera, 2013; Montero-Sieburth, 2015; Dirks, 2011) and in the U. S. (Rubout, 2009; Lutz, 2006), indicates a significant loss of mother tongue in youth by the third generation. Therefore, this project proposes a practical intergenerational learning process between parents and children so that they can create bridges between their bi-national cultures, learn their parents’ languages and maintain Spanish and Mexican culture as core identity factors that enable them to attain social mobility and global citizenry. Paper 1 Martha Montero-Sieburth, Amsterdam University College, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Jorge Delgado Sumano, Embassy of Mexico in the Netherlands, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and Angela Baez, Naturgy Finance, BV, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Title: Community-Based Methodological Approaches in the Maintenance of Spanish and Mexican Culture in the Netherlands Abstract Bi-national Mexican parents in the Netherlands, concerned about maintaining Spanish and Mexican culture for their dual-nationality second-generation children, are part of Proyecto Educativo initiated by the Mexican Embassy in the Netherlands in June 2020 as an ongoing program. This paper explains the rationale and methodology of the project during which embassy staff, Mexican teachers, parents, and an ethnographer used qualitative and quantitative methodological approaches utilizing primary school textbooks (CONALITEG) donated by the Mexican Secretariat of Education as tools to advance the maintenance of Spanish language and transmission of Mexican culture. Of particular significance is the use of “teachers’ expressed throughout the project which contributes to community-based methodologies and theory building. Outlined are: 1) the development of a questionnaire and interviews to identify parent needs and interests, 2) 16 internal and external interviews to identify the parents’ motivation and commitment; 3) matrix content analysis of the primary education free textbooks in Spanish/literature identifying specific practices linked to the national curriculum; 4) development of parent-friendly guides, encounters and workshops identifying the content and activities for teaching Spanish and Mexican culture; 5) pilot testing of the guides with parents; 6) proposed training of parents in the use of these guides and corresponding textbooks is scheduled for Fall 2021; and 7) dissemination of current guide via the Mexican Embassy’s website to the Mexican community at large. Emphasized is the role that Mexican parents can assume in maintaining home languages and cultures alive in a plurilinguistic country like the Netherlands. Paper 2 Rosanna de Bruin, Private Spanish Teacher, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and Maria Eugenia Calvo, Pedagogue and Feldenkrais Teacher, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Title: The Sharing of Mexican Culture and Spanish as a Heritage Language: A Guide for Mexican Parents Abroad using Mexico’s Free Primary Education Textbooks for Second-Generation Youth in the Netherlands Abstract Migration research has shown that migrants tend to adapt their cultural capital in different contexts by reinventing their own transnational cultures (Erel, 2010). Yet by the second generation, retaining the language is challenged by concerns of fitting in and being like native speakers particularly in the school environment (Winsler, et. al.2014). Thus, the teaching and maintenance of Spanish as a heritage language and Mexican cultural traditions falls to the parents. Described is how a group of Mexican teachers and parents of second-generation youth in the Netherlands have contextualized the content of Mexican free primary textbooks (grade 1) to enable and train other Mexican parents to become the educators of their children in their own heritage language and Mexican culture. The project teaches parents with guides/encounters/ and workshops to assume their respective roles as purveyors of Spanish language and Mexican culture in the context of their family practices in multilingual settings, so their children can be assured of absorbing a strong sense of their Mexican identity, especially in the face of a pervasive underlying need to assimilate and acculturate into Dutch society and the use of Dutch in primary schools (Baquedano-Lopez, et. al., 2013). Initiated by the Mexican Embassy in the Netherlands, the project supports the interests of Mexican parents in sharing their culture with their children and provides tools that motivates and strengthen the formal acquisition, literacy, and proficiency of Spanish and Spanish literature to help them become in the future bi-cognitive bilingually proficient, global citizens, influential in decision-making spheres.

discussant

Domiziana Turcatti

University of Oxford

author

Maria Eugenia Calvo

author

Angela Baez

Naturgy Finance BV

author

Rosanna Evangelina De Bruin Ramirez

Education & Social Inequality 5

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #60 panel | SC Education and social inequality

Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Nepalese Immigrants in Portugal Alexandra Cristina Santos Pereira ISEG - University of Lisbon In this study, we analyze the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Nepalese immigrants currently living in Portugal. In particular, we detail the ways how health, housing, transportation and job inequalities, as well as information access opportunities (including language proficiency) and racial inequalities (including negative media exposure) affected the Nepalese immigration in Portugal during the Covid-19 pandemic, including the Spring and Autumn/Winter 2020-21 national lockdowns. Additionally, we address mobility, health education and inclusion topics, such as: migrant-led public health videos, posters and flyers in the translation initiatives developed by NIALP Nepalese Association in Portugal, and the impact of policies on the public perceptions of several forced collective quarantines of different groups of Nepalese workers around the country. This is a qualitative and quantitative research, combining participant observation, the field diary and ethnographic method, with semi-structured interviews to 6 Nepalese key-informants in Portugal and data collected (during the Autumn/Winter of 2020-21) from 100 online questionnaires to Nepalese immigrants all over the country, on the impacts of Covid-19 in their lives and livelihoods. We describe in detail major challenges faced by these individuals and their community during the pandemic, as described by them (increased discrimination; low-wage jobs and unemployment; overcrowded housing; access to food and clothes; healthcare access; SEF/residency card appointments; keeping their own businesses running; major use of public transports; confusing information and rules during pandemic/language barrier; poor sanitary protection at work; and trouble moving to a different country during the pandemic). Finally, we draw conclusions on public health inequalities for Nepalese immigrants and make related public policy suggestions. === Learning about the other and the meaning of integration between assimilation and intercultural dialogue. A comparative study exploring political discourse in immigrant hosting countries Anna Malandrino University of Bologna The term “integration” is often used to refer to the approaches and policies to be adopted for migrant minorities to live and coexist with the members of their host societies, as well as to the behavior expected of migrants vis-à-vis the dominant culture in host countries. In general, this translates in many European states adopting education policies imbued with cultural assimilation, which, as a matter of fact, force migrants to choose between the imitation of the dominant culture of the host country and the acceptance of lower social and political status. In other words, migrants are often considered a resource for a host society as long as they adapt to its prevailing customs, traditions, and language(s). This paper illuminates the political discourse between two ends of a continuum, i.e. assimilation and intercultural dialogue, by analyzing political communication in seven countries, i.e. Austria, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. While assimilation is based on the premise that cultural differences between migrant minority groups and established majority groups should vanish in a society which is proclaimed to be culturally homogeneous, intercultural dialogue implies that such differences are an advantage to a pluralistic society and involves multilateral activities for all the people in a changing society. These activities should include the opportunity for host society people to learn (about) migrant languages and cultures, in addition to the chance (or, more often, the de facto obligation) for migrants to learn (about) the dominant culture(s) and language(s) of the host country. === Migrants and refugees in the Greek educational system: towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 Dimitra Manou Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Anastasia Blouchoutzi University of Macedonia Jason Papathanasiou University of Macedonia Education is considered as an important (if not the most important) pillar of social integration. Effective integration of newly arrived refugee and migrant children and youth in the educational system has been an urgent issue for Greece especially after the migration crisis of 2015. Meanwhile, the country has committed to implement Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), inclusive education being one of them (SDG 4). The 2030 Agenda (UNGA, A/RES/70/1, 2015) calls all countries to align their development perspectives with the SDGs. Implementation of the SDGs requires the development of appropriate mechanisms and tools and cooperation at all governance levels (municipality, prefecture and central government). This paper explores the status of newly arrived refugees and asylum seekers in the Greek educational system and the steps taken (if any) towards inclusive education. It analyses the current legal and policy reforms in migrant/refugee education under the lens of social integration in Greece. It also refers to non-formal education initiatives in the context of integration activities. The authors have contacted semi-structured interviews in the framework of the H2020 project “Migration Governance and Asylum Crises – MAGYC” with relevant government authorities, NGOs and other state and non-state actors to depict the problems faced at all government levels (national and local) and explore the level of cooperation and coordination between different actors in the field of education. Finally, this paper suggests institutional responses in order to provide inclusive education for the newly arrived refugee/migrant children and secondly to create mid- and long-term structures for achieving SDG 4. === Power, Pedagogy and the inequitable schooling of second and third generation migrant youth in south-western Sydney schools Zainab Mourad Western Sydney University This qualitative case-study investigates the ways in which dynamics of neoliberalism and Islamophobia shape the schooling of second and third generation Arab Muslim students in Sydney schools. The schooling of minority Muslim students in Australia has been considered a problem for some time. Since the early phases of migration in the 1970s, Arab Muslims have been constructed as a pedagogical challenge. More recently, this has adopted political overtones, and concerns regarding educational attainment have moved towards issues of national security and sociopolitical integration. Drawing on the second and third generation Muslim population of South Western Sydney, this study captures the distinct voices of a late generation of Muslim students and their experiences of lived relations within schools. This study is underpinned by a social constructionist epistemology, critical theory and co-constitutive theory of discourse, power and knowledge (Foucault, 1972, 1980). The study also employs a multilevel analysis, consisting of three intersecting yet distinct levels: macro, meso and micro (Fairclough, 1995, 2003). The study was conducted across three schools in Sydney. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were held with teachers and Arab Muslim youth who were 10-12 years of age. Critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 1995) of the data found that structural inequality was discursively reproduced in schools, and second and third generation Muslim students drew on webs of connections that extend beyond cultural and national borders to counter and resist the neoliberal and Islamophobic discourses that situated them at the lower end of a cultural hierarchy and created inequitable schooling experiences for them.Consequently, this paper contends that the Department of Education must acknowledge multiple value systems and knowledge formations experienced by Australians in policy and practice. === School choice of West African Migrants and education in Ghana Daniel Faas Trinity College Dublin There is insufficient empirical evidence on the factors that underpin migrant school choices in countries in sub-Saharan Africa with most of the research focusing on schools in the global North. Based on a qualitative case study with parents of West African migrants (40) and principals (18), this article examines the factors underpinning school choices of migrants within Ghana’s educational system at primary and high school level. The 4As framework by Tomaseveki serves as a benchmark that helped in explaining the factors that shaped migrants’ school choice in Ghana. Our results show that there were no specific policies guiding migrant education and school choice in Ghana. Parents had freedom in exercising the educational choice for their children. This freedom was however constrained by their lower socio-economic levels which often forced them to limit their choices to public and low fee-paying private schools. Religion and proximity were other factors that informed school choices of our interviewees. The research highlighted the role of network and kinship ties in migrant education in Ghana. Our findings point to the importance of informal social networks in providing support to migrants in their education. In the absence of official policy and information, these social networks provide useful information that help guide migrant school choice and access into schools. Admittedly, it was not in all cases that these social networks proved helpful. Some of these social networks provided information that was based on their misconceptions of the educational system. This article contributes to the debate on networks and their importance in the absence of formal policy in educational systems.

author

Daniel Faas

Trinity College Dublin

author

Alexandra Santos Pereira

ISEG - University of Lisbon

author

Anna Malandrino

University of Bologna

author

Dimitra Manou

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

author

Anastasia Blouchoutzi

University of Macedonia

author

Jason Papathanasiou

University of Macedonia

author

Zainab Mourad

Western Sydney University

Migration, citizenship and political participation 4

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #61 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

Perception of social exclusion by first and second generation youth in Italy: toward apathy or political activism? Veronica Riniolo Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, Department of Sociology Livia Elisa Ortensi Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Department of Statistical Sciences ‘Paolo Fortunati’ Recent research has shown that despite a progressive enhancement of second generations socio-economic conditions in Europe, they still record the highest levels of social exclusion and discrimination. This is particularly true for higher-educated second generation who perceive more exclusion and discrimination than first generation immigrants. On the basis of data provided by the Survey on Condition and Social Integration of Foreign Citizens carried out by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) in 2011-12 (N=16,056), the overall aim of this study is to compare the perception of exclusion between first and second generation youth aged 14-35 in Italy and to explore how feeling of exclusion/inclusion influences the probability to be politically active. In the specific the present study addresses the following research questions: do second generation in Italy perceived to be more included or excluded than first generation immigrants? What factors (individual characteristics, socio-economic variables; migration history and country of origin) may influence their sense of inclusion/exclusion? And, finally, what is the effect of perception of exclusion on political participation? What forms of political participation are more likely to be performed by individuals who perceived to be excluded? To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study based on representative data at the national level that compares immigrant youth and second generation youth’s feeling of exclusion and its effect on political participation in Italy. === Humanitarianism as a depoliticization tool for protracted refugee situations and women’s resistance: Palestinian and Sahrawi refugees in dialogue with the Humanitarian Aid Regime María González Flores Universidade da Coruña "Humanitarian Aid has long been an active agent of depoliticization for the refugee population both in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and the Sahrawi Refugee Camps, two spaces almost entirely dependent on external aid for survival, where the economy relies heavily on those thick humanitarian networks of conditional aid. Said aid’s funding is controlled mostly by international or state agencies that establish strategic areas of action and prioritize the approaches that are aligned with their interests, meaning that donors get to dictate the narratives through which programs are implemented. That results in a nearsighted “human rights approach” on International Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid projects which do not challenge the main political reason why human rights are not respected (the occupation), and yet try to use buckets to bail out the water of a sinking boat. Palestinian and Sahrawi women activists have repeatedly denounced the intended progressive demobilization of their communities by covering just their basic needs and weakening their social fabric. Feminist or women emancipation activists have been the avant-garde of resistance against those practices, and both through strong female leaded care networks (especially in the Sahrawi Refugee Camps), organized movements (i.e. Talaat in Palestine) and different cultural practices, have fought and named the colonial implications of these narratives that also overlap with the problematization of securitization narratives and population control techniques as formulated by Critical Security Studies. This research comes from a Militant Feminist Activist approach, and thus it proposes a situated knowledge that focuses on the practices of resistance and negotiation of Sahrawi and Palestinian activists against the colonial, patriarchal, depoliticizing, demobilizing, securitizing aspects of their occupation(s) and the Humanitarian Aid Regime deployed around them." === Understanding populist resentment among Europe’s ethnic minority communities Koen Abts Tilburg University Julius Rogenhofer University of Cambridge Europe’s ethnic minorities are often understood as scapegoats and bogey men for right-wing populist movements. Deemed a cultural threat, external to the “pure people” by right-wing populists they seldom vote for the parties in question. Yet, ethnic minority groups share much of the resentment underpinning populist mobilisation in Europe- they struggle with displacement and confront cultural and economic anxieties. This article asks a pertinent but largely unexplored question: To what extent can we speak of populist resentment among Europe’s ethnic minority groups? Using data collected about Turkish and Moroccan-origin Belgians in the 2014 Belgian Ethnic Minority Election Study (N=878), we investigate how dimensions of resentment – i.e. feelings of anomia, economic insecurity, group relative deprivation and powerlessness – are related to populist attitudes within these minority communities, and which subgroups defined in structural terms are most likely to harbour these feelings of resentment and populist attitudes. Our results suggest that people-centrism and anti-establishment thinking among ethnic minority groups are linked to group relative deprivation and feelings of powerlessness. However, it is not only the most vulnerable, the so called “losers” of globalization, but also those in intermediary positions in society who tend to exhibit populist attitudes. The article ends by reflecting on the political significance of populist resentment within Europe’s ethnic and religious minorities and sets out an agenda for further research. === Integration into the Cities: Housing for EU Migrant Roma Emily Schraudenbach The George Washington University "An important aspect of social and racial justice is access to resources and services such as housing. While integration policy is funded at the supranational and national level, policy outcomes are realized at the local level. This paper asks two questions: what determines housing provisioning for EU migrant Roma at the municipal level and what role does housing play in their political participation? Conventional wisdom is that xenophobic and nativist attitudes keep political elites hostage to anti-immigrant policies. However, appropriate housing is still provided in xenophobic neighborhoods, suggesting that the relationship between xenophobic constituencies and integration policy is more complex than considered previously. In response to the first question, this paper argues that the associational legacy of the city matters. Cities that rely on NGO expertise will provide appropriate housing for migrant Roma because NGOs are best positioned to communicate the housing goals of the policy targets to municipality members. The strength of that associational network depends on the city's institutional legacy of welcoming migrants. Second, housing provisioning is a process that reveals contested understandings of who should be allowed to participate in the demos. The home is a material source of public engagement; it implicates civic ties to a neighborhood and a valid residential address. An investigation of housing policy demonstrates how migrants’ diverse residential modalities challenge the Western nation-state’s notion of what housing should look like (namely, atomized units for single or two-generational families). As such, this paper presents a novel theory of political participation founded in housing access, as well as original empirical evidence, comprised of digital archives and interviews with service provisioners in Lille, Toulouse and Leeds, to explain the institutional and discursive conditions under which housing is provided for EU migrant Roma." === A welcome consequence. The effects of asylum and civic integration policies on refugees' national identification and institutional trust Mieke Maliepaard WODC Sanne Noyon WODC Djamila Schans WODC Asylum and civic integration policies strongly shape the experiences of refugees in host societies upon arrival. More than other migrants, refugees interact with the host society mainly through its institutions, particularly in the first period after arrival. Yet we know little about the ways in which these interactions shape integration processes. Are positive early experiences with institutions beneficial to subsequent integration? In this study, we investigate to what extent experiences in the first years after arrival in the Netherlands shape integration processes of Syrian refugees, in particular their identification with the host society and their levels of institutional trust. We differentiate between objective characteristics such as duration of the procedure and time spent in asylum centres, and subjective evaluations of interactions with (members of) Dutch institutions. We analysed unique longitudinal data on 3500 Syrian refugees (two surveys, combined with registration data on the first five years they spent in the Netherlands), using Random Effects modelling. Results indicate that objective characteristics of the asylum procedure do not affect trust or host country identification. Conversely, experiences with asylum and civic integration procedures are associated with higher levels of institutional trust, and to a lesser extent to increased identification with the host society. Not only are positive interactions with institutions associated with increased trust in those institutions, we also find spillover effects to other institutions, such as the government, media and legal institutions. The results indicate that increased identification and trust are unintended by-products of Dutch asylum and civic integration policies.

author

Livia Elisa Ortensi

Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna

author

Veronica Riniolo

author

María González Flores

Universidade da Coruña

author

Koen Abts

Tilburg University

author

Emily Schraudenbach

The George Washington University

author

Sanne Noyon

author

Djamila Schans

WODC

author

mieke maliepaard

Norms & Values 6

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #62 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

Bonding and Bridging: Social capital as a means for young migrants’ integration in Luxembourg Volha Vysotskaya University of Luxembourg José Oliveira University of Luxembourg Birte Nienaber University of Luxembourg The development of social capital has been shown to have a significant impact on migrant integration. The means and modes in which social capital and migrant integration intercept are yet to be further elucidated for different segments of the migratory population. The present study is integrated in a research project financed by the Luxembourgish Ministry of Family and Integration entitled Social capital in the integration of young migrants in Luxembourg, theory and practice and addresses the relevance of social relationships in the integration process of young third country national migrants, aged 18 to 29 years old. The goal was to observe the social relationships young migrants rely on in their daily lives and to observe how they influence integration processes. For that purpose, interviews were conducted both with young migrants and experts and relevant actors engaged in the field of migrant integration. Content analysis permitted to observe, on the one hand, the decisive relevance of social bonds that serve as a secure base for ensuing exploratory integration activities and, on the other hand, the generally highly socially structured activity of social bridging. In fact, social class, language proficiency, country of origin, ethnicity seem to bring about highly segmented ways of social relating that will eventually translate into segmented patterns of identity and life path construction in the domains of education and work. Results are discussed with reference to multiculturalism and intercultural practices. === Are Muslim immigrants assimilating? Cultural assimilation trajectories in immigrants' attitudes toward gender role in Europe Ka U Ng McGill University While public attitudes toward gender roles are increasingly becoming more liberal in Western societies, Muslim immigrants are labelled as conservative and even "unassimilated" in Europe. Previous studies consistently demonstrate that Muslim immigrants and their children tend to hold traditional gender values and are more anchored in their home country. However, these studies suffer from a methodological problem that fails to capture immigrants' substantial assimilation and dissimilation process between their sending and receiving country by only comparing the mean value of gender attitudes between Muslim immigrant groups and other immigrant groups. Instead, this article treats acculturation as a process that immigrants shift their social and cultural values from their home society to their destination country. Using data on attitudes toward gender role in 32 European destination countries and 98 origin countries and a cross-classified multilevel regression model, I model the relative influence of origin and destination contexts on 25,220 first- and second-generation immigrants in Europe. In contrast to previous literature, Muslims are not only assimilated but also show stronger acculturation in gender norms than other non-Muslim immigrants. Future studies should re-investigate the bright boundary between Muslims and mainstream society in Muslim immigrant’s acculturation. === The stranger in the making: Class, race and xenophobia in larger flows of migration in the Global South Gladis Aguirre Vidal Independent researcher Maria Calderon Munoz Independent researcher In January 2019, news sites reported that a Venezuelan had killed his partner, an Ecuadorian woman pregnant with their child. The president, Lenin Moreno, vowed to tighten entry requirements for Venezuelans. Furthermore, social media and newspapers were awash with opinions that labelled Venezuelans as dangerous criminals that should be denied entry to Ecuador. This is not the first time that migrants and refugees have been used as scapegoats: Colombians first and Cubans later, have been categorised as delinquents, and not the right type of foreigners the country needs (as opposed to Europeans or North Americans). In contrast, Ecuadorian migrants abroad are seen as heroic and valiant, hard workers and reliable, sacrificing themselves for their families. The media shows that we condemn news of xenophobia and hate crimes against Ecuadorian migrants and, faced with news of Ecuadorians breaking the law we are quick to object generalisations, the opposite of the way Venezuelan migrants are viewed and treated within Ecuador. In this research, we look at how migrants are perceived as oppositional categories according to their country of origin: good/bad migrants; constructive/harmful migration; heroic/invasive migrants, etc. We conclude that perceptions of migration are a mirror in which we, as a nation understand long-existing racial hierarchies; however, the difference is that within current migration flows, we are transferring labels previously based on the colour of the skin to cultural stereotypes, dangerously silencing class differences. Furthermore, the sublimation of Ecuadorian migrants contributes to the construction of a national myth that is used for political gains that seek to stir nationalistic ideas and reimagine Ecuador as a united country where some leave for the common good. Our research findings contribute to a better understanding of xenophobia in the Latin American region and to a needed discussion of how to promote more open and fair borders. === Migration and funeral practices in Luxembourg. Negotiating the aesthetics of mourning Elisabeth Boesen Institute for History, University of Luxembourg The conception of modern cemeteries is based on the idea that the dead should be united without regard to socio-economic or national-cultural distinctions, in some cases even to religious differences. In actual fact, however, such differences are often marked with particular clarity. Migration research on cemeteries and funeral practices is sparse and national differences in funeral cultures have rarely been the object of systematic social and cultural studies research. One exception is the comparative study by Jack Goody and Cesare Poppi on Italian and Anglo-Saxon cemeteries that differ with regard to the aesthetic acceptability and general decency of floral grave ornaments (Goody & Poppi 1994). While confessional differences are quite irrelevant on Luxembourgish cemeteries, the described aesthetic contrast is important and turns the latter into symbolic representations of the country’s immigration society. The paper concentrates on Portuguese and Cape Verdean funeral practices in Luxembourg and looks on the materiality of the grave and the expressive modes of mourning. It argues that the negotiation of funeral aesthetics is an apt field for the study of the social in/visibility of migrants, i.e. of multiple and interrelated processes of identification, social recognition and control. By denoting the link between perception and power the concept of in/visibility helps to grasp an important element of the relation between migrant groups and majority population that escapes the usual treatment of this relation in terms of achievement, legal status, and integration.

author

Birte Nienaber

University of Luxembourg

author

Volha Vysotskaya

University of Luxembourg

author

Ka U Ng

McGill University

author

Gladis Aguirre Vidal

author

Maria Calderon Munoz

UKRI

author

Elisabeth Boesen

Université du Luxembourg

author

José Egidio Oliveira

University of Luxembourg

Transnationalism and theoretical innovations

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #63 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

PAPER #1 An evaluation of the mixed embeddedness approach: Historicized and transnationalized entrepreneurship of Turkish and Kurdish migrants in Germany and the UK AUTHOR(S) Mehmet Rauf Kesici (Freie Universität Berlin, School of Business and Economics) ABSTRACT This study, adopting a critical and comparative perspective, examines the mixed embeddedness approach. It aims to contribute to the literature which seeks to provide a historical and transnational perspective on the model. The paper, based on a qualitative study, focuses primarily on ethnic economies of Turkish and Kurdish migrants in Germany and the UK. These migrants have constructed similar ethnic economies based on the service sector with strenuous working conditions in these two countries roughly since the 1970s. However, Germany and the UK are very distinctive in terms of institutional context and markets. Additionally, the number of immigrants, their immigration histories, the ethnic and religious backgrounds of these migrants are very different in these two countries. My paper examines the conditions of possibilities of how Kurdish and Turkish migrants could create very similar ethnic economies in Germany and the UK despite all these differences. While doing so, I argue that the mixed embeddedness approach needs a historical and transnational perspective to be a more effective analytic tool in clarifying migrant entrepreneurship and ethnic economies. The paper asserts that to compare ethnic economies in different countries, instead of adding historical and transnational contexts (embeddedness) to the mixed embeddedness approach, the elements of the model (social embeddedness and institutional context) need to be historicized and transnationalized. PAPER #2 New research approaches for new migrations: the Italian case analysed through the stories and words of migrants AUTHOR(S) Martina Bellinzona (University for Foreigners of Siena) ABSTRACT The DiMMi project (Multimedia Diaries for Migrants) has been collecting testimonies of migrants, who live or have lived in Italy, since 2012. These multimodal stories, in the form of diaries, letters and autobiographical memoirs, are collected and disseminated through a national contest with the aim of preserving a cultural heritage that is in danger of being lost, and countering stereotypes on migration. The winning stories of the contest constitute the corpus that has been analysed from a content and thematic point of view through Nvivo 11 Pro. A mixed methodological approach, which includes a synthesis between Qualitative Content Analysis and the principles of Grounded Theory, consisting in inductive and deductive category development, guided the analysis. This methodology has allowed the identification of over 200 thematic categories and sub-categories, called tree and child nodes, which reflect, on the one hand, the heterogeneity of human and migratory experiences, and on the other, the changes, in the last decades, of the migratory phenomenon within the national borders. The intervention aims, first, to illustrate the innovative methodological approach, considered useful for framing the migratory phenomenon in all its components, from the point of view and according to the sensitivity of the migrants themselves. Secondly, particular attention will be paid to the linguistic component, which assumes a strong weight both in qualitative and quantitative terms, underlining once more the decisive role that the language plays within the migratory phenomenon, and bringing to light its importance, among others, for integration and identity. PAPER #3 "Forced Migration and Transnational Family Arrangements – Eritrean and Syrian Refugees in Germany (TransFAR)": The aim, scope and design of a new quantitative survey AUTHOR(S) Elisabeth K. Kraus (Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany) Kamal Kassam (Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany) Lenore Sauer (Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany) Susanne Schührer (Research Centre of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees) ABSTRACT Forced migration and its impact on family dynamics is a timely topic with high policy relevance. Yet, it has received little scientific attention, due to the lack of adequate data on refugee populations. We introduce the project "Forced Migration and Transnational Family Arrangements – Eritrean and Syrian Refugees in Germany" (TransFAR), which aims at filling this gap by determining the composition and spatial dispersion of forced migrants’ family networks as well as the way in which these interact with personal social networks in the host society. The project takes a comparative cross-national perspective by covering two of the major countries of origin of refugees in Germany: Eritrea and Syria. These two countries serve as illustrative examples of the migration/flight dynamics and integration processes established between Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, and European refugee receiving countries. The quantitative survey that underpins the TransFAR project was carried out in summer 2020, targeting individuals with Eritrean or Syrian citizenship aged 18 to 45 years at arrival, who migrated to Germany between June 2013 and June 2019. The nationally representative sample was drawn from the Central Register of Foreigners in Germany. Several survey items and the interview situation were amended to consider the impact of the pandemic on (transnational) families as well as to minimise the risk of Covid-19 infections. The aims of our contribution are twofold: first, we present the TransFAR project and the underlying survey design and methodological approaches and challenges, and, second, we provide first results drawn from the data.

author

Mehmet Rauf Kesici

Freie Universität Berlin

author

Martina Bellinzona

author

Elisabeth Katharina Kraus

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Kamal Kassam

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Lenore Sauer

Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany

author

Susanne Schührer

Research Centre of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees

Migrant Transnationalism 7

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #64 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

Diaspora and (Dis)Integration: A Comparative Analysis of New Chinese MIgrants in Singapore and the UK, 2010-2020 Hong Liu School of Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore This paper examines different patterns of integration of new Chinese migrants in Singapore and the UK, with a focus on changing identity, the role of the state and social institutions, and culture in shaping the trajectories of the Chinese diaspora in the two countries. It will first examine the new political economy of the two countries over the past decade against the backdrop of the rise of China and mounting US-China tensions. The second part of the paper discusses the changing demographics of the Chinese communities in the two countries, including various social and economic factors in affecting the demographics, as well as government policies toward migration. The third part analyses how new Chinese migrants engage with both the mainstream societies while maintaining transnational linkages with the homeland. The conclusion will consider the broader theoretical implications for migration integration, identity formation, social cohesion, and economic inequality. The data for this paper are mainly from interviews, participatory observations, various accounts (both official and social media) pertaining to the immigration experiences. === Transnational healthcare arrangements of Tunisian migrants in Europe: diasporic medical returns and community-based responses to healthcare risks during the pandemic. Carole Wenger Centre for Ethnic and Migration Studies (CEDEM), University of Liège Existing literature on health and migration has been largely concerned with the impact of migration on the health of immigrants. Studies on transnational medical travels on the other hand, have looked at the process by which people seek different health services across borders. The division between these two fields of studies is nor simple nor rigid. In fact, both phenomena are embedded in larger complex dynamics of increasing international mobility, globalization of healthcare governance and societal and political debates around inclusion and/or exclusion of migrants from healthcare entitlements. This article examines Tunisian migrant’s transnational healthcare arrangements and the barriers and opportunities in accessing healthcare in both their home and host countries. It will explore how Tunisian migrants meet their healthcare needs through the mobilization of transnational resources. In that perspective, transnational ties, networks and flows constitute a useful resource to meet healthcare needs. Drawing on literature on diasporic medical mobilities, the paper will primarily address medical returns of Tunisian residing abroad and the construction of transnational ties through the consumption of medical care. Secondly, by considering the role of ‘homeland actors’ towards the health of their co-nationals it explores the emergence of community-based responses to healthcare risks during the pandemic. Drawing on data collected through a multi-sited ethnography and online ethnography the paper maps the multiple drivers of these transnational healthcare practices. ‘Medical home’ is proposed as a term to describe migrants' attachment and engagement to places in which they seek medical care. Key words: Migration and health, transnationalism, diasporic medical mobilities, pandemic, Tunisia. === When women leave – social discourses on the female Ukrainian migration. Alina Penkala Ghent University Ine Lietaert Ghent University Ilse Derluyn Ghent University It is well known that mobility alters people’s attachment to places and as such return demands renegotiations of a sense of belonging to a new life and a changed place. The impact of the places to which people return has been mainly investigated through its structural components and more insight and empirical data is needed to understand how discourses to which returnees are subjected in places of return enable or hamper attachment to a place and ability to find belonging. The Ukrainian female labour migration to Italy is marked by a negative public discourse. The dominant narratives on mobility of that group, its scale, composition, dynamic, impact on society, families, children and the nation, have portrayed it as a shameful social problem. Knowing what such narratives do to societies, influencing people’s attitudes, it is problematic for the big group of women that is recently returning to Ukraine after their stay in Italy. However, rich academic literature on this specific migration trajectory shows that very different narratives are used by migrants themselves and their children, which shape their behaviours in both Italy and Ukraine. It points out the ongoing transnational negotiations about the meaning of their migration experience, meaning of the monetary and social remittances. This has consequences for the migrants’ practices of integration in Italy and their successful negotiation of belonging after the return to Ukraine. === Senegalese Collective Imaginaries about Migration – Production and Reproduction in the Country of Origin and Implications Julia Stier WZB Berlin Social Science Center Collective imaginaries about migration have implications for the mobility behavior of people in the countries of origin but also on migrants’ lives. Imaginaries are meaning-systems that are collectively shared in society and are used by people to make sense of the world. They are historically and culturally embedded and change over time. This article examines the production and reproduction of collective imaginaries about migration and migrants’ lives in a transnational space and their implications by looking at the example of the West African state Senegal. Senegal has a long migratory history with Europe that is strongly shaped by its colonial past and an ongoing migration to various European and African countries. Collective imaginaries about migration in Senegal are historically rooted in society. The analysis is based on 41 semi-structured interviews conducted in Senegal’s capital Dakar and the Casamance region with family members and friends of migrants, returned migrants and experts. The research particularly focusses on the impact of visible artefacts of migratory success, such as new constructions in the place of origin and migrant’s auto-representations on Social Media, in the (re-)production of imaginaries. The article argues that collective imaginaries play an important role in shaping the transnational relations between migrants and their families and friends in the country of origin, not only on a personal level but also concerning remittances and the transfer of knowledge and information.

author

carole wenger

Liège university

author

Ine Lietaert

University of Ghent

author

Alina Penkala

Ghent University

author

Hong Liu

School of Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

author

Ilse Derluyn

Ghent University

author

Julia Stier

Berlin Social Science Center (WZB)

Reflexive Migration Studies 12

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #65 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

Critical Dialectic Geography: Space is more than a container in studies of ethnic margninalization Nawal Shaharyar Tallinn University This presentation offers new insights on how a synthesis between Bourdieu’s relationalism and Lefebvre’s sociology can pave way for ‘critical dialectic geography’ (CDG) that overcomes apparent antinomies of spatiality between physical spaces entrenched in realist notions, and social spaces located purely in the ‘cultural realm of experiances, discourses and dynamics’. Through synthesizing the locus of fields and habitus in the context of the multi-dimensional (but interlinked) productions of space- a critical ontological and epistemological schema of social reality can be developed that problematizes and localizes the peculiar dynamics of how spatiality is produced, experienced and contested among different ethnic and social groups within urban centers. CDG can thus be applied to explore the specific dynamics that structure and frame experiances of ethnic marginalization and residential segregation in neighborhoods, to demonstrate how urban space is not a-priori geographical entity but rather a field of contested representations between localized experiances of minorities and generalized discourses and representations of majorities === Conculture as a resistance strategy of young Ukrainian migrants in Poland Urszula Markowska-Manista Faculty of Education, University of Warsaw Marta Jadwiga Pietrusińska Faculty of Sociology, University of Warsaw Ukrainians are the largest group of immigrants in Poland. Their increased migration since 2014 has helped to transform Poland into a (slightly) more multicultural country, but it has also provoked tensions. With the rise of anticolonial nationalistic sentiments in Ukraine and Ukrainian students in Warsaw experiencing Polish neocolonialism and discrimination, the municipal discourse about migrants’ integration is complex. The paper presents results from 91 interviews with Ukrainian students living in Warsaw, conducted in 2019-2020 within a participatory approach. This allowed us to identify a new social phenomenon – conculture. We understand the term as a set of cultural practices initiated by a minority group of migrants in their new place of residence, resulting from the cultural, national script of this group. Migrants strengthen their affiliation to their diaspora community and its practices without bonding to the dominant culture of the host society they live in. It is important to emphasise that such practices are not used to foster the national cultural canon or folklore, but participation in globalised popular culture (only) within their own culturally and socioeconomically familiar group. As our research reveals concultural practices are motivated by three factors: a search for familiar ways of celebrating popular culture according to one’s own cultural script; seeking more effective communication and understanding; avoidance of discriminatory situations that disorganise migrants’ sense of security. In the case of Ukrainian educational migrants, one more factor strengthens concultural practices – it is the postcolonial relation between Poles and Ukrainians. Conculture appears thus to us as a postcolonial resistance practice. === Decolonising Migrant Cinema: Off-screen Transcultural Encounters between Italian Migrants and Indigenous Australians in the documentaries of Alessandro and Fabio Cavadini Matteo Dutto Monash University Stories of encounters between Italian migrants and Indigenous Australians have rarely been portrayed in film form by either Italian or Australian filmmakers, reflecting a lack of interest that is not incidental but constitutive to how migrants’ sense of belonging and identity is negotiated in contemporary Australia and in other settler colonial countries. The separation between Indigenous and migrant histories is an enduring aspect of settler colonial historiographies built on settler/native binaries and fails to acknowledge and engage with the long histories of entanglement between Indigenous people and non-Anglo migrants. Since the early 1970s Italian and Italo-Australian filmmakers have established prolific relations with Indigenous communities and cultural producers, collaborating on projects that focus on Indigenous histories and cultures, rather than on Italian migrants’ experiences, in an attempt to decolonize settler colonial historiographies through Indigenous epistemologies and representation strategies. Focusing on the work of Alessandro and Fabio Cavadini, two migrant Italian filmmakers that since the late 1960s have collaborated with Indigenous activists and communities across Australia to realize numerous documentaries, this paper explores the role that screen media productions have played in representing Indigenous-migrant relationalities and in enacting alternative modes of belonging through trans-cultural collaborations. It argues that these accounts add complexity to our understanding of the position that migrants and Indigenous people occupy in contemporary Australia and in other settler colonial societies, shedding light on how encounters between migrants and Indigenous people can work to reinforce settler colonial ideologies or instead towards decolonization and the redefinition of new models of transcultural belonging that operate at the borders of different epistemologies and draw on embodied and localised sense of belonging and identity. === Conditions and processes of refugee parents' trust building towards early childhood education and care in Germany: First results of an explorative mixed-methods study Laura Wenzel Leuphana University Lüneburg Hila Kakar Leuphana University Lüneburg Early childhood education and care (ECEC) is crucial for the social participation of refugee families, as it contributes to the education, upbringing and social involvement of young children. Additionally, the use of ECEC services can be an important factor for the parents’ integration, as it may have a positive impact on parents’ language learning, job search, and on their networking with other parents (Gambaro et al. 2019). Bearing in mind, that first studies state that children with a refugee background on average take advantage of early childhood education to a smaller extent than other children in Germany (Gambaro et al. 2017) it is highly relevant to create more in-depth empirical knowledge on the context and effects of ECEC services for refugee families. An essential, but so far little researched, precondition for the use of ECEC services, plays the trust of parents towards these services. Moreover, initial findings point to the special role of a person of trust for refugee parents in this context (e.g., Omar et al. 2009; Baisch et al. 2017). The data used in the paper was collected in a subject-oriented perspective, which aims to reconstruct the view of the addressees using a mixed-methods approach. For this purpose, the results from a quantitative online survey and from in-depth qualitative participant interviews with refugee parents in Lower Saxony/Germany were triangulated. The aim is to analyze how (qualitative, process-oriented analysis) and under which conditions (quantitative, overview-oriented analysis) parents with refugee experience develop trust towards ECEC services – as a precondition for getting access to and using these services. In this way, we argue in intentional contrast to perspectives that conceptualize the use of ECEC services by families with migration and refugee experience as a one-sided integration achievement and thus as an integration indicator.

author

Matteo Dutto

Monash University

author

Laura Wenzel

Leuphana University

author

Nawal Shaharyar

Tallinn University

author

Marta Jadwiga Pietrusinska

University of Warsaw

author

Urszula Markowska-Manista

University of Warsaw

author

Hila Kakar

Leuphana University Lüneburg

Migration, citizenship and political participation 8

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #66 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

Between claims making, service organizing and control – Refugee related organizations in Turkey Ludger Pries Ruhr-Universität Bochum Berna Zülfikar Savci Ruhr-Universität Bochum In the spatial and social movement of refugees, migrant organisations and civil society networks always are crucial, as they work between bridging and bonding, claims making and providing services. In a broader sense, refugee related organizations (RRO) span from state near control authorities up to grass root action networks. An interesting case is Turkey hosting some 4.5 3.6 million refugees only from Syria and being a crucial transit country for forced migration. International governmental and non-governmental organizations, strong central state and Islamic traditions of charity shape the societal environment of RROs. In Turkey the societal environment of RROs is strongly influenced by Islamic traditions of charity and by a strong central state. On the background of multiple internal and international armed conflicts in Middle East, especially the organized violence and oppression in Syria with the effect of a massive forced migration towards Turkey and the European Union, in March 2016 the EU and Turkey negotiated a deal. This EU-Turkey deal (EUTD) provided a substantial flow of money (some 6 billion Euros in four years) from the EU. Based on expert interviews in Turkey and an analysis of the budget spending of the EUTD the paper analyses (1) how the landscape of RROs could be characterised as it developed until 2015, (2) for what activities and how the budget of the EUTD was spent and (3) how the EUTD related actions are seen by old-established Turkish RROs. By this the paper adds new insights into the contradictory dynamics between humanitarian aid and development activities, between organizing services for refugees and controlling and containing refugee movements to the EU, between assisting and instrumentalizing the forced migrants in Turkey." === Centering on immigrants of color: the culture of organizing for domestic workers' rights in the US Anna Rosińska Ca' Foscari Domestic work or household-based care work remains a vital part of social reproduction and it presents considerate challenges to workers' organizing (isolation, vulnerability, and intimate relationships between workers and employers). In the United States, the household workforce is very diverse, with immigrants and people of color being overrepresented. At the same time, domestic workers in the US have also proved to be resilient and innovative organizers, including under the COIVID-19-related crisis. As a movement, domestic workers’ organizations, which are now composed mainly of immigrants, and perceived in public discourse as a domain of immigrants of color, have collective identity decisions to make in terms of strategizing their struggle. The global pandemic has intertwined immigration and workers' rights even more than before. This paper examines the culture of organizing for immigrant and workers' rights, applying the levels of intersectionality perspective (the collective identity of the organizations, the claims, activities, and frames that they mobilize, and the alliances they establish) in domestic work activism at the national and state level (Massachusetts), using census data, website content analysis, and expert interviews, against the background of selected European case-countries (Italy and Germany). === Italian citizens, South Tyrolean identity, translocal connections? Second Generation Youth and the complexities of becoming and being citizens in South Tyrol, Northern Italy Johanna Mitterhofer Eurac Research This paper explores citizenship beyond its formal legal status, presenting it as contextual to a place’s local culture and history, and an individual’s lived experience (Isin & Nielsen 2008; Jašina-Schäfer & Cheskin 2020; Kallio et al. 2020). It investigates everyday negotiations of citizenship by second generation youth in South Tyrol, Italy. By exploring alternative meanings and practices of citizenship within a single local context at the margins of a state, by a group often considered to be at the margins of a society, the paper moves toward an understanding of citizenship that is ‘historically grounded and geographically responsive’ (Isin 2008). Since South Tyrol became part of Italy in 1920 – and its inhabitants Italian citizens – categories of citizenship and identity have been politically charged. For many South Tyroleans, Italian citizenship is a mere legal formality without a connected sense of national identity. Calls for dual Italian-Austrian citizenship are periodically voiced. People with migrant background also experience this particular local context, which shapes the meaning of citizenship and belonging in this autonomous province. Drawing on a study of second generation youth, for which we conducted 23 semi-structured interviews with young people aged 16-30 whose parents arrived from various non-EU countries, this paper explores how they experience the complex and complicated local discourses surrounding Italian citizenship and South Tyrolean identity, while simultaneously negotiating the complicated path toward the acquisition of Italian citizenship. How do they contribute to local discourses and practices on citizenship? By answering these questions, the paper explores the complex negotiations that go into these young people's attempts to find their place as a minority within a minority, and as Italian citizens within the Italian state. === Home accommodation of asylum seekers in Finland: Solidarity and resistance. Paula Merikoski University of Helsinki All over Europe, civic mobilisations in solidarity with people crossing borders have proliferated over the past decade. Since the ‘long summer of migration’ in 2015, various new collectivities by migrants and their supporters emerged to claim rights and contest restrictions to migration (della Porta 2018; Kasparek & Speer 2015). In Finland, a grassroots initiative for accommodating asylum seekers by local people was formed in 2015, providing many asylum seekers a chance to live in a local home instead of a reception centre, isolated from the surrounding community, during the lengthy asylum process. By opening their homes, the hosts aim to contest the political atmosphere that is increasingly hostile towards migration and migrants and to make a hospitable statement (Merikoski 2020). This empirical paper reveals the home - a space often perceived as private and out-of-site - as a space of resistance where the right to asylum is being claimed and administrative borders challenged. Furthermore, by opening their homes the hosts take part in the societal debates over who is welcome to the country (cf. Anderson et al. 2011). Home accommodation turns the private home into a space where encounters, new relationships and solidarities emerge between people from different societal positions sharing the same aims; a more welcoming and inclusive society. Drawing from feminist understanding of concepts of home and citizenship, this paper connects private and intimite with political and global spheres of agency (e.g. Blunt & Dowling 2006; Lister 2007; Yuval-Davis 1999). === The role of civic integration policy and labour market activity in Dutch language acquisition of Syrian asylum residence permit holders Linda Bakker Significant Public Jaco Dagevos Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau Maja Djundeva Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau The language acquisition of the host country is one of the most important post-migration human capital factors for successful integration of refugees. Residence permit holders in command of the host country language have a better chance to find work and establish social ties with other members of the community. We investigate the influence of the civic integration and labour market policies on the Dutch language acquisition of Syrian refugees in the Netherlands by using a large representative two-wave panel survey of Syrian refugees who received a residence permit in the Netherlands between 2014 and 2016 (N= 2141), supplemented with individual information from Statistics Netherlands. Language acquisition is measured using a self-reported language score (on a scale 1-10), respectively in 2017 and 2019. We use a hybrid model to estimate the within-person effects of passing the Dutch Civic Integration Exam and being active on the labour market, as well as the between-person effects of activities in the asylum seekers centers and other confounders measuring residence duration, human capital, social networks and personal motivation. After adjusting for all confounders, the results show that permit holders who have successfully passed the Civic Integration Exam report better language acquisition than those who have not (yet) completed the exam. For those who are active on the labour market there is a within-person effect on language improvement across waves. Status holders holding an exemption from passing the Civic Exam report worse language acquisition than those who have not (yet) completed the exam.

author

Ludger Pries

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

author

Berna Safak Zulfikar Savci

Ruhr University Bochum

author

Anna Rosińska

CMR

author

Johanna Mitterhofer

Eurac Research

author

Paula Merikoski

University of Helsinki

author

Linda Bakker

Significant Public

author

Jaco Dagevos

Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau

author

Maja Djundeva

National Institute for Social Research (SCP)

Migration Politics & Governance 7

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #67 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

Open borders versus inclusive membership? Explaining the association between immigration and citizenship regimes Samuel Schmid Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity Political theory and empirical research often assume that there is a trade-off between open borders and inclusive citizenship. I develop an alternative account in which this widespread trade-off assumption is contextualized within a more comprehensive explanatory framework and analysis. The central claim is that the association between what I conceptualize as Immigration Regime Openness (IRO) and Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness (CRI) depends on the politicization of immigration. When immigration is not politicized, IRO and CRI follow distinct logics and are not systematically associated. The logics underlying IRO and CRI converge with rising levels of politicization, which triggers the need to politically accommodate nativist parties and deal with immigration-related issues. When nativists can exert power, boundary regimes are more closed-exclusive. When nativist power is contained or limited, boundary regimes are more open-inclusive. If this pattern manifests within countries, there should also be a positive correlation between IRO and CRI across countries, when immigration is politicized. Quantitative and nested qualitative analyses across 23 democracies 1980-2019 corroborate most propositions and nuance others. Most importantly, case study evidence suggests that nativists trade off exclusive citizenship with more open borders when they are in government as junior partners of conservative parties. This leads to greater similarity to open-exclusive boundary regimes rather than to closed-exclusive regimes when nativists are strong in politicized contexts. The paper advances our empirical understanding of the context-dependent association between immigration and citizenship politics and bears important implications for the long-standing normative debate on the topic. === A Sea of Emergencies. The Roots of Dangerous Routes in the Channel of Sicily Giuliano Beniamino Fleri Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies of Geneva The tragedy of poor and hungry people looking for a better life continues. Yesterday the hope of about twenty of these desperate, all from North Africa, shattered dramatically against the stormy sea off the coast of Lampedusa, in the Sicilian Channel. Twenty would die». This article from the famous Italian newspaper ‘La Repubblica’ sounds curiously similar to the continuous news about migrants’ deaths punctually hitting Italian and European headlines. Nevertheless, these words were written on April 26, 1996. Since then, thousands of similar articles have been written. Notwithstanding, public opinion keeps presenting the question of irregular Mediterranean migration as a ‘new’ phenomenon. Every new landing or shipwreck seems to bear a foundational character. In this framework in which the polarization between humanitarian and security issues dominates the public debate, the question remains embedded in the latest events while the evolution and the historical depth of the phenomenon remains under-analyzed. Nevertheless, tragedies like those of April 1996 remind us that the process that turned the Channel of Sicily into the deadliest border in the world began more than 25 years ago. Using available sources, the present paper aims to sketch a historical reflection on the underlying causes that have shaped the Channel of Sicily into a ‘space of emergencies’. Why have these dangerous forms of border crossing gradually become the norm? What part did the Italian and European administrations play in creating this movement regime? What were the forms of mobility prior to irregular migrations? By reflecting on these these questions, the present paper will show how the European integration process, the enforcement of stricter migration policies and informal connection between the opposing Mediterranean shores coalesced to shape the Channel of Sicily into a ‘sea of emergencies’. === The Future of Migration Politics: How do Policymakers Predict and Manage the Evolution of Mobility in Times of Uncertainty VARI-LAVOISIER Sciences Po Anticipation is key to policymaking (Tetlock et al. 2016). Geopolitical uncertainty at the supranational and national levels currently places subnational stakeholders in an unseen situation. Despite their lack of prerogatives with respect to the regulation of migration, they bear responsibility for managing their consequences, and ensure the local provision of public services, as well as the well-being of their populations. Since March 2020, transnational mobility is on hold. How do policymakers anticipate and manage the (un)intended consequences of the closure of international borders? The PLAN project (Prevision-making at the Local level: Anticipating what’s Next) seizes the current historical moment to shed new light on political decision-making. To this end, the project combines high-quality administrative sources with original survey data, documenting policymakers' predictions regarding the short-term evolutions of migration. The comparison of stakeholders’ forecasts (at T0 and T+1) with objective administrative data (at T+1 and T+2) brings new objective evidence to the study of future-oriented cognition. The results show the benefits of pooling predictions to anticipate short-term evolutions. By doing so, this project sheds new light on the social and cognitive resources used to plan and manage mobility in times of uncertainty. " === Externalized borders within Europe: the current and future role of the Canary Islands (Spain) Inmaculada Antolinez-Dominguez University of Cadiz Esperanza Jorge-Barbuzano University of Cadiz The arrivals of migrant population from West Africa to Europe through the so-called Western Mediterranean route suffered a significant blockage in 2019, following the agreements between Spain and Morocco to stop migration in the territory. Similar processes were experienced in previous years on the route from Libya to Italy, as well as on the route from Turkey to Greece. The year 2020 has offered an unpublished photo since 2006: the rebound of the route through the Canary Islands. Arrivals have multiplied by 30% in relation to 2019 and Spain has once again been the first country in asylum requests. The presentation includes the incipient analysis of the data produced in a field work carried out in December 2020 in the islands of Gran Canarias, Fuerteventura and Tenerife, within the framework of a project of the University of Cádiz with the NGO Mujeres en Zona de Conflicto. This has been based on conducting interviews with key actors in the context; the documentary analysis of the press; creative narrative workshops with migrant women in reception resources and; observations in the key contexts of the three islands. The results point to the role that the Canary Islands may be playing as a border blockade based on: 1) making it impossible to refer people to the peninsula; 2) deploy financial investment for the construction and / or reopening of reception facilities that keep the population on the islands and; 3) a manifest intention to reinforce returns and repatriations as soon as the opening of borders allows it. All this generates important reflections on the violation of the human rights of migrants in said territory, as has been shown by the Spanish Ombudsman himself and several social organizations from the retention of up to 2,600 people in the dock of Arguineguin in Gran Canarias.

author

Giuliano Beniamino Fleri

IHEID

author

Samuel David Schmid

European University Institute

author

Inmaculada Antolinez-Dominguez

University of Cadiz

author

Ilka Vari-Lavoisier

UPENN

author

Esperanza Jorge Barbuzano

Migration Politics & Governance 10

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #68 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

Humanitarian assistance in the MENA region – The case of Hungary and Turkey in a comparative perspective Tamas Dudlak Corvinus University of Budapest "As recent public and scholarly inquiries started to express interest in the political developments in Turkey and Hungary from a comparative perspective, it is timely and relevant to analyze, compare and review the rise of humanitarian politics pursued by the respective governments of these countries. This paper suggests that both countries try to build a better image of themselves in the international arena through state-related humanitarian activism and seek influence in specific – culturally and ideologically related – external environments even beyond their regional impact. It is interesting to see how their spatial positionality would affect how they negotiate their identities concerning humanitarianism and how anti-migrant states are trying to foster audiences as humanitarian actors at home, on the EU level, and in the Middle East. In Hungary, the government has a clear anti-migrant stance, and its humanitarian activity is mainly motivated by the mitigation of the root causes of migration by helping the local communities affected by various crises. In Turkey’s case, lately, there is a tendency towards the same (dispositive) approach as the government tries to force the return of Syrian refugees by providing them support in their original Syrian environment. For comparison, this paper analyses different projects of various state agencies of Hungary and Turkey, all related to their activities in the MENA region. The fields of action of these state institutions or government-related organizations range from disaster relief aid, education assistance, post-conflict reconstruction, direct investment to culturally related (language, religion) assistance for conflict-ridden societies. In the analysis, it is essential to see the driving factors behind the selection process of the projects, how the respective governments communicate these initiatives, and in general, what are the leading causes of the emergence of humanitarianism both in Turkey and Hungary? " === The accommodation and housing of asylum seekers in metropolitan Athens, Greece: Institutional policies and socio-spatial relationships in everyday life Eva (Evangelia) Papatzani National Technical University of Athens Timokleia Psallidaki National Technical University of Athens Irini Micha National Technical University of Athens George Kandylis National Center for Social Research "The accommodation and housing policies for asylum seekers that have been established in Greece during the last years consist of two main axes: On the one hand, the “campization” of accommodation in mainland camps, usually located at the outskirts of the cities, that (re)produce socio-spatial segregation and isolation. On the other hand, the accommodation in apartments in urban residential areas, in the mixed neighborhoods of Greek cities, in close spatial proximity with locals and previously settled immigrants. This presentation aims to explore the multiple and uneven geographies of the accommodation and housing policies for asylum seekers in metropolitan Athens, as well as their impact on socio-spatial identities, relationships, and networks. It explores the everyday socio-spatial relationships established between asylum seekers living in different accommodation types, as well as between them and locals or already settled immigrants, by highlighting the emergence of a complex grid of both socio-spatial neighboring and boundary-making processes. The recent policy regulations that aim to control and criminalize aspects of asylum seekers’ reception, the repressive policies that lead to exits from the official accommodation system and to homelessness, as well as the deepening of stigmatization and marginalization during the Covid-19 pandemic, affect in a new way - compared to the past - processes of coexistence in urban space. The presentation draws on research conducted in metropolitan Athens, Greece, and the methodology was based on both policies’ analysis and mapping, and on field research and semi-structured interviews with asylum seekers and representatives of the relevant authorities. " === Governance of religious diversity and religious minorities: the case of Muslim minorities in Italy Gül Ince Beqo University of Bari Inci Öykü Yener-Roderburg University of Strasbourg/University of Duisburg-Essen Islam has become one of the hot topics that keep the Italian political agenda busy. Nevertheless, the policymakers as well as the scholars rather focus on how Italian Islam can be achieved and regulated. In this context, the minority groups within the highly diverse Muslim community in Italy is rarely taken into consideration, and when it is, it is mostly approached from a demographic aspect. In this paper, we examine the policies that regulate the relationship between the state and the religious minorities and their impact when applied to non-mainstream Muslim groups in Italy. We will focus on the impacts of the Consulta per l’Islam Italiano (Advisory Board for Italian Islam) on the minority Muslim groups launched by the Italian authorities in 2005, which acknowledged the different groups within Islam in Italy first time. By looking at the specific case of a small Muslim community, the Turkish Alevi minorities in Italy, we show that despite the establishment of the Consulta, the policies are still limited to favoring the larger Muslim populations leaving the smaller Muslim groups unattended. This paper relies on policy analysis as well as data collected through qualitative fieldwork conducted in Italy with policymakers, civil servants active in the field of religion and diaspora policies, and immigrants. === Policy cultures of climate change migration: A health perspective Ilan Kelman University College London and University of Agder Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson University of Sussex and United Nations University Climate change migration has become a prominent and highly debated topic, especially due to the disparity in and disputes about projected numbers. Irrespective, many countries are exploring the policy aspects of what climate change migration could mean for them, such as New Zealand’s short-lived proposal to issue visas for ‘climate refugees’. Many reasons suggested for this need are related to presumed migrant mortality and morbidity, covering both physical and mental health aspects. This indicates the importance of examining wider health and wellbeing connections within climate change migration work. Here, we compile and analyse formal country policies which refer to intersections between climate change and migration, including immobility, displacement, and relocation. At the time of writing, 43 currently valid national-level policies across 37 countries connect climate change and human mobility. Four policies were previously relevant, but are now out-of-date. Forty of the valid policies across 35 countries mention human health or wellbeing. Health and wellbeing generally appear as a sector and/or a cross-cutting theme with limited suggestion that health or wellbeing outcomes emerge directly from climate change and mobility connections. The policies commonly accept that mobility could be domestic and international, but no mention of immobility linked to climate change was found in any of the policy texts. Ultimately, a health perspective indicates that the culture of climate change and migration policies seems to be the rhetoric that climate change inevitably links to migration and must be an important consideration. Yet specifics, science, and practical realities are typically absent. === The dialogue paradox: Assessing interfaith and intercultural dialogue as a policy tool in Europe Olav Elgvin University of Bergen Interfaith and intercultural dialogue has emerged as an important policy tool in many European countries. Policy-makers have attempted to make use of dialogue as a way of increasing social cohesion when society becomes more diverse. But in spite of the prevalence of such initiatives, there have been few empirical investigations of these policies. This study looks into when dialogue activities can have an effect, and when they can backfire. The main claim is that dialogue can indeed lead to a deeper change than other forms of interaction between people and groups. Dialogue allows participants to change their thinking, without this being felt as a threat to one's self-image or autonomy. But if dialogue becomes too instrumentalized as a policy tool, the participants may feel that the dialogue is done with the aim of controlling them, and the dialogue will no longer work. I refer to this as the dialogue paradox. These claims are tested by looking at the Norwegian case, through a detailed historical investigation into the dialogue that took place over three decades between The Islamic Council of Norway and other actors in society. The Islamic Council of Norway is the main representative umbrella organization for mosques in Norway, and has been involved in dialogue activities since the early 1990s. It has also been involved in controversies, where it was asked by outside actors to take stands on contested issues. Using within-case comparison, I show that dialogue often made the Islamic Council change their stances, whereas debate from the outside did not achieve this. This tendency changed when dialogue became perceived as a governing tool in the 2000s, which made participants stop trusting the dialogue process.

author

Eva (Evangelia) Papatzani

National Technical University of Athens

author

Inci Öykü Yener-Roderburg

University of Duisburg-Essen, University of Strasbourg

author

Ilan Kelman

University College London and University of Agder

author

Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson

University of Sussex and United Nations University

author

GUL INCE BEQO

author

TIMOKLEIA PSALLIDAKI

School of Architecture, National Technical University of Athens

author

Irini Micha

National Technical University of Athens

author

George Kandylis

National Center for Social Research

author

Tamas Dudlak

Corvinus University of Budapest

author

Olav Elgvin

University of Bergen

Gender & Sexuality 3

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #69 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

Communicational dynamics of (in)visibility in the LGBTIQ+ migration: comparisons between the cities of São Paulo and Barcelona HADRIEL THEODORO Superior School of Advertising and Marketing of São Paulo This study aims to establish a comparative analysis between the contexts of the cities of São Paulo (Brazil) and Barcelona (Spain) regarding the communicational dynamics of (in)visibility in the experiences of LGBTIQ+ refugees and immigrants. The focus is on the performance of governmental and non-governmental organizations and on the collective spaces linked to LGBTIQ+ migration. The methodology includes: a) a set of theoretical reflections that problematize the particularities of what may be called “queer diaspora” and its interface with the field of communication; and b) the systematization and analysis of data collected during fieldwork carried out between 2017 and 2020. The results point to a qualitative difference regarding the public visibility of LGBTIQ+ immigration. In the city of São Paulo, it was possible to verify that the collective spaces linked to LGBTIQ+ immigration are still incipient. Regarding the performance of the São Paulo City Hall, despite having a Municipal Human Rights and Citizenship Secretariat, no public policy specific to this population has been developed. As regards non-governmental organizations, the visibility of the LGBTIQ+ theme is compromised since the three main institutions aimed at welcoming refugees and immigrants in the city of São Paulo are coordinated by the Catholic Church. In the city of Barcelona, the biggest difference is the existence of the Associació Catalana per la Integració d'Homosexuals, Bisexuals i Transsexuals Immigrants (ACATHI), a non-governmental organization dedicated to supporting LGBTIQ+ refugees and immigrants. ACATHI contributes to a greater visibility of the theme in the public sphere; to the formation of socio-communicational networks that integrate the experience of LGBTIQ+ refugees and immigrants; and to the articulation with the development and implementation of public policies directed at the LGBTIQ+ immigrant population. === Amplifications of care: Romanian women’s experiences of Covid-19 lockdown(s) in London Ana-Maria Cîrstea Durham University After a summer of reduced regulations, the second wave of the Covid-19 pandemic saw cases steadily rising in peripheral areas of London mostly occupied by migrants. Faced with unclear government guidelines followed by heightened restrictions, households crafted new care arrangements as individuals fell ill, workers became unemployed, and children were temporarily out of school. Based on ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, this paper analyses the regimes of care between Romanian migrants in London during the second wave of the pandemic. Specifically, it unpacks how Romanian migrant women face increased pressures to care for others due to the intricate social webs of kinship obligation and gendered notions of duty. Despite curtailed mobility and limited resources, Romanian migrant women navigate pandemic regulations to provide care both on a local and a transnational level. Whether caring for children in London or for elderly parents in Romania, these migrant women face an amplification of care that requires both material and emotional labour (Hochschild, 1983). Far from an idealised understanding of care as rewarding and comforting, their experiences illustrate care as a laborious and sustained set of practices premised on patriarchal norms. Romanian women’s experiences show not only how regimes of care accentuate gendered inequalities, but also shed light on the tensions and even the violence within and between migrant families navigating the pandemic. By drawing on Romanian migrants’ experiences during the second wave, this paper seeks to outline how care, gender, and migration become intertwined during the Covid-19 pandemic. === Asylum claims based on persecution due sexual orientation and/or gender identity: The institutional practices of Switzerland Mathis Schnell University of Neuchâtel Philip Balsiger University of Neuchâtel Janine Dahinden University of Neuchâtel The field of asylum and sexuality raised in recent years the interest of many international scholars. They showed that the assessments of the claims are often based on a Western understanding of sexuality and stress out the topic’s relevance for a broader understanding of moral and politics. Also in Switzerland, since the 1990s assessing asylum claims based on the persecution due to sexual orientation and/or gender identity (SOGI) increased. A legal framework was developed, and the issue gained political attention. Nonetheless is there still a lack of research. In our article we ask how deservingness is produced in the tension between humanitarian-liberal values and political nationalism in Switzerland. We show that the handling of related claims is more than just a mere legal act but rather mirrors deeply rooted aspects of the common national(ist) social imaginary of Switzerland. In this article we analyse the institutional practices of the courts, the political debate and other institutions active on the issue. Also, we pair and contextualize those insights with expert interviews. The Swiss case study point to complex processes which take place at the intersection of the two salient policy-fields sexuality and asylum: the institutional practices and discourses expose mechanisms of deeply anchored nationalist border and boundary practices.

author

Janine Dahinden

University of Neuchatel

author

Hadriel Theodoro

Superior School of Advertising and Marketing of São Paulo

author

Ana-Maria Georgiana Cirstea

Durham University, UK

author

mathis schnell

université de neuchâtel

author

Philip Balsiger

University of Neuchâtel

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on international student mobility I

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #70 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Christof Van Mol

NIDI

chair

Nicolai Netz

German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected individuals in societies across the world, including students, higher education staff, and study abroad facilitators. As international borders were temporarily closing, many higher education institutions had to completely suspend their face-to-face activities, develop ad-hoc strategies to take care of international students, and switch to online teaching. Amid widespread uncertainty in higher education, many foreign students had to cope with the drastic changes in their learning and socialization routines, or even with an abrupt disruption of their study abroad experience. The Covid-19 pandemic also influenced students’ future plans to become internationally mobile. While some students had to entirely reconsider their plans to study abroad or postpone their study abroad experience, others faced the choice to go to countries where they had not previously planned to sojourn. These developments had an impact on international student mobility at the micro-, meso-, and macro-level. Against this background, we selected 8 papers - for two panels - out of 21 submissions to an open call for papers. Together, the different contributions highlight the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on international student mobility dynamics at the micro (students themselves), meso (higher education institutions) and macro-level (international student mobility flows). PAPER #1 Covid-19 and international student mobility: Evidence from UK university applications AUTHOR(S) Giorgio di Pietro (University of Westminster) ABSTRACT There is currently a lot of debate over the impact of covid-19 on international student mobility. On the one hand, health concerns as well as travel and income disruptions caused by the pandemic may make many students originally planning to study abroad consider more affordable options closer to their home. On the other hand, however, expected lower demand and the switch to fully online learning may be perceived as a great opportunity to study at a foreign university by students from mid-income families who traditionally have been left out given their inability to finance multi-year programmes of international study and their less brilliant academic credentials. This paper looks at the effect of covid-19 on total undergraduate UK applications from international students received by UCAS (The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service). UCAS, whose origins go back to the early 1960s, is a non-profit organisation managing the admission application process to UK higher education. UCAS applications in June and October 2020 are compared with the corresponding ones in the previous 9 years. Applications received from students of 87 different countries around the world are considered. The analysis controls for several determinants of student international mobility including, for instance, the existence of colonial links, English as official language, GDP per capita and population size. In an attempt to disentangle the effect of Brexit from that of covid-19, separate analyses are conducted for EU and non-EU applications. The latter are also broken down into those from African countries, Asian countries, American countries and non-EU European countries. PAPER #2 How does cross‑national student mobility relate to German students’ trust in political institutions to handle the Covid-19 pandemic? AUTHOR(S) Hendrik Schirmer (DZHW) ABSTRACT Political measures to confront the Covid 19 pandemic are a stress test for citizens’ institutional trust. Higher education students’ trust in political institutions is of particular interest as they are substantially affected by Covid 19 related measures: For the most parts, their academic institutions are under lockdown, they had to adapt to new learning formats extemporaneous, and typical sources of income (like marginal employment) potentially broke off. The paper at hand takes a closer look at determinants of German students’ institutional trust from a government performance perspective as well as the culturalist approach (Campbell, 2004; Kong, 2013). Special attention is paid to intercultural experience in the form of cross national student mobility, as EHEA policy makers stressed the positive effects of mobility on civic responsibility. Analyses show that indicators from both theoretical points of view have expressive impact on trust in political institutions to deal properly with the Covid 19 pandemic. The findings support the relevance of (long term) government performance and students’ individual economic well being as well as social trust in predicting students’ institutional trust. Further on, the evidence suggests a positive relationship of cross national student mobility (and its link to interpersonal trust) with civic responsibility. Questions of causality though perforce remain unanswered. PAPER #3 Rethinking cosmopolitanism in the hard times -- An investigation of the Fulbright foreign students’ lived experiences in the US AUTHOR(S) Shunan You (Northeastern University) ABSTRACT This paper employs the COVID-19 pandemic as a heuristic to rethink how to be a cosmopolitan international student in the era of precarity. Focusing on the American Fulbright Program For Foreign Students, it investigates the cultivation process of a cosmopolitan elite student by unpacking their lived experiences, including both gains and challenges in their academic and social life in the US. Also, it explores how the pandemic has changed their cultural exchange experiences. I conducted in-depth interviews with 24 Fulbright foreign students to investigate their US experiences before and during the pandemic. By drawing upon Bourdieu’s capital theory and rich frameworks on cosmopolitanism, the author argues these foreign elite students obtained cosmopolitan ease in their American academic and social networking activities. This manifested in their inclusive and open-minded disposition in their social interaction and engagement with the others in confronting differences, which enabled them to feel at ease in any global context. However, their cosmopolitan mindset cannot offset their everyday exclusion and marginalization experience. Their being both racially and culturally othered in the US delimits the possibility of a seamless cosmopolitan existence. After the pandemic outbreak and the closing of borders, Fulbright program was also partially suspended. Under this context, the vulnerability of living in-between for these global cosmopolitan elite students is fully reflected. I propose the idea of cosmopolitan precarity, i.e. the proliferation of risks due to the multiplication of the border, which is increasingly prevalent in the era of precarity, and waiting is the new normative response. These foreign elite students either stuck in the US to wait for the next move, or waiting for the flights to get them back home. However, their decision of staying or not depends on their families’ economic support and the their home country’s policy. PAPER #4 Imagining Future (Im)Mobilities: Shifts in International Students’ Experiences During the COVID-19 Pandemic AUTHOR(S) Karolina Czerska-Shaw (Jagiellonian University in Krakow) Ewa Krzaklewska (Jagiellonian University in Krakow) ABSTRACT Mobility plays an important role in transitions to adulthood and in the way young people plan their lives and futures. It also expresses the Europeanness of young people able to freely travel throughout the continent, in particular in relation to educational aims. What has been the impact of the pandemic on young people’s present (im)mobility practices, coping mechanisms and imagined mobile futures – further education, professional careers but also identity projects? Through five focus groups and 7 in-depth individual interviews conducted between March-May 2020, we have collected a series of revealing narratives of students suspended in transnational space, trapped in their mobility projects. In this period, we observed in the first place a sense of deprivation for those who have been robbed of their ‘mobility experience’ and its social and intercultural dimension. While some students felt it was just a ‘short’ disturbance in their study track abroad, many others were struggling with psychological traumas of isolation in a foreign country and with administrative issues in relation to visas, scholarships. Through this data and a follow up study during the second wave of the pandemic between October 2020 and January 2021, we explore how the narratives of our respondents developed in time. Utilising a longitudinal perspective, we may reflect on shifts in projections of future (im)mobilities of these young adults, and re-making/re-defining of a transnational habitus that many aim to build through super-mobility. Building on the concept of ‘waithood’ (Hanowana 2012), the in-between space between youth and adulthood that becomes interminably suspended through a breakdown in the socio-economic system, we would like to highlight te temporal application of this term during the period of pandemic lockdown. This , already prolonged ‘waithood moment’ reveals new forms of micro-level coping strategies, transnationalism practices as well as impacts on future mobility projects.

discussant

Thais França

CIES-IUL

author

Giorgio Di Pietro

University of Westminster

author

Hendrik Schirmer

DZHW

author

Shunan You

Northeastern University

author

Karolina Czerska-Shaw

Jagiellonian University

author

Ewa Krzaklewska

Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland

Labour Market Outcomes and careers of immigrants

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #71 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Lisa Berntsen

Tilburg University

Chair: Lisa Berntsen Discussant: Nahikari Irastorza PAPER #1 Great Recession and Ethnic Penalty in Europe: an analysis on regional labour markets AUTHOR(S) Maurizio Avola (University of Catania) Giorgio Piccito (Bocconi University) Federico Vegetti (University of Turin) ABSTRACT The debate on ethnic penalty of immigrants in the labour market, in terms both of professional status and job quality, has been particularly intense in Europe in recent years (Kogan 2006; 2007; Fleischmann, Dronkers, 2007; Heath, Cheung, 2007; Pichler, 2011; Reyneri and Fullin, 2011a; 2011b; Ballarino and Panichella, 2015; 2019; Panichella, 2018). One of the main findings of these studies is the dichotomy between a double penalty and a trade-off model of immigrants’ labour market integration: in Central-Northern Europe immigrants face a double penalty in comparison to natives, in terms of chances of being employed and having a good job; in Southern Europe, instead, employment chances are similar between natives and immigrants, but the latter are still more penalized in terms of job quality. These outcomes have been mainly studied adopting a micro- (looking at migrants’ individual features) or a macro- (considering national or supra-national institutional characteristics) perspective. Yet, it has recently emerged the relevance of the association between the meso-level characteristics (regional labour market structure) and the process of the immigrants’ economic integration: the greater the relevance of the local secondary labour market, the higher the trade-off experienced by migrants. This work intends to verify if and to what extent the Great Recession has changed the size and structure of ethnic penalty. In fact, if one of the reasons for the lower disadvantage of immigrants in terms of probability of being employed in secondary labour markets is to be found in the less willingness of natives to offer themselves for such jobs, the crisis may have contributed to changing the equilibriums. In this perspective, we conduct an analysis on the Eurostat LFS, focusing on all EU regions and estimate a hierarchical multilevel model considering a pre- (2005-2008) during (2009-2013) and post- (2014-2018) Great Recession periodization. PAPER #2 The role of productive human capital in explaining gender wage disparities among immigrants and native-born population AUTHOR(S) Tiiu Paas ABSTRACT The paper explores the gender wage gap among immigrant and native-born population in relation to the productive human capital, measured by the literacy and numeracy cognitive skills, and their on-job utilisation, approximated by the skill use at work. Using the data from the Program of International Assessment of Adult Competencies, we analyse the wage disparities across genders and immigration status in European labour markets estimating cross-section and pooled multivariate regression models. Our major hypothesis predicts that gender wage gap patterns differ across immigrant population and natives, as there are systematic differences in characteristics of native- and foreign-born females selected into employment. Furthermore, we assume that skill use intensity largely contributes to the observed wage differentials. The results of the study show, that, indeed, gender wage gap patterns differ significantly in the samples of immigrants and natives. In majority of countries, the gender wage gaps are statistically insignificant for immigrants, however, economically, and statistically significant for natives. When controlling for both skill level and skill use intensity beside human capital and other socio-demographic characteristics of individuals, the estimates show that cognitive skills and intensity of skill use play an important role in explaining the wage differences, Considerable differences in cross-country estimates suggest that country-specific characteristics and selection of immigrants reflect on the wage outcomes of both immigrants and natives. PAPER #3 The effects of labor market entry point on migrants’ career: a longitudinal study of Swedish labor market AUTHOR(S) Ali Dehghanpour ABSTRACT Studies show that labor market entry affects subsequent wages and employment prospects. However, these studies typically focus on employees in large organizations and tend to ignore less advantaged workers such as migrants with less career capital and in less stable employment. Yet, persistent negative career attainment of immigrants would have different implications for career and equality than that for locals. This paper examines the long term effects of point of entry to the labor market on subsequent employment and earnings of migrants. We estimate the continuous influence of the labor market conditions at the point of entry on subsequent employment status and real annual earnings, using two national registered databases in Sweden. Specifically, the regional characteristics of the labor market (i.e. unemployment rate, the size of the labor market, the attractiveness of the city) and the characteristics of the first employer (i.e. industry, size & the no. of employees, degree of internationalization, the financial performance) are analyzed. The educational level, gender and age of immigrants are the controls. The two databases include LISA (Longitudinal integrated database for health insurance and labor market studies) and Retriever Business. The individual is the primary object in LISA that includes data on country of birth, year of immigration, education, yearly income from employment, the employers and places of employment. Information about sick leave, participation in labor market integration initiatives and education in Sweden are also available. Retriever includes data on organizations and variables related to industry, sector, number of employees distributed by sex and level of education and yearly economic key ratios. Combining these databased, enabled us to capture the career trajectory of immigrants in Sweden, across organizations and municipalities. The career of immigrants moved into Sweden after the year 2000 was subject to quantitative analyses. PAPER #4 Work trajectories of migrant domestic workers in Czechia AUTHOR(S) Lenka Pavelková ABSTRACT Migrant domestic workers have become an integral part of the globalized world. This is caused by the growing demand for domestic work in developed states, but also by refusal of local population to do such job – domestic work has become one of the segments of labour markets with high concentration of migrant workers. Moreover, domestic workers are mostly women as domestic work is largely considered a female job. Many of domestic workers are discriminated against due to their gender, migrant status, ethnicity and class. Domestic work is often considered a dead-end job without much prospective of improvement. The research presented in this contribution follows work trajectories of migrant domestic workers in Czechia and it shows that the situation with work mobility maybe more complex than it is often presented in literature. The contribution takes into account tasks, salary, working hours, incidence of discrimination and other aspects of working environment, using semi-structured interviews with migrant domestic workers. The results are confronted with research from countries with developed domestic sector, but also with different political and migration history.

discussant

Nahikari Irastorza

author

Maurizio Avola

author

Tiiu Paas

author

Ali Dehghanpour

author

Lenka Pavelková

author

Giorgio Piccitto

Bocconi University

author

Federico Vegetti

University of Turin

Migration Politics & Governance 4

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #72 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

From Cold War hermit to EU-aspirant: tracing the criminalisation of migration in Albania Dr Julie Vullnetari University of Southampton This paper is situated within broader discussions of migration governance, borders and politics of resistance. Drawing on ethnographic work in a border area of Albania, and the author's long-standing engagement and knowledge of these dynamics in the region, the paper traces the ways in which unauthorised international migration has been criminalised over many decades. During the communist years, the Albanian government militarised the country's borders and banned unauthorised migration, with heavy punishments for those who disobeyed. A small window of freedom opened up as the domino-effect of the fall of communist regimes across Eastern Europe finally reached Albania in the spring of 1990. But the neighbouring countries, such as Greece, which until then had received Albanian refugees with open arms, soon took to deploying the army along the border to stem the tide of migrants coming through. In more recent years, as part of aspirations for EU membership, successive Albanian governments have zealously become the EU's border guards, as Albania serves as a buffer zone for non-European refugees travelling the Western Balkan route, seeking to reach the North. The border militarisation is negotiated in exchange for development aid, and on the promise of EU membership, at the expense of black and brown bodies which are incarcerated and criminalised. Yet, like many Albanians died trying to cross the Iron Curtain border decades ago, many non-European refugees travel the routes in the opposite direction to fulfil similar dreams - for a better life and the promise of a better future. === Digital nomad visa: a venue allowing transnational mobility and remote work in the COVID-19 era? Jasna Capo Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research, Zagreb In 2020 we have witnessed the unprecedented COVID-19 related border closures in the European Union. Not only have inner EU borders been temporarily closed or made difficult to cross, the closures affected even more the so-called third country nationals, that is mobile persons from the countries outside of the EU. At the same time, the pandemic has introduced widespread remote work, colloquially named ‘home office’, causing an increasing number of inhabitants within a country to work remotely, from their home. This has led some EU states to engage in legislation changes with the aim of regularizing remote work. But only a few have been thinking out these changes in a transnational context, i. e. only a few have taken into account the possibility that a remote worker may be another country’s national and want to work remotely, outside of the state of current employment. Though some EU countries have legal provisions allowing self-employed foreigners (‘freelancers’) to reside on their territory, I wish to discuss a different legal concept—digital nomad visa. It allows foreigners to live in the country while working remotely, for a company based in another country. The countries in the Caribean have been at the forefront of this trend. The paper will analyse how the two EU countries, Estonia and Croatia, have set themselves at opening the digital nomad visa venue that will allow transnational mobility in the COVID-19 era. === Are they all linked? The spatial and categorical interconnectedness of European migration flows Heidrun Bohnet Danube University Krems Mathias Czaika Danube University Krems Akira Soto-Nishimura Danube University Krems Over the past three decades, major structural changes, such as the EU enlargement, the financial and economic crisis, the rise in refugee inflows, as well as the Brexit referendum had significant ramifications on European societies. Yet how these contextual shifts have simultaneously affected different types of migration flows to Europe have not been systematically studied. Although many studies on the drivers of migration and several on migration policy effects have been put forward, empirical evidence remains constraint to specific forms of migration. Moreover, previous studies have failed to highlight and analyze the spatial and categorical interconnectedness of multiple forms of migration. Despite the fact that “substitution effects” (de Haas 2011) of migrant categories have been conceptualised, how these entry categories and individual migration characteristics, such as gender and skill-level, are spatially and categorically linked to one another have received little empirical attention. This paper fills this gap by combining datasets on asylum-seeking, labour and family migration, tourism, student mobility and irregular migration to explore the extent to which alternative forms of migration and mobility are geographically and dynamically interconnected. We hypothesize that migrants switch between different entry categories depending on their individual characteristics, as well as the structural changes in the destination countries. Our study shows in what way specific migrant characteristics and geographical factors affect the likelihood that a migrant fall within a specific entry category. The findings demonstrate that changes in one entry category can have severe effects on the use of other entry routes. Consequently, governments need to be aware of the unintended effects of policy changes. === The Invention of Safe Countries: Mapping the Global Diffusion of Asylum Policies on the Move Frowin Rausis University of Lucerne Not only people are mobile, also policies are on the move. The movement of policies is studied by diffusion researchers who shed light on the process by which policies in one country influence policies in other countries. Yet despite the great attention in global migration governance, only few scholars have applied a policy diffusion lens to study the spread of asylum policies globally. In this Working Paper, I strive to shed light on the patterns and motivations in the diffusion of Safe Country Policies to all world regions. To this end, I present the original dataset SACOP that provides systematic information on the adoption of Safe Country Policies in 197 countries from 1951 until 2020. These policies are powerful instruments in asylum law as they reduce the responsibility of states towards asylum seekers by limiting the access to or the safeguards within asylum procedures. In my analysis, I find that Safe Country Policies have not only become a widely-used policy tool in the Global North, but are increasingly adopted by countries in the Global South as well. The findings imply the need for extending the academic discussion on the development of asylum policy and state responsibility beyond its geographical limitation on the Global North and may signal the beginning of substantial changes in the context and conditions of the world region that hosts most displaced people. === Mexico as third ¿safe? country: instrumentalization of the right to asylum Elisa Ortega-Velazquez National Autonomous University of Mexico This paper aims to argue that the United States has instrumentalized the right to asylum by converting Mexico in third ‘safe’ country in order to divert Central American asylum seekers to Mexican territory and evade its international protection obligations. In 2019, this was possible due to the use of two strategies: The Migration Protection Protocols and the US-Mexico Joint Declaration. The methodological design is deductive, that is, it is based on documentary sources through which a theorization was reached. Even though it has the limitations of the method, the paper is innovative because it analyzes migration management from critical legal studies and legal biopolitical by approaching securitization of migrations through a genealogy of the discourses used by the United States to externalize its borders to Mexico, which have as their most recent strategy the “third safe country” agreement. The consequences are the distortion of the right to asylum by removing its main protection: the non-refoulement principle and, in consequence, to let die central American people fleeing from persecution and death geographies. For those purposes, first, the migration management from the critical legal studies and legal biopolitical framework will be analyzed. Second, securitization of migrations will be studied. Third, a genealogy of the discourses used by the US to externalize its borders to Mexico will be elaborated: a) migrants as drug dealers (1988-2001); 2) migrants as terrorists (2001-2018); and 3) migrant caravans as an ‘invasion’ (2018-to date). And fourth, the role of Mexico as third (un) safe country will be discussed.

author

Mathias Czaika

author

Elisa Ortega-Velazquez

National Autonomous University of Mexico

author

Julie Vullnetari

University of Southampton

author

Jasna Capo

Institute of Ethnology and Folklore Research, Zagreb

author

Heidrun Bohnet

Danube University Krems

author

Akira Soto-Nishimura

Danube University Krems

author

Frowin Rausis

University of Lucerne

Discrimination and racism in cross-national perspective 2: Perceptions of Discrimination and Racism

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #73 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Daniel Auer

University of Lausanne

Chair: Daniel Auer, WZB Berlin Discussant: Valentina di Stasio, Utrecht For a long time, racism has been studied without references to discrimination and was mainly conceived as a specific expression of prejudice. The retreat from blatant forms of racism that are no longer tolerated today to more subtle and systemic forms of racism has paved the way for studies on ethnic and racial discrimination and inequalities. In response to the IMISCOE statement on structural racism and racial justice in the context of Black Lives Matter, this panel unites papers that explore the perception of discrimination and racism by members of minority groups and the majority population. Revolving around the experience of discrimination and racism, the papers in this panel combine theoretical considerations with empirical evidence. The panel combines quantitative surveys and qualitative ethnographic evidence with a focus on experience and perception. With a refined understanding of perceptions, the panel will discuss ways to overcome discrimination and racism. PAPER #1 Minority norms shape majority perceptions of discrimination AUTHOR(S) Judit Kende (University of Lausanne) Eva G. T. Green, Julia Reiter (University of Lausanne) Canan Coskan (University of Bielefeld) Bertjan Doosje (University of Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Anti-discrimination and diversity norms shape individuals’ attitudes and behavior towards minorities. But can norms defined by minority members contribute to majority members’ attitudes towards minorities? Our argumentation draws on social psychological research on minority influence and on political science and sociological literature on the effects of political participation on individual attitudes. We hypothesized that contextual norms in a country defined by overall minority experiences of discrimination and average minority political participation contribute to majority members’ perceptions of discrimination targeting minority members. We implemented two cross-national multilevel studies drawing on the European Social Survey and Eurobarometer surveys with 19,392 participants in 22 European countries in Study 1 and with 17,651 participants in 19 European countries in Study 2. Partly confirming Hypothesis 1, higher levels of minority discrimination in a country were related to higher perceptions of discrimination among majority members’ in Study 1 but not Study 2. Confirming Hypothesis 2, higher minority political participation was related to higher perceptions of discrimination in both Study 1 and 2. We conclude that contextual minority norms are consequential for majority attitudes and minority political participation communicates minority norms especially effectively. PAPER #2 Maghrebi women in the Gulf countries: The object of fear AUTHOR(S) Nassera Guezzen (EHESS) ABSTRACT I saw through the ethnographic work carried out as part of my doctoral thesis that the relationship to Gulf societies was determined by a series of representations and frameworks. I am talking about the stereotypes that can be described as ethnicizing and which are attached to Moroccan women and, by extension, North Africans. Being perceived by others as free, celibate, venal, they would therefore seem inclined to occupy particular functions, in particular prostitution. Being considered "a Moroccan" breaks trust with certain members of the host society and creates permanent suspicion of women "labelled" as such (Becker, 1985). The experience of suspicion seems to be experienced by women as a destabilizing experience, if not really humiliating. The mobile woman, free - because free of her movements - is designated as dangerous. When this woman is further associated with a nationality and a social position perceived as inferior, this association reveals "ethnic boundaries " combined with social classifications. In this work, I also highlight the fact that there is a hierarchy of nationalities which gives rise to very different salaries according to the stereotypes associated with the ethnicity of the workers. In the domestic work sector, this dimension marks major differences. Migrants are thus categorized and divided according to their ethnicity, in a subjective way, and this categorization is coupled with an inferior perception from the social point of view. PAPER #3 Rethinking ‘white racism’: Bringing in ethnic minority discrimination against ‘others’ AUTHOR(S) Miri Song (Kent) ABSTRACT Theorizing on racism and racial discrimination has almost exclusively focused on racism perpetrated by White people. This is sometimes explicit, but often, it is simply implicit. Yet with the diversification of ethnic minority experiences and debates about the expanding boundaries of Whiteness (e.g. by Alba and others) – to include ‘honorary Whites’ such as some multiracial people – we need to reframe our thinking on the nature of contemporary racial discrimination. In light of the latest aftermath of BLM, and evidence of the growing support for Trump in the recent US election among some ethnic minorities, there has been growing interest in the political stances and actions of non-Black ethnic minorities, in relation to anti-Black discrimination. There is some work on the conservative political attitudes of some non-White Americans (and in some European countries), but there is still very little scholarship on how we theorize 'racism', when we consider the ways in which various ethnic minority people may support and reinforce discriminatory systems in relation to Black people, or Muslims, in racially stratified countries in North America and Europe. PAPER #4 Majority Members' Beliefs About the Prevalence of Ethnic Discrimination: Understanding Differences Across European Countries and Trends (2008 - 2019) AUTHOR(S) Katrin Müller (Radboud University) E.C.C.A. Blommaert (Radboud University) M. Lubbers (Utrecht University) M.J. Savelkoul, P.L.H. Scheepers (Radboud University) ABSTRACT Ethnic discrimination is a widely discussed topic within academia and society. Yet, to what extent and under which circumstances majority members believe ethnic discrimination to be widespread in their country remains puzzling. This paper addresses the following research questions: To what extent do majority members’ beliefs about ethnic discrimination differ between European countries and change over time? How are these beliefs related to macro-level conditions such as political elite discourses, economic circumstances, minority group size and migration policies? We use individual level data from the Eurobarometer ‘Discrimination in the EU’ series, covering 27 European countries and 5 years (2008, 2009, 2012, 2015, 2019), enriched with contextual information from Eurostat, the Manifesto Project and MIPEX. Preliminary results show substantial differences across countries. Majority members in Western European countries generally believe ethnic discrimination to be more widespread in their country than majority members in Eastern European countries. Moreover, large variations also exist among Western European countries. Looking at trends, majority members in virtually all European countries believe ethnic discrimination to be less widespread in 2019 compared to 2015. In further analyses, ordinal multilevel models will be used to examine to what extent these patterns are related to micro-level and contextual factors.

discussant

Valentina Di Stasio

Utrecht University

author

Miri Song

University of Kent

author

Judit Kende

University of Lausanne

author

Canan Coskan

University of Bielefeld

author

Bertjan Doosje

University of Amsterdam

author

Nassera Guezzen

EHESS

author

Katrin Muller

Radboud Universiteit

author

Lieselotte Blommaert

Radboud University

author

Marcel Lubbers

Utrecht University

author

Michael Savelkoul

Radboud University

author

Peer Scheepers

Radboud University

author

Eva Green

University of Lausanne

Revisiting Migrant Networks: inter-generational social ties and access to labour markets

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #74 workshop | SC Education and social inequality

organizer

Elif Keskiner

EUR-CIMIC

organizer

Louise Ryan

London Metropolitan University

This workshop aims to introduce an upcoming book project "Revisiting Networks: Social ties of migrants and their descendants in accessing labour markets" which has won the Competitive Book Call of the IMISCOE Springer prize for 2019. There is a long tradition of research into the significance of personal networks in finding jobs (Granovetter 1973). However there are many gaps in our knowledge of the networks of migrants and their descendants; where social ties are formed, how they develop over time, how such networks are used in entering work and developing careers (Eve, 2002; Ryan, 2016; Keskiner and Crul, 2017). The chapters in the book engage with Granovetter’s theory on social networks but furthermore seek to go beyond simplistic assumptions about ethnic density and tie strength. The workshop hosts distinguished scholars who contributed to this book and addresses the following questions; how do the social networks of migrants and descendants of migrants differ across countries and distinct occupational sectors? How does the experience of highly educated migrants and their descendants differ in relation to activating their social capital at work? How can social networks help migrants and their descendants to navigate contexts of racism and persistent structural inequality? This workshop provides an opportunity to discuss insights from the book especially the content, structure, meaning and dynamism of migrants’ networks across different destination societies and employment sectors.

participant

Christine Lang

IMIS

participant

Jens Schneider

IMIS

participant

Basak Bilecen

University of Bielefeld

participant

Alireza Behtoui

Stockholm University

participant

Maurice Crul

Vrije Universiteite

participant

Ismintha Waldring

EUR-CIMIC

participant

Michael Eve

University of Eastern Piedmont

participant

Yaël Brinbaum

CEET

participant

Sara Rezai

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment

participant

Martine Schaer

University of Neuchâtel

Migration, citizenship and political participation 9

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #75 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

Landscape of civil society organisations in the UK and Sweden in relation to neighbourhood diversity and deprivation Magda Borkowska University of Essex Juta Kawalerowicz Stockholm University Jenny Phillimore University of Birmingham Gabriella Elgenius University of Gothenburg The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between civil society organisations (CSOs) prevalence, ethnic diversity and deprivation at the neighbourhood level. We look at official statistics from the United Kingdom and Sweden, two European countries with different welfare state regimes and different civil society traditions. Our point of departure is Putman's assertion about diversity having a negative effect on trust, thus limiting the prevalence of civil activity at the neighbourhood level (2007). But are diverse neighbourhoods really charity deserts? We account (i.e. control for) neighbourhood level deprivation since the prevalent evidence (i.e. Mohan and Rolls 2006; Clifford 2012; 2018) suggests that more deprived areas have less CSOs than affluent ones. If Putman's assertion was right, we would expect to see a negative effect of neighbourhood diversity on the prevalence of CSOs in both countries but our initial results suggest that this is not the case. In the UK, we observe a positive association between neighbourhood ethnic diversity and density of CSOs (both in bivariate and multivariate analysis that account for a number of neighbourhood level characteristics, i.e. education, unemployment, income). In Sweden, on the other hand, we see the opposite pattern – in line with Putnam’s hypothesis, ethnic diversity seems to be negatively associated with density of CSOs. We suggest that these contrasting findings can be partially explained by different relationship between civil society and the state in the UK and Sweden, which affect how migrant and ethnic minority communities organise in formal associations. === Returnees and protest against crime in Mexico Covadonga Meseguer ICADE Christian Ambrosius UNAM and Free University Berlin In this paper, we explore the role of return migration on the likelihood of mobilizing against crime in Mexico. While recent research has shown that returnees shy away from participating in electoral politics, we do not know whether returnees engage in other non-electoral activities. We are interested in the surge in crime experienced by Mexico after 2006 and in the proliferation of acts of protests against this surge. There are two contrasting hypotheses: on the one hand, returnees may exert leadership roles in their communities, bring back organizational skills, and therefore foment anti-incumbent protests. On the other hand, if return is forced, returnees may be stigmatized as failures and therefore high rates of forcible returns may not translate into enhanced repertoires of protest. We test these contrasting hypotheses against novel data on protest against crime and data on return in Mexico between 2006 and 2012. === ‘In Law we trust’: Asylum migrants’ trust in equality before the law Sanne Noyon WODC Manon van der Meer WODC Isik Kulu-Glasgow WODC Djamila Schans WODC Do recent asylum permit holders trust in equality before the law? For the rule of law to function properly, public support is essential and this is true for native-born citizens and migrants alike. Nonetheless, little is known about asylum migrants’ attitudes toward the democratic rule of law in host societies and how this relationship is shaped. This is surprising, given that asylum migrants are confronted with the rule of law in the host society immediately upon arrival, in the form of asylum procedures and regulations. Moreover, asylum migrants typically originate from countries with an ill-functioning (if not absent) democratic rule of law and there are concerns that people who were socialized into such countries will struggle to accept the prevalent norms in democratic societies. In contrast, it is plausible that exactly the absence of such norms in the home country will have contributed to the decision to migrate, possibly leading to a more favorable attitude toward the democratic rule of law in the host society. The current study is part of a broader research project on asylum migrants’ attitudes toward the Dutch democratic rule of law. Using a survey experiment among 72 recent migrants, we studied participants’ trust in equality before the law for suspects with varying ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. We found no differences among conditions, suggesting high levels of generalized trust in equality before the law among recent asylum permit holders. === How 'different' can they be? Examining political attitudes and electoral mobilization of multiples categories of citizens Sebastián Umpierrez de Reguero Leiden University As a result of a growing expansion of voting rights globally, different categories of citizens might participate in variant levels and types of elections, whether in their country of origin and/or residence. An extensive set of studies have investigated the normative and empirical causes and consequences of enfranchisement, and over the last decade migrant scholars have claimed that an immigrant can be an emigrant when voting given the opportunities offered by the transnational arena. However, existing literature have overlooked the nexus between political attitudes and citizenship when examining electoral mobilization. Employing a natural experiment design, I launched a series of online surveys to evaluate how similar (or different) noncitizens residents, resident citizens and nonresident citizens are in terms of individual-level voter turnout according to their political attitudes (democratic, populist, elitist and pluralist attitudes). Unsurprisingly, I report a significant distinction between the institutional-political perceptions of migrant and non-migrant citizens. To a large extent, this difference is produced by the political learning and institutional exposure the three categories of citizens have faced during the migrant and non-migrant trajectories.

author

Magda Borkowska

University of Essex

author

Juta Kawalerowicz

Stockholm University

author

Jenny Phillimore

University of Birmingham

author

Gabriella Elgenius

University of Gothenburg

author

Covadonga Meseguer

ICADE

author

Christian Ambrosius

UNAM and Free University Berlin

author

Sanne Noyon

author

Manon van der Meer

WODC

author

Isik Kulu-Glasgow

WODC

author

Djamila Schans

WODC

author

Sebastián Umpierrez de Reguero

Leiden University

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on international student mobility II

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #76 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Nicolai Netz

German Centre for Higher Education Research and Science Studies

chair

Thais França

CIES-IUL

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected individuals in societies across the world, including students, higher education staff, and study abroad facilitators. As international borders were temporarily closing, many higher education institutions had to completely suspend their face-to-face activities, develop ad-hoc strategies to take care of international students, and switch to online teaching. Amid widespread uncertainty in higher education, many foreign students had to cope with the drastic changes in their learning and socialization routines, or even with an abrupt disruption of their study abroad experience. The Covid-19 pandemic also influenced students’ future plans to become internationally mobile. While some students had to entirely reconsider their plans to study abroad or postpone their study abroad experience, others faced the choice to go to countries where they had not previously planned to sojourn. These developments had an impact on international student mobility at the micro-, meso-, and macro-level. Against this background, we selected 8 abstracts for two paper sessions out of 21 submissions to an open call for paper. Together, the contributions highlight the impact the Covid-19 pandemic had on international student mobility dynamics at the micro (students themselves), meso (higher education institutions) and macro (international student mobility flows) level. PAPER #1 The impact of the coronacrisis on subjective well-being of international students in the Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Christof Van Mol (Tilburg University) Sabien Dekkers (Radboud University Nijmegen) Ellen Verbakel (Radboud University Nijmegen) ABSTRACT In this paper we investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on subjective well-being of higher education students in the Netherlands. More specifically, we compare international students and Dutch students, based on the Dutch data of the COVID-19 International Student Well-Being Study, a cross-sectional survey conducted between May-July 2020 among higher education students across the Netherlands (N = 10.491). Based on the sociological literature on the relationship between social capital and subjective well-being, we investigate in particular whether changes in social contact during the first lockdown can explain differences in subjective well-being between international and Dutch students. Our results suggest that although international students report lower levels of subjective well-being compared to Dutch students, these differences cannot be directly explained by (changes) in social contact during the lockdown. PAPER #2 Navigating uncertainty together: Indian student mobility during the pandemic AUTHOR(S) Sazana Jayadeva (University of Surrey) ABSTRACT In this paper, I examine how Covid-19 is impacting Indians’ plans to study for a postgraduate degree in Germany, how Indians currently studying in Germany have been affected, and, finally, how social media platforms are being used by current and prospective students to negotiate the many uncertainties and disruptions resulting from the pandemic. The paper draws on fieldwork conducted between March and July 2020. Firstly, I conducted digital ethnographic research within mutual-help Facebook and WhatsApp groups widely used by prospective international students from India to navigate the process of going to Germany for study. Secondly, I analysed the content of one of the most popular YouTube channels (in a new genre of ‘Study Abroad’ YouTube channels run by Indians currently studying abroad) aimed at providing prospective international students information and guidance about study in Germany. Lastly, I conducted interviews with Indian Master’s students in Germany. The paper shows how health and safety concerns were very limited among Indians studying in or planning to study in Germany. Rather, their main concerns revolved around the impact of Covid-19 on the German job market and the ability of an international student to secure a good job in their field of study upon graduation, as well as the possibility of a disrupted educational experience. The paper offers an analysis of why, despite these concerns, most prospective students did not appear to be rethinking their plans to study in Germany. In addition, it explores how informal infrastructures of support and information exchange on social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook, and YouTube are mediating prospective students’ migration aspirations, strategies, and trajectories during the pandemic. Finally, the paper considers the implications of this study for our understanding of student migration from India, as well as the role of social media in mediating this mobility. PAPER #3 The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Chinese students’ applications to UK universities AUTHOR(S) Ying Yang (University of Manchester) ABSTRACT International students’ mobilities and enrolment became a top concern for international higher education providers, policy makers and researchers during the COVID-19 crisis. Within this context, this research focuses on, education agents who provide services for universities and/or international students. Agents have recently emerged as an active part of international recruitment and university applications. Universities UK (2017) report that education agents are one of the top factors influencing international students’ choice of higher education programmes in the UK. Therefore, an insight into international students’ interactions with education agents is valuable for the study of international students’ decision-making during a time of great uncertainty. This research investigates the decision-making process of Chinese students who used agents to apply for their postgraduate graduate taught programmes in the UK commencing in September 2021. Five Chinese applicants who use the same education agency will participate in monthly in-depth semi-structured interviews regarding self-reflections on the university application process from November 2020 to June 2021. Drawing on this dataset and building on the synthesis model (Chen, 2007) on international students’ decision-making processes, this paper seeks to examine the factors influencing Chinese applicants’ choices and the role that education agents play in the process of university applications, as well as displaying Chinese applicants’ decision-making process in such a quickly changing situation. This paper contributes to extending the model of international students’ decision-making processes and identifying important implications for international students’ mobilities beyond COVID-19. PAPER #4 Covid-19: Threat or opportunity for Portuguese higher education? AUTHOR(S) Cristina Sin (A3ES) Orlanda Tavares (A3ES) Joyce Aguiar (CIPES) ABSTRACT The covid-19 pandemic has taken the world by surprise and represents an unprecedented challenge for all sectors of the society, students and higher education institutions included. A number of studies suggest that a considerable number of students intend to change their study plans. Additionally, a reshuffling of international destinations appears underway. Considering the changes from the original top choice destination to the new destination, traditional international destinations such as the US, the UK and Canada are losing out. Students appear to switch to new destinations, especially European and Asian countries (BridgeU, 2020). The pandemic therefore represents not only a threat, but also an opportunity for institutions in new destinations. Worldwide, institutions have been experimenting with a number of measures to attract (or maintain) international students: a great increase in online learning, changing deadlines for application intakes, diversifying source countries, changes in language test requirements or discounting fees (QS Quacquarelli Symonds, 2020). Portugal, too, is a country which traditionally received students from Portuguese-speaking countries, but has become increasingly attractive for students from other countries recently (Sin, Antonowicz and Wiers-Jenssen, 2019). The question now becomes how to maintain this growth by adjusting to the current circumstances. This paper aims to analyse whether Portuguese institutions are coping with the pandemic as a threat or as an opportunity. It will consider two aspects: first, the impact of covid-19 on international student enrolment in Portugal by resorting to national statistics (available March 2021), focusing on the differences between types of institutions and disciplines; second, the institutional strategies implemented to encourage international enrolment, through interviews with institutional representatives from top and middle-management.

discussant

Christof Van Mol

NIDI

author

Sazana Jayadeva

University of Cambridge

author

Ying Yang

The University of Manchester

author

Cristina Sin

A3ES - Agência de Avaliação e Acreditação do Ensino Superior

author

Orlanda Tavares

A3ES

author

Joyce Aguiar

CIPES

author

Sabien Dekkers

Radboud University Nijmegen

author

Ellen Verbakel

Radboud University Nijmegen

Older Migrants 1

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #77 panel | SC Older Migrants

Im/mobility patterns after retirement: A comparative analysis of Swiss and non-Swiss older people Liliana Azevedo CIES-Iscte and SFM, University of Neuchâtel Livia Tomás Institute of Sociology, University of Neuchâtel Based on two qualitative research projects on transnational mobilities after retirement, the authors analyze critically similarities and differences of older people with and without a migration background. The mobility of ageing populations has attracted much interest in the last years. Research has shown that transnational mobility concerns older people (60+) with and without a migration background alike, but scholars usually do study these two groups separately. Our main contribution to the literature is to conduct a comparative analysis of the transnational mobilities and experiences of Swiss and non-Swiss older people. This paper is based on two ongoing qualitative research projects studying transnational ageing and mobility patterns. Both authors conducted qualitative interviews with older people (60+) who have in common the entitlement to a Swiss pension because they spent most of their working life in Switzerland. While one study focuses on former labor migrants who returned to Portugal after their retirement, the other research emphasizes the experiences of retirees without a migration background that are currently living in Spain. Drawing on qualitative interviews, the authors analyze the similarities and differences in the reasons and motivations for their re-location to another country and their transnational mobility in old age. We will show that although there exist some differences in their transnational practices due to former mobility, we can also find similarities between the two groups. === A right for body repatriation? Comparing Senegalese and Tunisian migrants and states’ transnational engagement around death during the pandemic Félicien de Heusch University of Liège Carole Wenger University of Liège The covid-19 has greatly affected elderly people and in particular people in precarious situation and from lower economic background. Among them, older migrants have been doubly-impacted due to old age, their status and their living conditions. While the repatriation of the living during covid-19 ‘crisis’ has been a priority for diaspora policies, the repatriation of the dead received less attention. However, body repatriation and transnational funerary practices -both core concerns for many migrants and their families- have been jeopardized. As borders closure and fear for contamination prevented body repatriation, sending states’ authorities have been confronted to emigrants’ associations’ pressure for ensuring their “right for repatriation”. Moreover, the ‘crisis’ became a catalyst for the debate around burials such as the lack of Muslim plots in Europe therefore questioning receiving states responsibility in ensuring access to a dignified death. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, this paper will first compare how Senegalese and Tunisian states’ framing of the “right for body repatriation” has contrastively evolved over time. Secondly, we address how Senegalese and Tunisian migrants’ associative networks and diaspora policies engaged differently around death during covid-19’s state of exception. We however argue that, while the ‘crisis’ has triggered original forms of mobilizations, the volatility of diaspora policies engagement and disengagement around death is not a new matter. In a nutshell, we argue that covid-19 ‘crisis’ appears as a time-space that crystallized the already questioned sending states (dis)engagement around death while also interrogating receiving states responsibility to ensure the right to a dignified death. === Care, precariousness and the logics of identity: Institutional racism in social care in Germany Aleksandra Lewicki Sussex Centre for Migration Research A substantial research literature has shown that post-migration populations have differential experiences regarding access to and usage of social care institutions in Germany. Yet, the scholarship documenting these patterns hardly mentions racism as a historic or organisational-institutional phenomenon. Linking Butler’s work on precariousness with Ahmed’s scholarship on institutional racism, this article traces how a specific set of norms, routines and self-descriptions contributes to reproducing racism in the German welfare state. The analysis draws on 17 qualitative expert interviews and 30 interviews with managers of residential care facilities run by the two largest providers, the Christian Caritas and Diakonie. Respondents frequently highlighted their organisation’s commitment to equal treatment, which the saw grounded in their institution’s Christian ethos, regarded as expression of their professional self-understanding, or viewed as resulting from post-war Germany’s self-representation as a post-racial nation. Yet, paradoxically, these collective and individual narratives of identity were – often in the same breath - also invoked to rebut, deflect from or deny even the possibility of differential treatment. The performativity of egalitarian self-descriptions, I argue, functions as a tool of self-assurance that, in effect, prevents care providers from realizing their own individual and collective standards. The article develops the literature on institutional racism by exploring an under-researched institutional setting and by conceptualizing the logics and effects of mainstream identity assertions. === Intergenerational relations within Syrian families in Rotterdam: An analysis of mutual support between parents and children with a refugee background Barbara van der Ent Erasmus University Rotterdam Meta van der Linden Erasmus University Rotterdam Jaco Dagevos Erasmus University Rotterdam For children with a refugee background, parental support is of crucial importance. It protects against psychological problems and improves their ability to adapt to their new living situation (Fazel et al., 2012, Titzmann, 2012). However, providing parental support can be challenging for parents, since they need to cope with their own difficulties and are not yet familiar with the language and culture in their new country (Pharos, 2017). At the same time, studies show that children often (need to) support their parents and parentification occurs in refugee families; children act as cultural brokers, interpret for their parents and take over tasks and responsibilities that earlier belonged to their parents (DeHaene et al., 2015). Although most studies suggest an asymmetrical relation between parents and children, in which parental support is limited and parentification occurs, we argue that – in line with Rezai et al. (2015) – both phenomena can exist simultaneously. In our paper we aim to explain the types of mutual support between parents and children in refugee families. We use data from two surveys conducted in 2019: 1) a subset of the EUR Bridge Survey on Syrian adults (n=264) with a residence permit who live in Rotterdam (the Netherlands) and 2) the Child Survey which was filled in by (most of) their children (n=97), aged 10 to 15 years. Since both parents and their children answered questions about the type and level of support, our data gives a unique insight into the reciprocal intergenerational relations between them. Regression analysis shows that mutual support between parents and children indeed occurs, but the type of provided support is different: whereas parents mostly give emotional support to their children, children offer mostly instrumental support to their parents.

author

Félicien de Heusch

University of Liège

author

carole wenger

Liège university

author

Meta van der Linden

author

Liliana Azevedo

CIES, ISCTE-IUL (Portugal); SFM, UNINE (Switzerland)

author

Livia Tomás

Université de Neuchâtel

author

Aleksandra Lewicki

University of Sussex

author

Jaco Dagevos

Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau

author

Barbara van der Ent

Erasmus University Rotterdam

Transnational Citizenship and Migrant Political Participation: Concepts and Practices

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #78 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Victoria Finn

Leiden University; Universidad Diego Portales

chair

Mari-Liis Jakobson

Tallinn University

Migrants influence politics in both the origin as well as residence countries through participation (and sometimes, non-participation) in conventional ways such as voting and also engaging in other ways such as through civil society, organizations, and protests or movements, for example. Migrant political participation has gained momentum in scholarly literature, with mounting evidence contributing to better understanding why migrants participate or do not participate, as well as the effects in both countries. The concept of transnational citizenship can prove to be a useful tool for furthering the scientific debate. It nuances an overly strong focus on nationality by enabling a more holistic perspective on migrant agency and the practices related to citizenship as a bundle of rights. Transnational citizenship entails a variety of interrelated and possibly mutually causal factors among different forms of participation, linking migrant identity and citizenship practices with an institutional framework of rights and obligations. This panel aims to incorporate and debate the concept of transnational citizenship, in its varied forms and dimensions, as applied to research on migrant political participation. We merge analyses that link, for instance, migrant legal status, political agency, values, belonging, or identities within or between the origin and residence countries. The articles focus on enacting transnational citizenship vis-à-vis the state(s) or civil societies to delve deeper into citizenship’s dimensions (e.g., status, identity, participation) or to associate transnational citizenship with other types of denationalized citizenships, such as cosmopolitan, denationalized, and diaspora citizenship. PAPER #1 Transnational Identity Building Agents: Four Turkish Migrant Organizations in Germany AUTHOR(S) Inci Öykü Yener-Roderburg (University of Duisburg-Essen & University of Strasbourg) Seçkin Söylemez (University of Duisburg-Essen) ABSTRACT Much literature has linked identity building within migrant communities to various factors originating from either the host country (assimilative understanding) or home country (segregated understanding) (Halm and Sezgin 2013). Some migrant transnationalism studies show that the two are often interdependent and have a contextual impact on the identity building process among migrant groups (Amelina and Faist 2008; Sökefeld 2008; Jørgensen 2009; Faist and Ulbricht 2014). Within such contexts, organizations founded by, and consisting of, migrants serve as important bridging agents to harmonize the host country’s political opportunity structures (Koopmans and Statham 2001; Weiss 2013). We focus on the diasporic identity building capacity of such organizations by conducting a comparative historical analysis of the four largest Turkish-origin migrant organizations in Germany (DITIB, AABF, TGD, UID). We investigate how and why they use the transnational space to transmit their own unique diaspora-identity to members and to construct and reproduce this new identity to work in their favor. Our data includes analyzing the four organizations’ public statements and we also draw on semi-structured interviews with migrant members. We recognize the role of origin and destination countries yet focus on powerful transnational activities that occur between them and that can affect migrant political participation in one or both countries. PAPER #2 Conceptualising Transnational Citizenship AUTHOR(S) Mari-Liis Jakobson (Tallinn University) ABSTRACT Transnational citizenship is a concept that has gained ground in and beyond different disciplines. Yet, its conceptualisations vary from rigorous in-depth theorisation (e.g. Bauböck 1994) to accounts that use it as a broad catchword with little elaboration (e.g. Balibar 2004). Meanwhile, social sciences—and qualitative research in particular—regard conceptualisation as a highly influential step in the research process (Goertz 2006). This article analyses how transnational citizenship is conceptualised in scholarly literature by distinguishing five key approaches: transnational citizenship as (1) a regulatory regime, (2) practice, (3) enactment, (4) normative and (5) an analytical and multidimensional concept. As such, the paper gives a state-of-the-art overview of the systemic traits of transnational citizenship. It also discusses the angles for conceptualising transnational citizenship that have received little or no attention at all, pointing out possible foci for future studies on transnational citizenship. PAPER #3 Spanish Diaspora’s Turnout and Party Preferences: Recent Patterns and Challenges of Transnational Political Engagement AUTHOR(S) Daniela Vintila (Centre for Ethnic and Migration Studies, University of Liege) Carles Pamies (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid) Marta Paradés (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid) ABSTRACT Over the past decades, the topic of diaspora’s engagement in home country elections has gained significant salience. This is mostly due to recent policies of transnational enfranchisement of non-resident nationals and the strong electoral potential that external voters sometimes have in homeland elections. Spain stands out as one of the European countries that entails a long and diverse emigration trajectory. In 2020, around 2.6 million Spaniards reside abroad, most of them in the Americas and Europe. The legislative framework regulating Spanish elections has experienced several reforms since 1985. In 2011, the implementation of the so-called “voto rogado” (begged vote) significantly changed the voting procedure from abroad, leading to the rise in abstention levels of external voters from 68% in 2008 to 95% in 2011. Diaspora movements such as Marea Granate have rapidly reacted by drawing attention to the bureaucratic barriers that impede casting a ballot from abroad. Despite controversies around the issue, the topic of Spanish diaspora’s electoral engagement has received limited scholarly attention. This paper aims to fill this gap. To do so, we first conduct a longitudinal analysis of turnout levels and highlight how participation from abroad is influenced not only by existing voting modalities, but also Spanish emigrants’ characteristics. Second, we examine their party preferences and compare them with those of resident voters to identify potential alignment patterns. Third, we explore the strategies of Spanish parties to attract the diaspora vote, by highlighting the special links that certain parties develop with specific communities of external voters. PAPER #4 Growing (New) Roots: How Political Resocialization Explains Migrant Participation in Two Countries AUTHOR(S) Victoria Finn (Leiden University & Universidad Diego Portales) ABSTRACT In this article, I argue that international migration causes an individual-level shock that ends migrants’ political socialization and starts the political resocialization process, which continues throughout life. Both are cognitive learning processes that shape how individuals interpret the political world and their role within it, in turn, affecting migrant political participation. Whereas political socialization (or growing roots) typically affects individuals’ decisions in only one country, migrants’ resocialization (growing new roots) can remarkably affect decisions to participate in two countries: as an emigrant for the origin country and as an immigrant in the residence country. Based on interactions with agents and institutions in the two countries and in the transnational social spaces between them, over time migrants can grow, maintain, or shrink their roots with both the origin and residence countries. Three possibilities in two countries result in nine (32=9) possible resocialization pathways, what I call the Roots Routes. The goal is two-fold: first, (re)socialization processes occur regardless of naturalization decisions, so the Roots Routes allow scholars to analyze migrant participation and citizenship practices, without focusing on nationality. Second, it entails a step towards theory building that includes migrant political participation in not one but two countries, in order to analyze why migrants politically participate and why migrants change such behavior over time.

discussant

Margit Fauser

author

Inci Öykü Yener-Roderburg

University of Duisburg-Essen, University of Strasbourg

author

Seckin Söylemez

University of Duisburg-Essen

author

Daniela Vintila

Center for Ethnic and Migration Studies (CEDEM), University of Liege

author

Carles Pamies

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

author

Marta Paradés

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Norms & Values 5

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #79 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

Framings of asylum related migrants in Turkish Media: Stories of inclusion and exclusion Nermin Aydemir Antalya Bilim University Rens Vliegenthart Amsterdam School for Communication Research, University of Amsterdam The modern Turkish state has largely been exempted from the issue of ‘asylum’ with its reservation on the Geneva Convention on the international asylum law (1951). The humanitarian crises in its close region, together with Turkey’s recent open door policy, however appears to have led to a profound change on Turkey’s complacent position. The country tops the list of the largest refugee-hosting countries worldwide and (officially) hosts more than 3, 5 million people, whose heart-breaking stories urge for immediate and well-grounded solutions. However, public discussions on the subject area remain rather understudied in the largest receiving country in the world. How media portray those migrants is of significant importance as mass communication both shapes public opinion serves as a public arena. To what extent are Turkish media hospitable to those who have to flee their home countries? What is the share of hostile reactions within the relevant discourse? Which issues are raised in these different frames the most? What are the reasons behind possible variation in those different framings? To answer these questions, we conduct a content analysis on three widely-read Turkish newspapers from different sides of the political spectrum between 2011 and 2020. We account for variation in framing by considering sources of information in relevant texts, ethnic and sectarian identities of those forced migrants, political ideologies of the newspapers, the internationality of the subject covered, and important events. === The Clash-of-Civilizations from the Perspective of European Muslims: the Impact of Religiosity, Misrecognition, and Value-Incompatibility Jef Van Den Abbeele University of Leuven Koen Abts Tilburg University Cecil Meeusen University of Leuven Bart Meuleman University of Leuven In this study, we set out to explain anti-Western attitudes among Muslim migrants and their offspring. Although there is a growing literature on the foundations of Islamophobia among the general population, there is still little systematic evidence about the determinants of anti-Western attitudes. Using the large-scale EURISLAM-dataset (2012), we set out to explain anti-Western attitudes among Muslim minorities in four West European countries (N=5347). While most studies focus on one theoretical paradigm at a time, we test several explanatory mechanisms simultaneously, allowing us to compare their relative importance and complementarity. Specifically, this study combines four theoretical perspectives: the losers of modernization approach, the social identity/self-categorization-approach, the social distance approach, and the clash of values approach. First, we aim to look over and beyond religiosity and investigate whether anti-Western ideas are stratified by socio-structural positions. Second, we assess whether high perceptions of misrecognition and exclusion contribute to Muslim’s antipathy towards the West and whether a sense of national belonging can mitigate these hostile attitudes. Additionally, we test the hypothesis that this relationship is conditional on Muslim’s level of religiosity. Third, we investigate whether a perceived social distance towards out-group members, as well as the rejection of typical Western norms and values (such as secularism and freedom of expression) and the perception of value-incompatibility and -superiority, are associated with anti-Western attitudes. === Constructing imaginaries in refugee entrepreneurship research: From the periphery to the center and back again Rosa Lisa Iannone University of Luxembourg Elke Murdock University of Luxembourg Sibylle Heilbruun Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee A systematic examination of refugee entrepreneurship research up to 2018 (Heilbrunn & Iannone, 2020) reveals that a great majority of it (~80%) has been authored by the strategic centers of the academic community, despite significant factions of refugees remaining in the peripheral regions of the “Global South”. Clearly, recent migration flows of refugees into the “Global North” have ignited strong social and political reactions, while inciting intense energy into research, marked by an exceptional volume of publications subsequent to the 2015 “refugee crisis”. Yet, the noticeable imbalance in core-periphery knowledge production, if left unexamined, could lead to future policies endorsed by research that is inconspicuously more informed by, rather than informing, a given dominant ideology. In other words, is the knowledge being generated reflecting the specificity of challenges and circumstances experienced by the subject-populations from the periphery, or rather, is it perpetuating self-legitimizing hegemonic ideals? Given this context, this paper will present an updated literature review (2018-2020) of refugee entrepreneurship that considers the centrality and peripherality of author affiliation and publication outlet, studied population characteristics, theoretical and methodological approaches employed, as well as contributions to field (theoretical and empirical). We will examine how the imperial scholarly dominance of the North has evolved, and in particular, explore the imaginaries, or universalized imaginary of refugee entrepreneurship that is being actively constructed. We then critically review the features that currently shape the academic contours of the social issues at stake within the central-peripheral spectrum and discuss their implications for future research and policy. === The contribution of urban public space to the social interaction and integration of immigrant Kurdish women: a comparison of Vienna and Cologne Hooshmand Alizadeh Institute of Urban and Regional Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences Josef Kohlbacher Institute of Urban and Regional Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences Diversity is now the key social characteristic of European cities, which mainly resulted from immigration from non-European countries during the last decades. To deal with the values and challenges of cultural diversity two policy models emerged since the 1970s namely the multicultural, and intercultural cities. Following many critics concerning the failure and decline of the multiculturalism model growing evidence concerning diversity as a source of creativity, vitality and economic development emerged ‘interculturalism’ as a new alternative approach to the management of cultural diversity through the benefits of proximity of individuals, communities and organizations. This approach emphasizes more on the social interaction of diverse groups living in the same urban context as the cornerstone to interethnic coexistence and social integration. In addition, it is a prerequisite that social capital be defined in terms of interactions among strangers. Following these two leading notions, this paper considers urban public space as a free zone of contact and social interaction, which can constitute an ostensibly neutral socio-spatial ground for these interactions between strangers. Considering this, the present paper aims to investigate the contribution of urban public space in social interactions between strangers and its effects on social integration of immigrants into the host communities in two European cities. In line with this aim, immigrant Kurdish women from Iran and Iraqi Kurdistan are the target group of this research to study the modes and outcomes of their interaction in urban public spaces regarding the host communities in Vienna and Cologne. The results of this research will help to find ways of making better connections between the everyday experiences of these women as immigrants and public spaces as a constituent element of their social lives.

author

Koen Abts

Tilburg University

author

Nermin Aydemir

Antalya Bilim University

author

Rens Vliegenthart

Amsterdam School for Communication Research, University of Amsterdam

author

Jef Van Den Abbeele

KU Leuven

author

Cecil Meeusen

University of Leuven

author

Bart Meuleman

University of Leuven

author

Rosa Lisa Iannone

University of Luxembourg

author

Hooshmand Alizadeh

ISR

author

Josef Kohlbacher

ISR

Crossing borders – feeling connected? An exploration of drivers influencing the development of a sense of belonging in the receiving society

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #80 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

chair

Elke Murdock

University of Luxembourg

chair

Isabelle A. Albert

University of Luxembourg

DISCUSSANT: Prof. Giuseppina Marsico (University of Salerno) Migrants face the complex task of establishing bonds with the receiving society. The development of a sense of belonging is linked to subjective wellbeing. The present panel investigates factors influencing the development of a sense of belonging. It brings together researchers from four different countries, applying different methodological approaches examining the development of belonging among different migrant groups. Jean Décieux explores the role of cultural distance in the host country adjustment process. Suggesting a multidimensional conceptualization of cultural distance, he presents findings based on recently migrated German nationals (N = 2856) drawn from the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS). The role of cultural distance in negotiating belonging among young migrant women growing up in Germany is the subject of Elke Murdock’s qualitative study. Results point to the important role of parents in the process. How parents’ commitment or lack of commitment affects their children’s construction of their sense of belonging is the focus of Anna Gruszczynska’s qualitative study among immigrant youth in the UK. She shows the fluctuating nature of the pursuit of belonging in time and space. Gry Paulgaard focuses on immigrants arriving in the rural space of Northern Norway. The project explores everyday life practices of refugees taking the materiality of a place as a starting point, acknowledging the interdependency between the social and material contexts for practice. Finally, Isabelle Albert investigates practices by older migrants living in multicultural Luxembourg, their engagement or otherwise in social practices and how this impacts on their sense of belonging. PAPER #1 Culturally close and yet so far? The multidimensionality of cultural distance and its ambivalent role for migrants’ host country adjustment AUTHOR(S) Jean Philippe Décieux (Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany) Andreas Genoni (Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (Federal Institute for Population Research), Germany) ABSTRACT Multidimensionality of culture is widely recognized in migration research. It is therefore surprising that quantitative research on cultural distance (CD) and host country adjustment so far largely refrained from conceptualizing CD as a multidimensional construct. Most previous studies conceptualized CD unidimensional, neglecting the fact that migrants can simultaneously be culturally close and distant, depending on the cultural dimension considered. This increases risks for false conclusions as dimension specific CDs might influence host country adjustment in opposite directions. We test this hypothesis by investigating CD’s role for migrants’ host country adjustment from a unidimensional and multidimensional perspective. We use a new approach to operationalize CD and draw on the concept of national culture by Beugelsdijk and Welzel, which accounts for substantial criticism of Hofstede’s concept, on which virtually all studies in the field rely. Our variable “host country adjustment” considers attachment to the host country and the municipality of residence. Our sample (N = 2.856) includes recently migrated German nationals from probability-based data of the first wave of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS). Employing multilevel regressions, we find opposing dimension specific CD effects, indicating that CD simultaneously promotes and impedes host country adjustment. Importantly, a unidimensional analysis reveals no relationship between CD and host country adjustment, suggesting that the dimension specific CD effects cancel each other out. We provide theoretical explanations for the results and discuss their implications. PAPER #2 On the move within themselves – cultural distance and negotiation processes of cultural belonging AUTHOR(S) Elke Murdock (University of Luxembourg, Institue for Lifespan Development, Family and Culture) Sissy Gales (University of Luxembourg) ABSTRACT In a boundary crossing world, having exposure to multiple cultures is becoming norm rather than exception. Children of migrants and children born into mixed national families grow up with more than one cultural point of reference from birth. In the growing body of literature on bi- and multiculturalism different models of cultural acquisition are described, but still little is known about how the negotiation process takes place and what factors facilitate resolution and well-being. The present study builds on a recent theoretical framework on multicultural identity integration developed by Yampolsky et al. and investigates the role of cultural distance in the negotiation process for cultural belonging. For the present study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with eight young women (Mage = 22.6). All grew up in Germany, yet each had a very different other cultural background ranging from Chile, Columbia, France, Ghana, Hungary, Luxembourg, Russia to Sri Lanka. We asked participants about their sense of belonging, perceived similarities and differences between their cultural influences and their way of positioning themselves within these. Each interview was complemented by two visual exercises illustrating the sense of belonging. The results show that all participants engaged in active negotiation processes and arrived at very different solutions in terms of belonging. The cultural integration process depends on a multitude of factors – cultural distance being one, but parents playing an important role. The findings will be discussed in light of current acculturation models. Explanations will be provided with special focus on implications for migration and acculturation research. PAPER #3 How does sense of belonging change over time and space? – UK’s immigrant-background young adults' narratives of belonging and cultural heritage AUTHOR(S) Anna (Ania) Gruszczynska (School of Education, Durham University ) ABSTRACT While increasing research attention has been dedicated to the transfer of cultural resources and practices in immigrant families, what is missing from the literature is the account of how parents’ commitment or lack of commitment to this transfer affects how their children develop and reconstruct their sense of belonging as they step into adulthood. This contribution draws on a qualitative design which involved reflective journal writing, interviewing, and collaborative data analysis. Participants in this study are 18-29 years old and were born in the UK to immigrant parents. They come from a range of ethnic and economic backgrounds and show varying levels of commitment to the maintenance of their parents’ cultural and linguistic heritage. This exploratory study of immigrant-background emerging adults’ everyday experiences of belonging draws attention to the complexities of navigating heritage and identity between socio-spatial settings and reveals the fluctuating—in time and space—nature of the pursuit of belonging. This paper reports on participants’ sense of belonging at home, within friendship groups, in educational settings, and during visits to their parents’ countries of origin. It explores how participants’ past experiences related to heritage and belonging affect their present daily decisions and interactions and are taken by them into consideration when thinking about their futures. Potential of these findings for informing support strategies for immigrant-background children and adults, their parents, immigrant communities, as well as community and mainstream schools will also be discussed. PAPER #4 Refugees’ experiences of place attachment and belonging in the rural North of Norway. AUTHOR(S) Gry Paulgaard (UiT The Arctic University of Norway) ABSTRACT Most research on the integration of migrants has focused on urban destinations. In contrast, this paper focuses on refugees settled in rural communities in the Northern and marginal edge of Europe. Many of these areas have long experienced significant outmigration. Fluctuations of refugees are likely to have great impact on small, rural societies as a whole, socially, economically and politically. New inhabitants may halt population decline and increase municipal economic space of action, and might represent new opportunities for challenged communities. The project explores the everyday life practices of refugees and examines what role local authorities, social relations within the local communities and material circumstances, structural as well as nature, climate and weather, play in daily life practices and how they influence experiences. The empirical material is based on fieldwork and qualitative interviews with parents and young people settled in three rural places of different size, and interviews with teachers and local volunteers that have started activities for refugees in two of the places. Theoretically, the paper builds on a phenomenology of practice that situates practical, embodied consciousness in the world – an ‘interworld’ where meaning and materiality are inseparable (Simonsen 2012:15). The materiality of a place is a part of the embodied nature of being (Lähdesmäki et al, 2016), acknowledging the interdependency between the social and material contexts for practice.

discussant

Giuseppina Marsico

author

Jean Philippe Décieux

University of Duisburg-Essen

author

Andreas Genoni

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Sissy Gales

University of Luxembourg

author

Anna (Ania) Gruszczynska

author

Gry Paulgaard

UiT The Arctic University of Norway

Education & Social Inequality 3

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #81 panel | SC Education and social inequality

Educational Inclusion of Migrant Children in the Discourse and Practices of Teachers in Russia Tatiana Ryabichenko National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation Maria Kozlova National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation Problems of inclusion of ethnic minorities from migrant communities in host societies are often associated less with explicit discrimination, than with questions about the ways in which the majority population understands cultural and ethnic diversity. The institution of education, particularly the school, is one of the key channels for the inclusion of ethnic and cultural groups. In this study, we attempt to explicate the key features of the everyday context of the educational process of children from migrant families. Our interest here lies with the educational strategies and everyday practices applied by elementary and secondary school teachers to facilitate educational inclusion of the students from the families of migrants. We examine these issues in respect of migrant children in Russia and the discourse of their teachers in the context of public schools. This study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with teachers working with migrants. We also review a set of issues related to teachers’ views on conditions, prospects and barriers of their professional activity in the contexts aimed at adaptation of migrant children to the Russian school environment and integration into the Russian society. The results revealed a number of barriers to successful integration of migrant children. At the core of structural barriers to inclusive culture is a gap between declared multicultural ideology and educational activity possibilities in a real-life class. Cultural barriers are ingrained in the established attitudes of teachers and typical practices. === New patterns of migration and higher education in Ireland: What are the implications?  Daniel Faas Trinity College Dublin Across Europe, the internationalisation of higher education is firmly on the policy agenda and along with it a diversification of the student population. This paper discusses the changing demographic situation in recent decades as Ireland moved from being a country with a long tradition of emigration to one of net immigration. The pace of social change in Ireland is particularly striking and rapid shifts offer an interesting context to analyse how higher education institutions respond to changing student demographics. The paper examines a range of good practices and challenges in connection with migration-related diversity observed at one higher education institution: Trinity College Dublin. It then links this case study to wider discussions around national policy steering through the Higher Education Authority, for instance the 2010 internationalisation strategy for the education sector entitled Investing in Global Relationships which was the first strategy of its kind in Europe to set international student recruitment targets. This was followed by Irish Educated, Globally Connected: An International Education Strategy for Ireland 2016-2020. Local data and statistics (such as student population breakdowns) are juxtaposed with national statistics to highlight the main sectoral trends. The final part offers some recommendations including the need for further internationalisation of the curriculum across higher-level institutions in Ireland as well as intercultural awareness training. While the paper primarily draws on research produced in an Irish context, the implications and findings are relevant in other jurisdictions. The paper thus sheds light on the important question identified in your Call how higher education institutions cater for the needs and demands of ethnically and culturally diverse students and what kinds of policies are in place to establish 'diversity' as a norm that requires specific institutional responses to prevent discrimination.  === Our History and Yours? On the Diversification of Memory in Education Elisabeth Beck Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt In research and discourse, migration is, on the one hand, described as societal normality since there has always been migration in human history. On the other hand, migration is still perceived as a deviation from normalized settledness within a nation-state. However, migration processes and, therefore, migrants shape and change the world and society. They challenge belongings, identities, and ‘cultural’ and social practices considered to be sure and ‘normal’. By acknowledging migration´s transformative processes new possibilities and horizons to reflect on the past, memory, and their relevance for identity open up. Education plays a central role in this. In historical education, mostly only one interpretation of ‘the’ past is passed on. This is strongly oriented towards a nation-state narrative. Different memories, narratives, and past*s of migrants do not fit into an assumed collective and cultural memory. Migrants and their specific (historical) knowledge are often addressed as deficient. Hence, in educational settings, discrimination processes can be observed. One of the most significant contemporary challenges in historical education and using the example of Holocaust education is integrating different perspectives avoiding the production of an ‘us’ and ‘them’. Thus, remembrance and education need to open up to new spheres of remembering to enable all people living in Germany to participate and conceptualize history. The research project focuses on how Holocaust education can be conceptualized, especially in adult education, focusing on heterogeneous groups of people with different experiences, knowledge, and backgrounds. The study provides a qualitative research design. Results are to be gained through interviews with participants and providers of Holocaust education. === (Re-)production of differences in higher education? Lecturers' perspectives and practices in Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences Carolina Toletti Institute for Integration and Participation - School of Social Work - University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland Andrea Blaser Institute Research and Development - School of Education - University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland Maritza Le Breton Institute for Integration and Participation - School of Social Work - University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland Susanne Burren Head of Gender Equality and Diversity - School of Education - University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland In the context of the internationalization of higher education institutions and the increasing diversification of the student population, the orientation towards diversity has gained importance. In recent years, the existing action plans for gender equality at Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences have been supplemented by “diversity policies”, which are designed to consider other categories of social inequalities, such as social origin and migratory background. Even though higher education lecturers are main actors in the context of diversity and (in)equality in education, their perspective is still lacking regarding the (re-)production of difference relations due to migration and gender and the question of culturally responsive teaching. Therefore, our aim is to understand how university lecturers perceive and interpret student heterogeneity and into what extent they are involved in the (re)production of relations of difference. As members of higher education institutions, they are institutionally involved in visible or invisible power relations and play a central role – also in shaping the students’ scope of action. For this study – from May 2019 to April 2022 –, 43 guideline-based interviews will be conducted with university lecturers in the fields of study technology and IT, social work, education, and business management at Universities of Applied Sciences in German-speaking and French-speaking Switzerland. The interviews are analysed according to the theoretical coding of the Grounded Theory. The research results provide an important contribution regarding migration and gender and their intersectional relationships as well as the challenges and opportunities of dealing with them in the context of higher education. They can offer a basis for the further development of difference-sensitive study conditions.

author

Daniel Faas

Trinity College Dublin

author

Maria Kozlova

National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation

author

Tatiana Riabichenko

Higher School of Economics, Moscow

author

Elisabeth Beck

Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt

author

Carolina Toletti

Institut Integration und Partizipation

author

Andrea Blaser

Pädagogische Hochschule FHNW

author

Maritza Le Breton

Institute for Integration and Participation - School of Social Work - University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland

author

Susanne Burren

Head of Gender Equality and Diversity - School of Education - University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland

Migration Politics & Governance 13

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #82 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

International Donors at the Local Level in Centralised States: The cases of Adana in Turkey and Irbid in Jordan Ezgi Irgil Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg Alexander Jung School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg Isabell Schierenbeck School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg Andrea Spehar Department of Political Science and Center on Global Migration, University of Gothenburg The reception of Syrian refugees has dominated negotiations between neighbouring host states and international donors. In these negotiations, national governments of host states have engaged in rent-seeking to generate additional financial support. At the same time, however, in line with the ‘localisation of aid’ agenda, international donors have increasingly stressed the importance of local actors in delivering aid. While both rent-seeking behaviour and the ‘localisation of aid’ agenda have been analysed separately in academic work, we argue that a synthesis of both bodies of literature fills two research gaps. First, although the ‘local’ is ever-present in policy and research discussions, it still remains unclear which actors are included in the category. Research and policy oftentimes conflate regional organisations, national governments and municipalities into one the category, and thereby neglect the power dynamics between these various actors. Second, what is missing is an understanding of how donors navigate the power dynamics between stakeholders working on the ground and national governments, particularly in states with centralised political power. In order to fill these gaps, this paper looks at the activities and room for manoeuvre of international donors in Adana in Turkey and Irbid in Jordan through the analytical framework of multilevel governance. Drawing on policy documents and interviews with donors, IOs and NGOs in these highly centralised states, we argue that one way of investigating what the ‘local’ encompasses, and how international actors navigate it, is precisely to look at humanitarian responses where local implementations differ from national policies. === Non-Refoulement: National Interest and Norms in Global Forced Migration Politics Md. Matiul Hoque Masud University of Chittagong, Bangladesh This paper examines the relations between national interest and norms by tracing the views of the United States towards non-refoulement from 1945 to 1951. Using a constructivist approach, this paper rejects a widely held assumption that national interest and norms are constraints to each other, and argues that national interest and norms constitute and shape each other. This paper demonstrates that securitization of forced migration in a wider US national interest did not undermine non-refoulement norm during the early Cold War period, in contrast to the securitization of forced migration for narrow domestic national interest that advocated forceful repatriation of refugees and asylum seekers to the country of persecution. Studying the role of non-state actors, this paper suggests that civil societies within the United States exerted influence on the Congress and the Truman administration to shape the US attitudes to non-refoulement, while intergovernmental and international organizations failed to exert an independent influence on the US national interests and contribute to the development of non-refoulement as a new norm. === The perceptions of the migratory phenomenon during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Italy Elena Ambrosetti Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" Sara Miccoli Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" The paper focuses on the perceptions on the immigration phenomenon in Italy expressed through the social media. In particular, the paper aim at analyzing the perceptions expressed on the immigration flows in Italy, in relation to the COVID-19 emergency and to the amnesty for irregular migrant workers implemented to respond to the lack of seasonal workers during the pandemic. This study is conducted by applying a Content Analysis to the tweets which present hashtags and keywords related to the migratory phenomenon and to the same issue in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. By analyzing the content of the tweets, it is possible to understand negative or positive sentiments towards certain topics, such as migration phenomenon in relation to COVID-19 emergency. The study focusses on an increasingly important topic for receiving countries, such as Italy. Understanding the perceptions towards migration and immigrants is an essential step to act for developing specific actions to counteract some narratives and shed lights about migration phenomenon among the public opinion. At the same time, COVID-19 pandemic has probably altered the perceptions and sentiment of uncertainty and insecurity often connected with migratory phenomenon. Analyzing the way in which this new emergency relates with perceptions about migration is essential to understand another consequence of the health uncertainty caused by the pandemic. === An Eye for an ‘I:’ A Critical Assessment of AI Tools in Migration and Asylum Management Lucia Nalbandian Ryerson University Anna Triandafyllidou Ryerson University The promise of artificial intelligence (AI) has been to put technology at the service of people utilising powerful information processors and algorithms to quickly perform time-consuming tasks. However, it has become apparent that the capacity of AI to scrape and analyse big data would be particularly useful in surveillance policies. In the wider areas of migration and asylum management, increasingly sophisticated AI tools are being used to register and manage vulnerable populations without much concern about the potential misuses of data collected and the overall ethical and legal underpinnings of these operations. This paper examines three cases in point. First, we investigate the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ (UNHCR) decision to deploy iris scanners in Jordanian refugee camps to allow refugees to access their monthly World Food Programme allowance. Then, we focus on the New Zealand government’s ‘brief’ introduction of algorithms to identify and decline visa applications from ‘likely troublemakers.’ Finally, we assess data scraping and facial recognition tools implemented by the United States government to track (and eventually deport) undocumented migrants. The paper critically discusses the framing of these policies in legal texts and policy documents with a focus on notions such as efficiency, security, legality, but also vulnerability, fairness and human rights. We critically analyse the underpinnings of AI use in migration and asylum management with a view to proposing the minimal conditions that need to be satisfied in terms of privacy, protection and human rights for AI to be used to facilitate migration and asylum management.

author

Anna Triandafyllidou

Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada

author

Ezgi Irgil

University of Gothenburg

author

Matiul Hoque Masud

University of Chittagong

author

Elena Ambrosetti

Sapienza University of Rome

author

Sara Miccoli

author

Lucia Nalbandian

Ryerson University

Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 8

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #83 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

“This place is me now”: Eastern European communities, class and race in post-industrial Brexit towns in the North of England Roxana Barbulescu University of Leeds This paper examines the everyday experiences of Eastern European communities in high Leave areas in former textile and mining towns in the North England. The paper explores how settled Eastern Europeans engage and narrate their encounters with long term residents. Eastern Europeans are the last arrived large visible and recognisable community and while lacking the right to vote, have found themselves found at the heart of the EU Referendum who consistently point 'immigration' as main driver for Leave supporters. They arrive in these towns with little reference for their geography, its industrial past and local politics politics more knowledgeable the prices of room rental motivated by whom they might know from the same community and would be able to help them 'settle in'. The availability of jobs in low pay sectors such as social care, warehouse and shift work on one hand and more affordable rents not geography or towns explain destination choices. Class and racial identification are downplayed priviledging instead workplace and gendered identities. 'Worker' 'contributor' 'mother/father' are purposively chosen as defining role in everyday engagements with long term residents who supported the Leave vote in the Brexit referendum. This strategy allows residents to mediate locally and on such basis, to develop local inter-racial and intra-class solidarities." === National identification among people without a migration background in majority-minority cities Marina Lazëri Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Marcel Coenders The Netherlands Institute for Social Research Due to a growing number of migrants and those of migrant descent, ethnic diversity in Europe has increased, particularly in larger West-European cities. In a growing number of majority-minority neighbourhoods in these cities, inhabitants without a migration background have become a numerical minority. How does this affect their sense of belonging to the national majority group? Against the backdrop of an apparent rising salience of nationalistic feelings in the current political and social debate, we investigate how these inhabitants formulate national belonging as compared to the rest of the population without a migration background that remains the numerical majority locally. We conduct our research in the Netherlands and compare inhabitants without a migration background in majority-minority neighbourhoods in Amsterdam and Rotterdam to the overall Dutch population without a migration background using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). We look at how people describe what they understand to be the true nature of national belonging (in more ethnic or more civic terms). We ask whether people who have become a minority understand national belonging in different terms than people who remain a majority. Through this research, we aim to investigate the influence of living in diversity for national identification as the way people relate to the nation-state ultimately affects inter-group relations. === Lost in 'Social and Cultural Translation'? the Case of the Syrian Refugees in the Netherlands Amny Athamny University of Toronto Warda Alkrenawy Independent Researcher “If you want to visit someone, you must make an appointment. At 6 they have dinner... Some topics are normal for you, but for a Dutch person it is crossing a line… do not ask for example about the ‘salaris’… I read about this”. Hasan, Syrian refugee. The Netherlands hosts thousands of Syrian refugees who fled the ongoing conflict in their home country in hopes of finding a refuge. The journey of the Syrian refugees includes attempting to establish a new life in the Netherlands. This process entails learning the Dutch language, coping with the bureaucratic system of the Dutch state and integrating into the labour market. Furthermore, it means that there is an inevitable encounter between their culture and the Dutch culture. This encounter necessitates that both sides engage in the process of ‘social and cultural translation’. In my research I conduct in depth interviews with male and female Syrian refugees who live the Dutch urban centers, and I ask about their urban experience and their integration process. I hone into the differences among the Syrian refugees along the lines of gender and level of urbanity (rurals vs. urbanites), and how these shape their trajectories. The analysis shows how the refugees re-establish their life in the Netherlands, and what are their strategies and practices to achieve that. My conference contribution elaborates how they educate themselves on Dutch culture, its codes, its nuances, how it differs from Syrian culture and how they engage in the process of ‘social and cultural translation’. === Re-thinking migrant contemporary home-making practices through the lens of art and film Fran Lloyd Kingston University London Nadia Mansour Via University College In the context of recent histories of migration and the politics and policies of immigration in Denmark and the UK where increasingly regulation and management of migrants’ lives is evident, this paper addresses questions about how contemporary artists and film makers engage with, negotiate, and re-imagine the everyday practices of home-making from a migrant perspective. Through a comparative analysis of specific art and film works from 2010 to the present day, we will identify the multiple, complex and often contradictory perspectives on home-making in the differing local/transnational contexts of Denmark and the UK, and seek to show that new themes, aesthetics and modes of understanding of interconnectedness are emerging (Bennett, 2011; Petersen, 2018). Such cultural practices frequently intervene in and disrupt dominant perceptions of the bounded nation and offer insights into alternative experiences and understandings of home-making that have the potential to help shape a differently imagined future. Petersen, A. R. (2018) Migration into Art: Transcultural identities and art-making in a globalised world. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Jill Bennett, (2011)‘Migratory Aesthetics: Art and Politics beyond Identity’, in Art and Visibility in Migratory Culture: Conflict, Resistance, and Agency, eds. Mieke Bal and Miguel ÁHernández-Navarro, Amsterdam, Rodopi. === Identity and sense of belonging of second-generation Arab-Canadian youths in Montreal Mona El Samaty University of Toronto Migration and cultural diversity in Canada have not only changed the demographic, religious, cultural and linguistic make-up of Canada, but have also redefined identity and sense of belonging for immigrants, specifically the second-generation, whose loyalty is questioned. Identity formation, which partly depends on how individuals are positioned by others in the host society, impacts their sense of belonging to their society. A large-scale survey in Canada showed that second-generation youths had the lowest rates of social integration. Through an intersectionality-informed case-study design, I explore how identity and sense of belonging of second-generation Arab youths in Montreal, Canada are continuously being reconstructed, as they intersect with social systems of power, creating experiences of perceived inequalities. In terms of identity and belonging, results showed that most participants felt in a grey area. They found it challenging, if not conflicting, to adhere to both heritage and Western sets of values. They are treated like immigrants in the host society and as foreigners in their heritage countries. As for their social experiences, participants shared memories of exclusion, discriminatory comments in schools, on the streets and in workplaces, and some revealed facing prejudices in terms of hiring. Others are aware of racial stereotypes, emanating from the public or fueled by right-wing media. It has been shown that being exposed to such alienating experiences may cooccur with a weak or absent national identity and belonging. Finally, by learning about the social experiences of Arab-Canadian youths, attendees may make comparisons with the migrant situation in European countries.

author

Roxana Barbulescu

University of Leeds

author

Marina Lazëri

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

author

Marcel Coenders

The Netherlands Institute for Social Research

author

Amny Athamny

University of Toronto

author

WARDA ALKRENAWY

NGO

author

Fran Lloyd

Kingston University London

author

Nadia Mansour

Via University College

author

Mona El Samaty

University of Toronto

Gender & Sexuality 5

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #84 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

A double standard? Dissociating Muslim youth from gender (in)equality discourse Colleen Boland Autonomous University of Barcelona Gender equality as enshrined in European legal frameworks or commitments can often be cast as a secular value, juxtaposed against principles and practice of Islam. Public discourse and academic debate remain preoccupied with the spread of religious fundamentalism in Europe, or question the way European Muslim women and girls dress, arguing that both cases can undermine gender equality. European Muslim youth in particular are benchmarked against imagined standards of gender equality, as compared with non-Muslim peers. Meanwhile, there is continued critique from gender experts and activists that gender equality frameworks, policies and implementation fall short at the European and national level, alongside evidence that widespread societal behaviors and practices continue to lack gender balance. Moreover, the binary of the religiously observant engaging in genderist discrimination, versus those identifying as secular engaging in comparatively more gender equal practices, remains subject to academic debate. This paper begins with an overview of the various ways in which gender, secularism and Muslim youth intersect more broadly in European wide studies, couched within a brief sketch of the typification of Muslim youth in the literature. It then explores the approach to the study of Islam and gender as relates to Muslim youth in the Spanish case. It demonstrates via this example how discourse surrounding gender and Islam has steered and perhaps constricted the study of this youth population, doing a further disservice to a group that already navigates multiple inequalities. Finally, it notes what is not said about Muslim youth in the context of gender (in)equality and how this reflects upon the European self, offering conclusions as to why reconfigured and self-reflexive discussion of European Muslim youth could provide more authentic inquiry. === THE ROLE OF FAMILY FOR THE SOCIAL INCLUSION OF REFUGEES IN AUSTRIA: DRIVERS AND BARRIERS BY GENDER Judith Kohlenberger Vienna University of Economics and Business Bernhard Rengs Austrian Academy of Sciences Isabella Buber-Ennser Austrian Academy of Sciences Whereas having a family can increase refugees’ bridging social capital via institutionalized contacts (schools, doctors), intensive family ties may absorb social needs and tie up resources. The ambivalent effect of family is of particular relevance for the inclusion of female refugees, who display high fertility rates in European host countries. Our paper provides insights in the role of family for the social inclusion of refugees in Austria, with a focus on gender-specific differences. We use a multimethod approach, based on quantitative data from the Women’s Integration Survey (WIN) (N=548 refugees from Syria and Afghanistan) and semi-structured group discussions with Syrian refugees (N=12 informants). In quantitative analyses, we study social isolation ¬– defined as rare contacts in first language and in German – as well as frequent contacts in German. Group discussions were analyzed by using open coding. Marital status, having children and doing family work were revealed as important factors for the social inclusion of refugees. Bridging and bonding social capital substantially varied by gender and family context. Married childless women and married men with children were the most disadvantaged groups: Social isolation, i.e. rare regular contacts of the bridging and bonding kind, was high, and frequent contacts in German rare. We hence conclude that whether family acts as a driver or barrier to social inclusion depends on gender: Although an unequal distribution of care work limited refugee women’s resources to enhance their social capital, family work – especially when related to children – might have a positive trade-off for women in terms of building bridging social capital. === Lesbian Migrant Women’s Negotiations of Bordering Processes in South Africa Verena Hucke Sociology of Diversity, University of Kassel Lesbian women experiences are overwhelmingly overlooked in migration research. This paper takes this observation as its starting point and adds to the expanding field of sexuality and migration studies by shifting focus to lesbian migrant experiences in the Global South. Drawing on narrative interviews conducted in Johannesburg in 2019 with lesbian migrant women who migrated from other African countries to South Africa and who could potentially apply for asylum on the basis of sexuality the paper argues that these women make visible social conflicts around mobility, rights, and social participation by actively reconfiguring multiple borders. The paper interrogates the narrative of the Rainbow Nation before examining how bordering processes are experienced and negotiated by lesbian migrant women and how these women navigate borders at multiple scales and in complex ways.

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Colleen Boland

Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona

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Judith Judith Kohlenberger

Vienna University of Economics and Business

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Bernhard Rengs

Austrian Academy of Sciences

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Isabella Buber-Ennser

Austrian Academy of Sciences

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Verena Hucke

Sociology of Diversity, University of Kassel

Norms & Values 9

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #85 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

Trafficked minors exploited in criminal activities in Italy: the pilot experience of the Inside Out Project. Michela Semprebon IUAV University Serena Scarabello IUAV University Serena Caroselli IUAV University This paper deals with the protection of minors who committed crimes and are at the same time victims of trafficking and severe exploitation, a theme scarcely explored in the academic literature. The analysis is centered on the implementation of article 18/ paragraph 6 of the Italian Legislative Decree 286/1998, an important instrument for the protection of this specific group of minors. In particular, the paper addresses the following questions: how and by whom are trafficked minors exploited in criminal activities identified? How are they treated by actors in the protection/ welfare systems? The paper builds on qualitative material, including ethnographic fieldwork notes, qualitative interviews, secondary literature and case study files. The paper proposes some reflections, based on the trajectories of minors that anti-trafficking operators worked with within the Italian Inside Out Project which has involved operators of the Veneto (north) and Campania (south) regions of Italy and Juvenile Detention Centres. We will point out critical aspects particularly with reference to the labelling process that affect referral, identification and protection. === Assistance as Discipline?: TANF, Refugee Cash Assistance, and the Laborer as Citizen in the United States Narintohn Luangrath Recent Graduate, Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford My paper investigates the degree to which refugees and staff from state refugee offices and refugee serving organizations (RSOs) in the United States internalize norms and values surrounding rapid employment and economic self-sufficiency. To this end, I explore two research questions: 1) How do the two primary cash assistance programs for refugees—Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and Refugee Cash Assistance (RCA)— function as a form of “discipline” for its beneficiaries? 2) How do state refugee offices and RSOs alter the implementation of TANF and RCA, including in ways that do not correspond with federal-level objectives surrounding rapid employment? I use neoliberal paternalism (Soss et al. 2011) as an analytical instrument while interpreting empirical findings garnered from 12 in-person and phone interviews, and a focus group discussion with 14 refugees. I find that Soss et al.’s account of sanctioning as the primary disciplinary tool in the U.S. welfare system loses its explanatory power when considering that refugees are reportedly rarely sanctioned in TANF and RCA (Elkin et al. 2018). Instead, the mere threat of sanctioning, combined with low cash assistance levels, time-limited assistance, and the refugee resettlement program’s strong emphasis on economic self-sufficiency illustrate how “productive” forms of power (Foucault 1979), rather than punitive ones, shape refugees into desired citizen-laborers. While federal policy goals like rapid employment governed the priorities of state refugee offices and RSOs, these stakeholders also engaged in varying degrees of counter-agency (Barnes and Prior 2009), often working to address refugees’ broader needs beyond employment. Thus, my study refines Soss et al.’s concept of neoliberal paternalism, while improving understanding of disciplinary regimes in U.S. refugee poverty governance." === Growing up in diversity: childhood socialization and union formation in young adulthood Gusta Wachter Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)/University of Groningen Rafael Costa Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI) Compared to immigrants, union formation of the children of immigrants is more similar to that of the majority population. This is generally attributed to the, at least partial, socialization of the second generation in the majority culture. Although studies generally compare the second generation to the majority population on a national level, the degree to which second-generation individuals are socialized in the majority culture depends on the local context in which they grow up. In case they grow up among many co-ethnics, norms from the parents’ origin country may exert a stronger influence. Contrary, growing up among larger shares of majority group members may make the union formation of the second generation more similar to that of majority group peers. Studies so far mainly use cross-sectional designs to examine the influence of the community’s ethnic composition on union formation thereby ignoring the childhood context. This is unfortunate as childhood socialization has a profound influence on preferences and behavior in adulthood. We therefore investigate whether union formation of the second generation in young adulthood varies according to the ethnic composition of local contexts in which they grew up. Using full-population register data from Statistics Netherlands we estimate multinomial event-history models to examine age at, and type of, first union. We focus on all Turkish (N=3,943) and Moroccan (N=3,731) second-generation individuals born in 1986. We follow union formation from age 18-32 and include information about the ethnic composition at different levels of scale at age 13-17. Several socio-economic characteristics are controlled for. === Hegemonic narratives as a source of moral obligation. German and Hungarian interpretations of the ‘right to asylum’ in 2015. Kathrin Bachleitner Oxford University's Refugee Studies Centre This paper examines the use of hegemonic narratives by political leaders to legitimise their policy choices in the face of the 2015 refugee crisis. It argues that policymakers selectively invoke stories from their country’s historical experience to give a contextualised meaning to their policy responses, particularly concerning pressing normative, international matters such as that of 'asylum'. Empirically, the paper, therefore, investigates how the refugee-receiving countries Germany and Hungary came to interpret the international right to asylum in diverse ways in 2015, with one country opening and the other closing its border. In a qualitative content analysis of political speeches, the case study shows that both countries’ leaders constructed a diverse normative meaning for the right to asylum. However, this process unfolded equally through the invocation of hegemonic narratives. In both cases, political leaders in their official rhetoric employed such narratives to generate a context-specific value for their policies, and per extension, also for the international norm of asylum. At a time when the privileged status of the refugee is politically threatened, the proposed focus on political narratives offers an alternative framework through which to ground – and understand – the source of states’ normative obligations towards refugees.

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Michela Semprebon

University of Iuva Venice

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Serena Scarabello

IUAV University

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Serena Caroselli

IUAV University

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Narintohn Luangrath

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Gusta Wachter

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)

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Rafael Costa

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)

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Kathrin Bachleitner

University of Oxford

Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 6

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #86 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

In the Name of Culture Security: Securitisation of Migration Discourse Magdalena El Ghamari Institute of Political Sciences and International Relations (INPISM) Collegium Civitas The issue of migration has been present in European politics for several decades; it did not appear in 2015 out of the blue. Nonetheless, the ongoing migration crisis can be conceptualised as a ‘before and after’ moment due to profound differences in approaching the problem. Before the crisis migration was politicised, i.e. state was expected to cope with this issue within the standard political system as a part of public policy, requiring government decision and resource allocations, or more rarely some form of communal governance. The escalation of problem in 2015 led to its securitization whereby migration in many places has been recognized as the most important issue; a threat that requires extraordinary measures. This paper investigates the problem of societal securitization of migration and migrants in the context of analyzed polish media images and stories. By conceptualizing the problem as a catalyst of political and societal securitisation, it will discuss various security images of migrants and migration from the perspective of Polish citizens. Consequently, the paper will analyse the dynamics of the societal security dilemmas exploring the perceived threats in Poland." === ‘Arriving at a new place’: enhancing two-way integration via an arts-based project Claudia Schneider Anglia Ruskin University Mirna Guha Anglia Ruskin University Marques Harding Anglia Ruskin University Shreepali Patel Anglia Ruskin University The concept of two-way integration, which puts the onus of integration on all residents, has been increasingly discussed in the literature over the past decade. A central part of two-way integration relates to mutual understanding between residents with diverse backgrounds. However, how understanding can be enhanced by processes of interaction and communication among residents with diverse backgrounds has been less focused on in the literature and this paper aims to address this gap. This paper presents the findings of a two-way integration project in England which encouraged dialogue between 16 residents around the topic of ‘arriving at a new place’, initiated by objects associated with their arrival. It examines themes around differing perceptions and experiences of ‘migrant identities’, of linkages to space, place and community, and varied notions of ‘home’ and belonging, which emerged through conversations between the participants. Using the lens of ‘arriving at a new place’ (e.g. school, workplace, town, country) the project aimed to increase understanding between residents who defined themselves as migrants, non-migrants or global citizens. The project used creative methodologies (story-telling, objects, photography) and was disseminated via an E-Book and an exhibition. The paper presents the findings of the qualitative analysis of participants’ dialogues and highlights how a short intensive dialogue around a common experience, with the support of objects and photography, can initiate understanding between residents with diverse backgrounds and increase two-way integration in local communities. === Fitting in and making fit: the negotiation of caste, class, and gender in accessing migration channels from Nepal Kathrin Fischer Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), Oxford Migrating for work, be it documented or undocumented, is connected to a set of prerequisites, such as the acquisition of documents and accessibility of institutions, the availability of financial means, specific migration knowledge, and networks (Thieme and Wyss 2005). In Nepal, access to such capital and resources has often been found to be structured by caste and gender relations, suggesting that the less privileged population groups are structurally excluded from migration destinations requiring foreign language skills, higher education, or costly visa applications such as European countries, Australia or Japan. Yet, these structural preconditions are far from being static. They are challenged, exploited, and negotiated by the multiple actors involved. Based on 14 months of qualitative fieldwork in a multi-ethnic Nepali village, this paper shows that while the gendered migration patterns vary along caste (ethnic) and class lines, they are also the result of (and subject to) the twisting of gendered ideals, the concealment of caste status, and the circumvention of financial thresholds or immigration rules. The resulting pattens do not only reflect social inequality as to whether or not particular migrants ‘fit’ certain migration channels, but are also the outcome of joint efforts on the part of labour brokers and the prospective migrants themselves in ‘making [the migrant] fit’. Thieme, Susan, and Simone Wyss. 2005. ‘Migration Patterns and Remittance Transfer in Nepal’. International Migration 43 (5): 59–98." === Cultural Dilemmas, National Habitus and Russian-speaking migrants in Perth, Australia and Madrid, Spain Raisa Akifeva The University of Western Australia The research examines cultural transmission in Russian-speaking migrant communities in Perth and Madrid. The aim is to explore what characteristics migrants perceive as culturally specific and which they seek to transmit. Further, I will demonstrate how it is realized, and how this can be explained sociologically. The empirical base of the study consists of interviews with migrants, observations conducted during visits to Russian-speaking events, data from on-line groups for migrants, secondary data and Soviet/Contemporary Russian advice sources. Drawing on Norbert Elias’s historical sociological approach (1996, 2000), I show that the “Soviet civilization” formed certain national similarities of its inhabitants which can be called national habitus. These similarities include a certain internalized set of dispositions and behavioural patterns reproduced in the post-Soviet space. Among these features are attitudes to health and hygiene practices, conversation standards, and child-rearing practices related to the control of children behaviour and their education. Many migrants come to realize that they are bearers of these similarities only in the process of the migration experience. Recognition of their cultural habits leads to what I call “cultural dilemmas”, which everyone solves in somewhat the same ways as M. Duglas describes (1984). For example, some begin to perceive them as a negative manifestation of the Soviet civilization. Others believe that these features should be appreciated. For many people, finding the solution to such dilemmas is quite painful, since such behaviour is part of the process of reproduction of internalized norms. Mistrust of one’s own cultural norms complicates these processes.

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Magdalena El Ghamari

Collegium Civitas

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Claudia Schneider

Anglia Ruskin University

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Mirna Guha

Anglia Ruskin University

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Marques Harding

Anglia Ruskin University

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Shreepali Patel

Anglia Ruskin University

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Kathrin Fischer

Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), Oxford

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Raisa Akifyeva

National Research University Higher School of Economics St. Petersburg

Education & Social Inequality 11

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #87 panel | SC Education and social inequality

Objective and subjective relative deprivation among Congolese refugees and Rwandan locals: The compensating effect of financial contributions Hester Warnaar Utrecht University Özge Bilgili Utrecht University Economic relative deprivation is increasingly recognized as an indication of economic well-being and social inequality, also among refugees. This study simultaneously examines the objective and subjective relative deprivation of Congolese refugees compared to their Rwandan hosts. We expect that refugees initially experience more deprivation than locals due to their lower social status and economic instabilities inside and outside the camps. However, we also take into account the fact that there may be mechanisms that alleviate the effects of being a refugee on economic relative deprivation. We specifically focus on financial aid provided by governments and NGO’s and remittances sent by relatives left behind. The analysis is conducted using unique data that has recently been collected with a UNHCR funded research project. We find that refugee households indeed initially experience more objective and subjective relative deprivation than local households, but that this association is to a great extent suppressed by financial contributions they receive. The results show that especially financial aid can compensate for relative deprivation. Furthermore, there is evidence that local households are more often exceptionally deprived than refugee households, when more rigid measurements of objective relative deprivation are used. We conclude that in order to promote economic well-being and social equality among the whole population, financial and development assistance that not only benefits refugees, but also targets the most marginalized locals may be warranted. === Social background and educational language skills - The meaning of parental attributes for educational success Irina Hertel Europa-Universität Flensburg, Institute for Special Education There is general agreement in the scientific community about the close connection between social background and educational outcomes. In Germany, this applies particularly to children and youths with a migration background, who underperform at all stages of education. Deficits are primarily expressed in reading and writing skills, which has led to the establishment of the concept of “educational language” and an extensive amount of moderately or non-effective language-supporting programs over the last two decades. However, it is still largely ignored that the starting point and readiness for lifelong educational processes are created in the family. Accordingly, the foundation for educational language skills is laid in the early demands of communicative experiences at home. Studies confirm that the influence of parents on the educational outcomes of their children is more than twice as high as that of educational institutions, teachers and support programs. Substantial empirical evidence also indicates a positive correlation between socioeconomic status and educational aspirations among parents with and without a migration background. Based on a socio-psychological approach, this thesis intends to gather information on approximately 75 families, including parents' expectations of self-efficacy, their educational aspirations for the child as well as the domestic conditions for learning and capital resources in relation to the educational language skills of their children. The goal of the work is to find answers to social disparities and disadvantage beyond educational language skills. === Inequality within highly skilled migration. An intersectional analysis on qualifications, gender, and family among Brazilians in Germany. Magali N. Alloatti Hamburg University Javier A. Carnicer Hamburg University This study focuses on the migration of highly skilled Brazilians to Germany, examining the diversity of obstacles and advantages experienced within this group. We frame our findings by the German policies undertaken to facilitate the mobility of highly qualified migrants since 2005. In the last years, Brazilians stood out among those who migrated to occupy strategic labor market sectors, specifically I.T. and engineering. We challenge assumptions around ‘unproblematic’ migration of highly skilled individuals by exploring the conflation of gender, family arrangements, and labor market participation. We draw from a survey conducted among Brazilian migrants in a big German city during March – July 2020. We analyze a non-representative sample, in which we identified a significant group of young middle-class and highly qualified individuals. While men and women possess comparable educational attainment, the former are overrepresented in the above-mentioned sectors, migrated with a job contract and/or are employed according to their diplomas. The latter conveys a heterogenous professional profile and truncated labor market participation, albeit having similar or higher educational attainment than men. A vast majority reported similar obstacles in migrating, especially language barriers, bureaucracy, and homesickness. Yet, an intersectional analysis exposes deeper levels of inequalities in detriment of women, particularly when considering those with young children, who migrated as ‘companions’, and/or whose qualifications are in other professional areas. We argue that policies targeting high qualified migration reproduce and increase gender inequalities, rendering highly skilled women constrained in terms of social integration === Migrants' emotional experience - How do status and status appraisal foster emotional marginalization? Coline Kuche Georg-August-Universität Göttingen In the last years, emotions have received increasing interest in migration studies. Nevertheless, research based on population representative samples are still scarce. Especially, the relationship between status differences and migrants’ emotional marginalization are limited in this respect. This study aims to fill this gap by examining the emotional experience of 1st and 2nd Generation migrants in Germany. First, potential reasons for status differences between migrants and natives are discussed. Second, empirical indicators for objective as well as subjective status inequality are presented. Hypotheses are based on the power-status theory on emotion and psychological appraisal theories to explain how status (in-)consistencies shape the emotion experience and contribute to the overall stratification and marginalization of migrants’ groups. The hypotheses are examined using the data from the German Socioeconomic Panel. Random-effect-multilevel models are applied (N=1,474) to predict migrants relative frequency of emotional marginalization, anger, sadness, fear and joy in the last four weeks. The results show that migrants experience comparably more fear and sadness, but less joy and anger. Their emotional marginalization is explained mostly by different perceptions of discrimination as well as cultural distance and rare transnational contact. Here, objective indicators e.g. social class are non-significant predictors. The study concludes that the individuals' subjective status, i.e. perception of ethnic or individual deprivation, are the most efficient predictors for immigrants’ emotional experience compared to objective measurements. In general, migrants’ significant emotional marginalization in Germany asks for further investigations in order to disentangle the mechanisms behind and forming recommendations for action.

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Ozge Bilgili

University of Utrecht

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Magali Natalia Alloatti

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

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Javier A. Carnicer

Universität Hamburg

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Irina Hertel

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Hester Warnaar

Utrecht University

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Coline Kuche

Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

Migration Politics & Governance 19

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #88 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

The Impacts of Corona Pandemic on the Journey and Lives of Forced Migrants Berna Zulfikar Savci Ruhr University Bochum Ludger Pries Ruhr University Bochum The migration movement of forced migrants was named as a crisis by authorities of most countries, however; the world has been dealing with a real crisis with the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic since the last month of 2019. All countries have decided to implement restrictions on regular flow of lives, but the impacts of these restrictions have become heavier for forced migrants than it was for other people. Being a forced migrant and seeking a life in another country is already a challenge; the new way of life has increased the difficulties and spread them in all aspects of their lives. This study focuses on the forced migrants staying in two transit countries: Mexico and Turkey, which host the large population of forced migrants, during the Corona pandemic. After the migration flows of Syrians, Turkey`s transit country migration pattern became more visible than before. In addition to some 3.6 million Syrian migrants under temporary protection, the country has hosted more than 400,000 forced migrants from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and other countries in 2019. Like Turkey, Mexico is a crucial hub for forced and transit migrants. In this study, we (i) analyze the impacts of the corona pandemic on the lives of forced migrants who are residing in these transit countries and (ii) investigates the effects of their socio-economic backgrounds on these impacts. The study uses the dataset of the ForMOVe project, which includes face to face surveys conducted in Turkey and Mexico between September and December 2020 in regards to compare and contrast forms of forced migration in its interrelation with organized violence. === Admitting, selecting, or restricting? The influence of admission policies on family immigration patterns in European states Anton Ahlén Department of Government, Uppsala University Drawing upon the disputed questions of whether national migration policies actually affect immigration flows, this study investigates to what extent and how family immigration policies have influenced the admission of family immigrants. Family immigration has been the largest category of entry in most European countries in recent decades and has also become increasingly politicized. While it is regarded as a safe and orderly entry route, family migration has been portrayed as a threat to social cohesion and an economic burden in the recipient countries. Accordingly, cross-country policies regulating family immigration have become both increasingly restrictive and more diversified in recent decades. Yet, while many countries have introduced policy restrictions, in particular selective measures requiring applicants to fulfill various behavioral conditions to obtain entry and residence, previous studies have shown that European countries have adopted different policy strategies. However, so far there have not been any comprehensive cross-country analyses of the impact of policies on family immigration patterns. This study seeks to address this gap by analyzing the connection between longitudinal policy variations and the inflow of family immigrants in 28 European states during 2008-2019. Using newly disseminated data from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) and data on immigration inflows from EUROSTAT, the study employs a time-series regression analysis to assess the impact of different policy instruments on different types of family-related immigration. As such, this study provide first evidence of how cross-country policies have shaped patterns of family immigration in European states during the past 10 years. === The veil of darkness and biased policing in German states Niklas Harder DeZIM Samir Khalil DeZIM Despite its relative prominence in German public discourse, there is scant empirical research on the prevalence or absence of racial disparities in policing by German police. To remedy this lack of evidence, we apply a ‘veil of darkness’ design to a large scale administrative dataset of traffic offenses as recorded by the police. For several German states we show that the share of foreign offenders drops markedly when darkness masks a drivers appearance, suggesting a racial bias in policing. We further show that this effect cannot be detected for offenses that are typically recorded by machines as compared to police officers, suggesting that our results are not driven by a change of driver behavior around sunset. The differences we find across states suggests that policy makers are not without tools in combating this bias. Instead, we interpret our findings as support for the hypothesis that police reforms can help in preventing biased policing. === On the Political Culture of the Provisional in Local Migration Regimes Philipp Schäfer University Osnabrueck Starting from the observation of the omnipresence of the political culture of the provisional in the so-called “long summer of migration” (Speer/Kasparek, 2015; Hess et al., 2016), in my paper I trace the question of how the reception of refugees was negotiated and governed on the ground, in the cities and municipalities entrusted with their accommodation and care. From a regime theory perspective, I ask which actors participated in these processes, which political rationalities and premises were at stake, and what meaning the provisional had for the local governance of migration. My analytical reflections are the result of my doctoral research, which I conducted in the East German city of Leipzig. Using ethnographic participant observation, qualitative expert interviews, and document analysis, I found that local practices and politics governing flight and refugees established provisional conditions that allowed actors in the local migration regime to fix refugees in a suspended state of not-yet-arrived - spatially and temporally as well as morally. In doing so, I provide a toolkit for analysing local attempts to control the movements of migrants, which oscillate between emergence, obsolescence, and permanence. Thereby, on the one hand, I emphasize the need to pay more attention to immobilisations as epistemic counterparts of mobility. On the other hand, I show that what was at stake in the negotiations dynamising these immobilisation and control attempts touched on central cultural categories of social coexistence. Arguments about migration thus had both a socializing and a dividing effect by transmitting hierarchized notions of alterity and belonging.

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Anton Ahlén

Department of Government, Uppsala University

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Ludger Pries

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

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Berna Safak Zulfikar Savci

Ruhr University Bochum

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Niklas Harder

DeZIM

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Samir Khalil

Deutsches Zentrum für Integrations- und Migrationsforschung (DeZIM)

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Philipp Schäfer

University of Konstanz

Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 9

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #89 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

Public open spaces in Bahrain: migrantsʼ lived experiences across borders Wafa Hasan Al-Madani University of Bahrain " Migrants’ experiences in a new place should not be divorced from socio-spatial experiences in the public realm. Border crossing is no longer about travelling from one nation to another, but a part of everyday experiences in modern cities. Public open spaces (POS) are sites where different social and cultural practices and identities could become most visible. With particular emphasis on the experiences of users from migrant backgrounds, this paper presents some findings from a research conducted in the field of landscape architecture and focuses on understanding the everyday activities, preferences and motivations for using POS in Bahrain. Bahrain has a superdiverse population with a distinguishing pattern of temporary migration. Linking to theories on migration and social values of POS for new migrants, the research used a qualitative methodology integrating ethnographic tools of observation and interviews. Participants included Bahraini and migrant groups of different origins and generations to add diverse personal interpretations and socio-spatial associations. The research focused on eight formal and informal POS case studies. The findings highlighted the importance of POS in Bahrain for different leisure practices and patterns of outdoor sociability and demonstrated how these reflect different cultural values. The affordances of POS in facilitating the cultural practice of being-outdoor help migrants pursue their cultural leisure practices and connect with home and other migrant groups, which promote wellbeing and a sense of belonging. Conducting the research within the field of landscape architecture revealed how spatial qualities of POS can support both process of adaptation and integration. The research confirms that design and management of POS can support positive migrants’ experiences. === ‘The library is like a mother’. Arrival infrastructures and migrant newcomers in East London Susanne Wessendorf Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations (CTPSE), Coventry University In much public discourse, it is assumed that migrants in Europe settle into contexts populated by either white national majorities or by co-ethnics. However, today, new migrants often move into super-diverse areas, which are already settled by migrants of various backgrounds. Such areas have also been described as ‘arrival areas’, often situated within ‘arrival cities’ which have seen immigration (and emigration) over many decades. They are characterized by a wealth of ‘arrival infrastructures’, consisting of concentrations of institutions, organisations, social spaces and actors which specifically facilitate arrival. Arrival infrastructures comprise, for example, shops as information hubs, religious sites, language classes, hairdressers etc., often set up by people who themselves have a migration background. This paper looks at the interactions and transfer of knowledge and resources between long-established migrants and more recent newcomers through arrival infrastructures. By drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the London Borough of Newham, one of the most deprived areas in the UK which has seen immigration over many decades, it asks how these newcomers gain access to settlement information and investigates the role played by arrival infrastructures in this process. It specifically focuses on newcomers who arrive with limited social capital and for whom physically visible arrival infrastructures like libraries and shops are particularly relevant. The paper aims to open up debate about arrival infrastructures, their manifestation in different urban contexts, and their relation to both new forms of solidarity as well as new and ongoing forms of exploitation between long-established residents and newcomers. === How do (mental) healthcare providers experience and act upon encounters with patients who have a culturally different explanatory model on (mental) health? Apers Hanne University of Antwerp The concept of ‘explanatory models’ (EMs) was coined by anthropologist and psychiatrist Arthur Kleinman and refers to the fact that people can have different notions of what ‘health’ or ‘disease’ is (1). People perceive the causes of a disease, its symptoms, how it should be treated, etc. differently because of the influence of diverse individual factors (such as age, gender, education, social class, experience, …) as well as group-level characteristics (such as cultural influences and religious beliefs). The EMs on (mental) health of people with a migration background, who enter the Belgian healthcare system, may thus differ significantly from the EMs the healthcare practitioners entail and practice. Therefore, during the first phase of my doctoral research, I applied the methodology of in-depth interviews, to explore how (mental) healthcare practitioners perceive and act upon possible differences in culturally-mediated EMs between them and their patients with a sub-Saharan African (SSA) background. Within this diverse group of practitioners - both general and specialized practitioners, both with or without a (SSA) migration background themselves - I aim to understand how their personal understanding of mental health, as well as their professional orientation, influences their professional approach when they encounter a patient with a different EM of (mental) health. References: (1) Kleinman, A., Eisenberg, L. & Good, B. (1978). Culture, Illness, and Care. Clinical Lessons from Anthropologic and Cross-Cultural Research. Annals of Internal Medicine 88 : 251 - 258 === Towards a typology of childhood internal mobility: do second-generation migrants and non-migrants differ? Joeke Kuyvenhoven Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Marjolijn Das Statistics Netherlands Helga A.G. de Valk Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute International migration is often followed by subsequent moves in the country of settlement. Children are often part of these moves that their parents make and initiate. While some descriptive studies indeed suggest higher internal mobility in childhood among children of immigrants, we know very little about the differential childhood internal mobility patterns of the second-generation. This is surprising, since scholars do emphasize the possible adverse impacts of childhood internal mobility for individual life chances. The main aim of this study is therefore to get a more complete view on childhood mobility patterns. We do so by assessing whether differential patterns of mobility (in terms of frequency, timing, distance and change in place-type) apply for different second-generation migrant origin groups and those without a migrant background. Using longitudinal full population register data of Statistics Netherlands, internal mobility patterns during childhood (age 0-16) are analysed for children born in the Netherlands between 1995-2003 (N=989.002). K-means cluster analysis reveals five types of movers among the mobile children: nearby pre-school movers (31%), nearby school-aged movers (20%), long-distance movers to denser populated areas (25%), long-distance movers to more sparsely populated areas (10%) and frequent movers (14%). First results of a multinomial logistic regression show that having a second-generation migrant background significantly increases the likelihood of being mobile compared to non-migrants. Focussing on the largest migrant origin groups in the Netherlands, we find that children with a Moroccan or Turkish migrant background are more likely to move nearby while children with a Surinamese or Antillean migrant background are more likely to move long-distance and frequently. Childhood internal mobility may thus take very different forms and create potential different inequalities and life chances for children of diverse origin.

author

Wafa Hasan Al-Madani

University of Bahrain

author

Susanne Wessendorf

University of Birmingham

author

Hanne Apers

Universiteit Antwerpen

author

Helga A.G. de Valk

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

author

Joeke Kuyvenhoven

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

author

Marjolijn Das

Statistics Netherlands

Conceptual and methodological challenges in studying migration

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #90 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

PAPER #1 Determining the Right Approach in Migration Studies: "Return Migration" in the Structure-Agency Dilemma AUTHOR(S) Ece Çim (Istanbul University) ABSTRACT In migration studies, the topic of "return migration" involves more than the migrant's mobility from the current location to the previous one. While some studies state that the concept of "return migration" should be used with particular care and criticize its application, in other studies, this concept is an extension or continuity of transnational migration. This paper tries to explain the position of the researcher by presenting the consequences of choosing one of the two main views about the concept of return migration and discusses the epistemological issue. In parallel, observing the structure and agency dilemma, this study emphasizes the necessity to discuss the concept of "return migration" among the second and third generations who have family members who have participated in the first generation migration movement. The discourse of "going back" contains in itself the debate about "home, belonging and identity." It is, therefore, necessary to apply Giddens' structuration theory to understand how the discourse of return migration is perceived when it is expressed through the structure or how agents position the return discourse. It is impossible to make a sharp distinction between the structure's discourse of "return migration," given the dialectics of structure and agency. Finally, this study aims to open up the concept of "return migration" to discussion based on generations and looks for the root causes that can be associated with the choice of this return migration concept and the researcher's position in the structure-agency dilemma. Keywords: Migration, Methodological Approach, Return Migration, Structure-Agency PAPER #2 Studying Migration from a Social Transformation Perspective: The Example of the Maroni River Basin AUTHOR(S) Mathis Osburg (EMN Luxembourg / University of Luxembourg) ABSTRACT Although overarching theoretical frameworks exist, migration theory remains fragmented. Building on the idea of a ‘mobility transition,’ this paper uses a social transformation perspective to show the changing mobility patterns in the Maroni River Basin, including internal and international, as well as circular and permanent mobility, and how they are associated with developmental processes. Until the 1980s, people’s mobility patterns in the Maroni Basin in Western French Guiana remained circular and covered relatively short distances along the river to pursue slash and burn agriculture in the region’s interior. The French state showed little interest in the development of this region until the arrival of refugees during Suriname’s War of the Interior (1986–1991), which triggered rapid population growth and pressed the state to provide services. With the expansion of formal education, young people’s life aspirations shifted away from rural economic activities and were increasingly mismatched with locally available opportunities. In line with mobility transition theories, these social transformations led to a step-by-step expansion of mobility patterns: Along with new forms of commuting, the region witnessed rapid urbanisation. Once in town, young people increasingly started to engage in inter-regional migration to the capital Cayenne and overseas migration to metropolitan France in order to access educational facilities and employment opportunities. Whereas these long-distance ‘internal’ mobility patterns are relatively recent and subject to greater constraints and cultural differences, ‘international’ mobility to Suriname has historical roots but covers mostly short distances and remains circular. The paper concludes that the social transformation framework holds considerable potential to integrate the study of circular and permanent internal and international mobility under a common theoretical and empirical umbrella. PAPER #3 Remote fieldwork through teaching Moroccan Arabic to sub-Saharan migrants AUTHOR(S) Nada Heddane (Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Society) ABSTRACT The coronavirus pandemic altered everyone’s plans, including researchers and their fieldwork. The first lockdown took place only a few months before I was supposed to leave the Netherlands for Morocco to conduct my fieldwork. In my research, I focus on the formal aspects of major life events (marriage, divorce, birth, death) of sub-Saharan migrants who are in Morocco. While the world was at a standstill, and traveling in and out of Morocco was banned, I had to think of a new approach to collect my data. By moving to online fieldwork, I was able to work around borders and set up online language lessons (English and Moroccan Arabic) with sub-Saharan migrants, both regular and irregular. The latter not only required adaptation on my side and my participants’, but also gave me an incredible insight into their schedule, interests and plans. In this paper, I will show that remote fieldwork gave me access to a restricted area, under the current circumstances, and argue that the decision to learn the language of the host country is associated to the will of the migrant and their migration project. Although some have been in Morocco for almost a decade, they still have not learned the language. For them, it is not necessary since their adventure is not over until they cross the Mediterranean.

author

Ece Çim

Istanbul University

author

Mathis Osburg

EMN Luxembourg / University of Luxembourg

author

Nada Heddane

Leiden University

Reflexive Migration Studies 10

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #91 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

Questioning the safe haven: Articulations and repercussions of violence in refugee reception and settlement Carolin Fischer University of Bern, Institute of Social Anthropology Manuel Insberg University of Bern, Institute of Social Anthropology This paper sets the scene for zooming in on the gendered articulations and repercussions of violence in refugee reception and settlement. It questions the idea of a safe haven, arguing that violence does not necessarily end once refugees arrive at their destination and are granted protection. In a first step, we trace how violence, forced migration and gender have been brought together in the contemporary conceptual and empirical literature. To this end, we present a systematic overview of i) The ways and contexts in which links between forced migration and gendered violence have been studied; ii) How certain moments in forced migration processes are marked by specific articulations of gendered violence; iii) How the forms of gendered violence experienced are presented as interlocking and mutually reinforcing. We then turn to the puzzle how gendered violence continues to shape the lives of refugees once they are legally entitled to establish themselves at a safe haven granting them temporary or permanent protection. This requires a broader conceptual understanding of what violence is. Beyond interrogations of the concept of violence itself, there is a need to establish in which contexts it is treated as expected and normal and where it remains hidden and veiled. Contributions to the theoretical literature treat violence as a broad and slippery concept that encompasses a wide range of different articulations. We argue that this complexity of gendered violence is reflected in and contributes to shaping life at the safe haven. Based on this overview, our paper prepares the ground for reflexive engagements with the ways in which gendered violence continues to affect the lives of refugees after they were granted legal protection. Being an understudied dimension of forced migration and refugee settlement, this field of inquiry promises to be captivating and insightful. === Life stories of refugee women in Poland - agency through trajectory Marta Jadwiga Pietrusińska University of Warsaw Woman’s agency in the refugees studies mostly appears in 3 contexts - labour (Jong, 2018; Senthanar et al., 2020), violence (Abdi, 2006; Thomson 2013;  Logie, et al. 2019) and integration (McPherson, 2010; Liebig, Tronstad, 2018; Ritchie, 2018). It is understood as a combination of awareness of subjectivity and capacity to act in a given social structure (Bourdieu, 1977) or even to overcome oppression of such structures (Mahmood, 2001). However, in refugee studies there is rare focus on the category of narrative agency - a ’subject’s capacity to make sense of oneself’s as an ‘I’ over time and in relation to other ‚I’s, which is a precondition for identity formation’ (Lucas, 2017). Such way of organizing one’s communicative participation in discourses is based on a plan, implemented in a coherent manner. The aim of this paper, bases on analysis (Schütze's method) of 20 biographical interviews conducted in 2019-2020 with refugees women from the Caucasus with international protection in Poland, is to explain the way in which refugees women build their agency through trajectoral biographical narratives. The results reveal that while talking with a person from a dominant culture, the women consciously build narratives about their lives so they resemble the figure of refugee woman in Polish discourse - helpless, poor individual, who doesn’t have economic, social nor cultural capital to independently function in the society, and therefore need external help. Despite women tried to build such life’s narratives a careful biographical analysis reveals that it is done in the aware and deliberate way. === The “Quartier Italy”, historically grounded but socially moving Heidi Rodrigues Martins CDMH Centre de Documentation sur les Migrations Humaines Based on our ongoing study “Moving Lusitalia” that looks at the mobilities in and through the “Quartier Italie” (Dudelange, Luxembourg) across time and space, we want to show that by adopting a spatially-defined unit of analysis instead of ethno-national categories such as “(im)migrants” we can make visible social dynamics and complexities otherwise obscured by the ethnicity bias and the methodological nationalism (Levitt & Glick-Schiller, 2004; Dahinden, 2012). Relational and contextual, the space of the Quartier is a social product (Lefebvre, 1974; Certeau, 1980). He exists “inside” also because of the “outside” and through all types of mobilities that constitute the “in-between”. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach – Microhistory (Carlo Ginzburg, 1980) and Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 2010) – and dawning on comprehensive interviews (Kaufmann, 2016), this paper aims to identify the different mobilities displayed by the inhabitants of the Quartier, taking into account the intersection of class, gender and social origin as significant dimensions to understand their migratory trajectories, experiences and imaginaries. By looking at the dynamics that contribute to the (re)production of the Quartier we show how: 1) (im)migration constitutes an historical trade of the Quartier; 2) the relation between work and personal life was/is directly impacted by the socio-historical conditions, (re)configurating new kinds of (im)mobilities; 3) the movement in-out from the Quartier is directly connected with the upward social mobility (namely across generations); and, 4) by exploring the movement of objects (e.g, the furniture) and individuals ‘daily itineraries we get to understand deeper the (im)mobilities that constitute the Quartier. === Facilitators or restrictors? Brokers navigating the gendered labour migration control between Nepal and the United Arab Emirate Susanne Åsman Gothenburg University This article takes as its starting point the brokers in the infrastructure of the migration industry and their navigating strategies during the labour recruitment process set against the background of the Nepali state’s regulations of gendered labour migration to the United Arab Emirate (UAE). The Nepali state’s restrictive regulations and ban on women’s foreign employment are legitimated by humanitarian reason, within this context a paternalistic governance based on a moral political economy connected to a gendered vulnerability and the “protection” of women from abuse, exploitation and trafficking. Consequently, women are often forced to migrate for work through irregular channels. Within this moral political economy, the brokers are demonized as “criminal others”, profit driven facilitators of il/ legal labour migration, smugglers and traffickers. The article problematizes this discourse, also reproduced by humanitarian organizations and the media, and the common understanding in academic research of the brokers as merely facilitators, connecting different actors, institutions and resources in il/ legal labour migration and/ or trafficking. It argues that their navigating strategies must be conceptualized more broadly where gender is considered in order to get an understanding of these strategies within a continuum of facilitation and restriction of women’s labour migration.

author

Carolin Fischer

author

Manuel Insberg

University of Bern

author

Marta Jadwiga Pietrusinska

University of Warsaw

author

Heidi Rodrigues Martins

author

Susanne Åsman

Gothenburg University

Does privilege travel? Debating class, privilege, and belonging within contemporary forms of mobility and migration (I)

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #92 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

chair

Jennifer McGarrigle

IGOT University of lisbon

chair

Franz Buhr

IGOT-UL

Privileged mobilities rather than representing a marginal stream are embedded in global power asymmetries in what some term a global class system of migration. In their regimes of mobility approach, Glick Schiller and Salazar (2013) expand understandings of class beyond differential access to resources and suggest that holding the right passport and having the ability to travel becomes an aspect of how class and privilege are defined. Such privilege may be inferred by citizenship at higher latitudes, acquired by elites through investor citizenship programmes, or harvested under global talent. Looking at the intersection of different forms of privileged mobility provides the opportunity to interrogate class. One such foray might be precisely how well privilege travels as the bearers of passports from economically advanced countries (or so-called lifestyle migrants) may be compelled to migrate for economic reasons due to precarity under advanced capitalism. Furthermore, class might not travel so easily for the middle and elite classes from new areas of accumulation in the Global South, as migrants might be racialised and followed by colonial continuities within Northern destinations. This panel invites contributions that provide fresh perspectives on the social positioning of privileged migrants and their negotiation of privilege in everyday life. We encourage papers that ask how privilege is performed across different social and cultural contexts. What inequalities are experienced or reproduced? How do migrants perceive their own status in their migration destination and position themselves in relation to other migrants and locals? How do intersectionalities and colonial legacies impact their perceptions and experiences? PAPER #1 Internationals or wazungu? Competing readings of the expatriate and the making of privileged migrants in Nairobi AUTHOR(S) Sarah Kunz (University of Bristol) ABSTRACT This presentation discusses how the category expatriate is narrated, embodied and contested in Nairobi as a way to illustrate the relational, intersecting, and contextual making of privilege in migration. In Nairobi, the expatriate proves a salient yet elusive category. One prominent reading takes the expatriate to denote an 'international' engaged in an itinerant lifestyle; an ostensibly opposed reading takes expatriate to be a term for white migrants, reflecting and reproducing white privilege, also by assigning white people a status other than ‘migrant’. The presentation examines these antagonistic yet ultimately related readings, their subject positions and social relations, and the inequalities in international migration, histories of racism and socio-economic inequality they condense. Specifically, the presentation shows the highly contextual articulation of intersecting ‘race’, class and citizenship in Nairobi and argues that class, ‘race’ and even citizenship are not static features attached to individuals but flexible and disjointed transnational systems of difference in which individuals can gain or lose a privileged position as they change locale. This is illustrated by discussing the experiences of interlocutors from the US, India, Zimbabwe, and Albania, with a focus on their experiences of (ascribed) whiteness, wealth, and foreignness. The presentation draws on five months of ethnographic research in Nairobi, centrally within the social network of InterNations, but also with yoga teachers and Uber drivers, elderly Brits that came in colonial days and younger Kenyans socialising with ‘expats’. PAPER #2 Just do IT? Cultural capital and Israeli techies in the US and the Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Nir Cohen (Bar Ilan University) Steven Gold (Michigan State University) ABSTRACT Privileged migrants are conceived as (un)skilled Northern (‘Western’) migrants whose relocation to South(east)ern countries is motivated primarily by their wish to improve their quality of life. With few exceptions, migration of privileged Northerners, especially those with specific sets of professional skills, to other Northern countries has received far less attention. This article examines migration trajectories of skilled Israelis to the US and Netherlands. Drawing on 35 personal interviews with professionals in the information technology (infotech or IT) sector who live and work in these countries, it explores how their earned cultural capital smoothens their way into destination countries. In addition to their advanced technological skills that are highly coveted by international firms, Israeli migrants typically benefit from previous experience in the global corporate world, good command of the English language, and -- at times -- dual citizenship. The privileged socio-professional profile not only allows them an agile and painless journey into national labor markets but enables them a high degree of selectivity before and after arriving in the new country. Selectivity is manifested in both narrowing down the list of countries and, often, cities, to consider relocation to and zooming in on a small number of potential employers/firms. Notwithstanding personal and familial (parenting and partnering) challenges at different stages, migrants strategically employ their cultural capital and integrate successfully into job markets in both countries. PAPER #3 Coffee, work, and lifestyle: exploring privileged mobilities in Lisbon AUTHOR(S) Franz Buhr (University of Lisbon) ABSTRACT Specialty coffee shops are usually seen as thermometers of urban change, signalling increasing rental prices and commercial ‘upgrade’. Portugal’s first specialty coffee shop opened in Lisbon in 2015 and, by 2020, they amounted to over 60. The mushrooming of such business format took place alongside the increasing numbers of tourist arrivals to the city. Yet, tourism alone does not explain the success of Lisbon’s new coffee scene. In this paper, I argue that specialty coffee shops are part of a broader urban infrastructure enabling various kinds of mobile lifestyles to converge to Lisbon. In particular, this paper explores how these places assemble several types of privileged populations besides tourists, such as digital nomads, expats, and lifestyle migrants, but also local middle-classes and urban creatives. Alongside other city infrastructures such as coworking and co-living spaces, specialty coffee shops have facilitated the convergence of privileged forms of mobile lives to Lisbon, consolidating the city as an attractive global lifestyle destination. PAPER #4 Reflections on ‘privileges’ within the EU mobility regime: Lifestyle, belonging and place (re)making of young transnationals in Lisbon AUTHOR(S) Lea Molina Caminero (Free University Berlin) ABSTRACT Following the assumption that privileged mobilities can be considered an example of global power asymmetries and the formation of a new transnational self-conception of the middle class (Elliott & Urry, 2010) , the present contribution aims to reflect on different levels of socio-cultural hierarchies and inequalities within the EU mobility regime. In doing so, the study of lifestyle-related youth mobilities (King, 2018; Worth, 2009) seem to be a fruitful approach to shed light on how privileges are performed and embodied within migratory processes and how they produce specific stratifications in placemaking processes in the city of arrival (Engbersen et al., 2017; Hayes, 2018) . Drawing on qualitative data collected through guideline-based biographic interviews with young transnational lifestyle-led migrants in Lisbon, the paper explores how privileges are manifested and negotiated in their place-making processes. Accordingly, the paper provides detailed information on how privileges within the EU mobility regime are reflected a. in the self-perceptions of young migrants regarding their position and role as (relatively) ‘privileged’ newcomers in the city, and b. in the way they use, appropriate and perceive their impact upon urban places. The data provides evidence that young privileged migrants tend to be in a continous process of socio- spatial negotiations on their own role and position. Self and place representations are permeated simultaneously by privileges and precarities. Nevertheless, it appears that structures such as socio-cultural hierarchies within the EU mobility regime create the possibility of combining a desirable lifestyle with work in the first place.

discussant

Matthew Hayes

St. Thomas University

author

Sarah Kunz

University of Bristol

author

Nir Cohen

Bar Ilan University

author

Steven J Gold

Michigan State University

author

Lea Molina Caminero

Free University Berlin

Challenges of doing migration research during COVID-19: Qualitative Perspectives (2)

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #93 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

PAPER #1 Just the same online? Participatory qualitative research on Covid-19 AUTHOR(S) Hannah Pool (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies) ABSTRACT Participatory research in migration studies has become increasingly popular but is difficult to conduct due to Covid19. Thus, this project focuses on the pandemic by incorporating the virtual space in its participatory methodology. The closure of EU Schengen borders due to Covid-19 meant a sudden halt to migration, raising the question of how migration movement becomes redefined during and after periods of immobility. The study consists of three focus groups representing different migratory movements within the EU for work and education: Seasonal workers in agriculture, migrant workers in tourism, and Erasmus exchange students. Conducting a participatory qualitative study means incorporating into the methodology the challenges of face-to-face research during a pandemic. Placed in the digital space, the participatory research design foresees an initial round of discussions with group representatives to collaboratively create the questionnaire and hypotheses. In the second round, 36 interviews are conducted in focus groups and individual conversations in the virtual space. Finally, coded results are rediscussed in the original representative groups. The focus of this presentation is on the methodological challenges and opportunities in transnational participatory online research: 1. In which forms of digital habitus do researchers encounter research participants? (How do digital literacy, internet connection, data protection, and familiarity with digital platforms shape research?) 2. Can digital participatory research become more inclusive for marginalised communities due to lower barriers on time and mobility? 3. How do power dynamics between researchers and participants change in the digital environment? 4. Who can be included in qualitative research through digital encounters, and who is left out? PAPER #2 Conducting disembodied online ethnographies of disembodied legal processes: Loitering with (research) intent in digital spaces. AUTHOR(S) Jo Hynes (University of Exeter) ABSTRACT Prior to COVID-19, my primary methodology was conducting in-person ethnographies of immigration bail hearings in the UK. Following Jeffrey (2020), this was a heavily embodied process, reliant on organic, in-person interactions, rapport building, waiting and atmosphere: in other words, loitering with intent to conduct research. As a result of the pandemic, both the hearings and my ethnographies of them have moved online, conducted via video conferencing software. This presents a number of challenges for a method that places such an emphasis on embodiment, ad-hoc interaction and open-endedness. Is conducting ethnographies in the form of loitering with (research) intent even possible in digital spaces? It is helpful to reflect on these challenges of disembodiment in order to acknowledge how my research has changed and what new avenues of research may open up as a result. I suggest that the methodological challenges are twofold. Firstly, there is an enforced narrowing of sensory engagement with the hearing. Only audio and visual engagement are possible, and even these are prescribed for the observer. Secondly, there is a loss of informal, ad hoc conversation (the ‘conversation in a corridor’). The ethnography generally takes only as long as the hearing itself, with a consequent loss of interaction with participants around the edges of the hearing. Following Gill et al (2020) I hope to explore what these ‘absences’ might mean for online ethnographic methodology in the context of immigration bail hearings. PAPER #3 Methodological challenges and opportunities for conducting research during the COVID 19 pandemic. A case of a comparative study of local welfare systems’ response to migrant poverty. AUTHOR(S) Karolina Łukasiewicz (Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw) Ewa Cichocka (Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw) Kamil Matuszczyk (Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw) ABSTRACT This presentation aims to analyze the methodological challenges and opportunities for researching the responses of local welfare systems to migrant poverty in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Researching migrant vulnerable communities during the pandemic generates unique methodological challenges such as interviews being dominated by fear of a pandemic, or by the theme of authorities' responses (Meza-Palmeros, 2020). The results of research on other crisis states indicate the problem of over-researching easily accessible places and communities (Pascucci, 2017); or threats that the crisis generates for both respondents and researchers (Belousov et al., 2007). In response to these challenges, it is advised to identify and avoid the so-called 'risk saturated spaces' (Belousov et al., 2007), to pay special attention to researcher and research participants’ positionalities (Bachmann, 2011), and to adjust originally planned methods to online ones (Dodds, Hess, 2020). Our presentation will contribute to this discussion by bringing evidence from a qualitative comparative case study of the local welfare system response to migrant poverty in four cities (New York, London, Berlin and Stockholm). This qualitative study uses 72 in-depth interviews with Polish migrants and native-born who experienced poverty, with direct service providers; and local experts. The interviews have been transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach. In our presentation, we will discuss the main methodological challenges identified during our fieldwork and how we responded to them (e.g. moving some in-person interviews to online interviews and challenges related to that; introducing longitudinal research design). We will also present the potential methodological opportunities for research in the migrant population during the pandemic. PAPER #4 Re-Connecting with the field – conducting fieldwork on displacement in Europe under the conditions of a global health crisis AUTHOR(S) Simone Christ (Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)) Benjamin Etzold (Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)) Milena Belloni (Forum of International and European Research on Immigration (FIERI)) Pietro Cingolani (Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna; FIERI) ABSTRACT The paper reflects on general methodological issues we encountered during the empirical fieldwork in Germany and Italy as part of the EU-funded TRAFIG project during the time of the pandemic. Qualitative methods were conducted both face-to-face and online. Our fieldwork on protracted displacement was about to start when the first lockdowns due to the pandemic started. The Italian team engaged selected participants in a series of online conversations about their lives drawing also on pictures and videos taken by the participants themselves to represent their experience along their migration pathways. The German team postponed the start of the fieldwork until the summer when face-to-face interviews became possible again. Both experiences showed manifold methodological and ethical challenges when conducting field work under the conditions of Corona. Accessing the field proves to be much more difficult than it was before, and it became nearly impossible to ‘immerse oneself’ into the field. Language barriers and as a result a selection bias come even more to the fore. As concerns positionality, the power imbalance between the interview partners – some of them in crowded shelters without the chance to keep physical distance – and the researchers is even more striking. Building rapport and gaining confidence while keeping distance or even interviewing online has became much more difficult. Moreover, we are facing ethical dilemmas such as whether we can take responsibility for face-to-face interviews or whether it is possible to conduct trauma-sensitive interviews online. PAPER #5 Emergent ethical challenges in researching vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 AUTHOR(S) Deniz Pelek (Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona) Eva Østergaard-Nielsen (Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona) ABSTRACT Recent studies on research ethics in the study of vulnerable groups often conceptualize the risk of harms and benefits for participants and researchers in the phases of fieldwork and dissemination of the findings. New ethical challenges have emerged in the unstable health and political conditions of the current pandemic. Most researchers were not able to continue or start their fieldwork and applied for alternative research techniques such as online interviews, visual studies and digital ethnographies. In this context, our paper explores how ethics in the studies on vulnerable groups should be modified in the face of health crises. We discuss ethical obligations concerned with the possible methodological choices of the researchers in the context of the COVID-19. Going beyond the ethical dilemmas, we aim to set a roadmap for researching vulnerable groups. In this respect, we suggest the following three points as promising research strategies: i) conceiving ethical issues as a process that is being constructed under certain conditions between different actors such as researchers, interviewees and Institutional Review Boards; ii) considering alternative research methods with various ethical challenges that should be taken into account carefully; iii) offering a framework that evaluates ethics as a dynamic subject under the current state of alert, not just as a causal factor but also in terms of its persistent impact on researching vulnerable groups.

author

Milena Belloni

author

Pietro Cingolani

FIERI

author

Simone Christ

Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)

author

Benjamin Etzold

Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)

author

Hannah Pool

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies

author

Jo Hynes

University of Exeter

author

Karolina Łukasiewicz

Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw

author

Ewa Cichocka

Centrę of Migration Research

author

Kamil Matuszczyk

University of Warsaw

author

Deniz Pelek

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

author

Eva Østergaard-Nielsen

Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona

Doing Historical Research on Migration in the Digital Age: Theories, Concepts and Methods (Doing oral history digitally)

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #94 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Denis Scuto

The so-called ‘Digital Turn’ has implied major changes in scientific communication and methodology, impacting all areas of research to various degrees. For example, in migration studies, today digital data enable new methods through the development and use of digital tools. Accordingly, there is now a wide range of digital approaches that complement or even challenge traditional methodologies of how to do historical research on migration. Moreover, the ever-growing availability of digital data, including digitized repositories and archives, has provided researchers with new perspectives leading them to challenge traditional positions and even explore new questions. The aim of this panel is to explore the interaction of those parameters having an impact on the different strategies, critical reflections, digital methodological approaches and tools in historical research on migration. In line with the theme of IMISCOE 2021 ‘Crossing borders, connecting cultures’, this series of panels concentrates on theories, concepts and methods in historical research on migration with a specific focus on ‘the digital’. This series of panels brings together prominent, international researchers in the field of digital migration researching the past, providing fresh insights and methodologies and presenting tools and practices of digital historiography. The second session, “Doing oral history digitally”, features four international experts, both from academia and from the cultural heritage sector, who discuss the technical, methodological, and conceptual challenges of researching “the invisible voices of migration” by means of oral sources composed by members of migrant communities that have long not been recognised in hegemonistic views of heritage and history. PAPER #1 Post memories of Ingrian pasts – Interaction and emotions during sensitive online interviews AUTHOR(S) Outi Kähäri (University of Oulu) Kristel Edelman (Tallinn University) ABSTRACT In this paper, our aim is to contribute to the understanding of interaction and emotional work in online research. Although conducting digital interviews on sensitive topics poses specific challenges, e.g., for building rapport with the interviewee, we found conducting sensitive interviews online quite successful. Our analysis is based on our experiences with conducting sensitive biographical interviews online for the research project Postmemory of Family Separation: An Intergenerational Perspective (Academy of Finland) during time of social distancing caused by the Covid-19 Pandemic. In this research, we examine intergenerational memories as well as silences of family separation by focusing on 2nd and 3rd generation persons whose families’ pasts include forced migration, persecution, and deportations. We study to what extent memories of family separation, experiences persecution and forced migration have been transmitted across generations, what becomes hidden over time, and how these traumatic experiences may reflect on family structures, quality of relationships, and emotional wellbeing of the 2nd and 3rd generation. Theoretically, we draw inspiration from oral history and memory studies, specifically the concept of postmemory (Hirsch 2008). We take closer look at the interaction between the interviewees and researcher in “face-to-screen” (Knorr Cetina 2009) interview situations, taking the face-to-face interview experiences, conducted earlier for the same project, as a point of reference for our analysis. Theoretically, we see online interviewing as a form of a synthetic situation (after Knorr Cetina 2009) that enables us to analyse the interaction order (Goffman 1983) between the interviewee and the researcher. PAPER #2 Detecting the invisible AUTHOR(S) Marijke van Faassen (Huygens ING ) Rik Hoekstra (KNAW) ABSTRACT The digitization of communication and of a growing number of cultural heritage collections has brought many changes for migrant communities to connect with each other and with their past where distances all but disappear. In the Migrant Mobilities and Connection project we have been working on methodologies for structurally connecting the information and work on an aggregative representation that includes the many different perspective that together constitute the migrant experience. We have concluded that in our case migration registration systems can play a pivotal role in connecting different types of information. In integrating the different stories, the issue rises who is actually visible in cultural heritage collections and who is not. Cultural heritage has been criticized that it only followed the official archives bringing only official stories and histories that affirm the importance of hegemonistic groups in society, usually the white minority. To remediate these false and lopsided views, critical scholars argued that archives need to be decolonized. (Stoler 2002, Jeurgens & Karabinos 2020). Paradoxically, this created a gap for those who could neither recognize themselves in the old hegemonistic view of heritage and history nor in the minority view as they did not belong to the traditional minority groups. For instance, the Dutch-Australian migrant community has begun to see itself as 'invisible migrants' (Peters, 2010). They were successful in accommodating themselves under the prevailing assimilation policies of the Australian government till the beginning of the 1970s. When, however from the 1970s under multiculturalism many ethnic groups started to affirm their proper cultural identities the Dutch-Australians felt themselves left out as a group. PAPER #3 Voices of migration, Migration of voices. A Brussels’ digital history AUTHOR(S) Séverine Janssen (BNA-BBOT) ABSTRACT What is the face behind the figure of the migrant? Whose voice stands behind the speeches? What do the migrants tell about their migration? In this panel I will present the work of collecting testimonies of migrants we made in Brussels in the framework of Bruxelles nous appartient – Brussel behoort ons toe (BNA-BBOT), as well as the work of valorization of these testimonies in the public space. BNA-BBOT is an organization dedicated to Brussels' sonic history. Since 2000 we document the city by collecting testimonies, stories and sounds. The collecting results from a participative methodology and feeds two digital platforms available online. By collecting testimonies, stories, sounds and indexing them we build a history of the city through stories, memories and experiences of its inhabitants. While there are indeed sound archives, few of them are part of the daily Brussels. BNA-BBOT wants to fill this gap. Sound, considered here as a major vector of culture and history, not only keeps specific information on a variety of topics, but catches also the nuances and the unspoken specificities of oral language. PAPER #4 Personal digital archives: doing historical migration research in the digital era AUTHOR(S) Koen Leurs (Utrecht University) ABSTRACT This presentation addresses the pros and cons of studying personal digital archives as part of interview based qualitative research. Personal digital archives offer means for co-creative data elicitation and collaborative meaning, they thereby specially suit studies which seek to account for personal, situated and contextualized histories of migration. For this purpose, the presentation will offer a theory of personal digital archives, methodological considerations and ethical reflections for doing personal digital archive research. Personal digital archives, ranging from smartphone devices to social media accounts, consist of affective, material and symbolic dimensions. As stored personal memory and media practices, they offer insight into the lived, embodied experience of the creator. Content is partly directed by medium-specific limitations of platforms, interfaces and devices, and is partly directed by creative appropriation of their affordances. Methodologically, personal digital archives are repositories of two types of sources of data: user-generated-content: data purposefully created by users (e.g. posting selfies on Instagram, sending voice messages on WhatsApp) and automated content: data automatically logged by platforms and devices (e.g. geographical information). These two types of data can both be taken as source data for specific research purposes, whilst the first is suited to participatory knowledge co-creation, the second requires automated extraction using digital methods, limiting dialogic meaning-making. The presentation will further draw out conceptual, methodological and ethical reflections by discussing experiences of conducting field research on personal digital archives with young migrants with an expatriate and refugee background in the Netherlands.

discussant

Lorella Viola

University of Luxembourg

author

Outi Kähäri

University of Oulu

author

Kristel Edelman

Tallinn University

author

Marijke van Faassen

Huygens Institute for the History of the Netherlands

author

Rik Hoekstra

Huygens ING - KNAW

author

Séverine Janssen

BNA-BBOT

author

Koen Leurs

University of Utrecht

Migration politics and governance: understanding the relationships 2 - Perspectives on politicisation

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #95 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Maria Schiller

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

Studies on the politics and governance of migration have rarely spoken to each other. Research on migration politics has emphasised the contentious side of the migration issue, e.g. party ideologies and (populist) discourses, native citizens unfavourable attitudes, pro- and anti-immigrant social movements mobilisation and the like. On the contrary, research on governance and public policy has primarily focused on the consensual side, e.g. policy networks managing migration issues at different levels of government, implementation accommodative practices, processes of policy learning and experts’ knowledge etc. Yet, in a context of increasing politicisation of migration, governance and politics need to be thematised as the two facets of the same coin. In this panel promoted by the IMISCOE MigPOG Standing Committee, crossing-edge empirical and theoretical papers addressing the link between migration politics and governance will be presented. Contributions will bring together reflections from different perspectives. The Second Session will be devoted to conceptual reflections and research studies proposing different perspectives on the politicisation of migration issues. PAPER #1 Surprising pro-Europeans? The reaction of far-right parties to the "refugee crisis" AUTHOR(S) Michalis Moutselos (Max-Planck-Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Göttingen, Germany) ABSTRACT The recent "refugee crisis" has provided a dilemma for emerging and more established radical-right parties in Europe. On the one hand, it has provided a rallying point for a reaction against immigration, an issue of which these parties have traditionally claimed ownership. On the other hand, it has forced them to propose "European" solutions to the crisis (renegotiation of the Dublin Regime, strengthening of border and coast guard agency) and they have even made discursive openings to a pan-European identity, often defined in opposition to presumed identities of the recently arrived refugees. They have thus distanced themselves from traditional Euroskepticism and adopted, to some a degree, an exlusionary Europeanism that is especially instructive when such parties place themselves as potential coalition partners in government. This paper explores how populist-nativist parties have dealt with this dilemma/tradeoff between Euroskepticism and anti-immigrant positions through a discourse analysis of parliamentary speeches and public statements during the period 2015-2019. I look, in particular, at the cases of the French Front National, the Austrian Freedom Party and the Italian Northern League, and at how the crisis forced them to reformulate positions on: a) foundational assumptions about a pan-European identity b) the institutional structure of the European Union. PAPER #2 National welfare institutions and the contentious politics of the free movement of workers in the EU: How and why the positions of Member States differ AUTHOR(S) Martin Ruhs (EUI) Joakim Palme (Uppsala University) Moa Martensson (Uppsala University) August Danielson (Uppsala University) ABSTRACT The free movement of workers is one of the fundamental freedoms of the European Union, yet the conditions under which it occurs have been subject to considerable political debates between EU Member States in recent years. A number of EU Member States have proposed restrictions on EU workers’ access to welfare benefits. In a joint letter sent to the European Council in 2013, the Ministers of Interior of Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK called for a review of paying social security benefits to recently arrived EU migrants who had never been employed in the host country before. Apart from this and similar subsequent letters, we know surprisingly little about the national policy positions of the 28 Member States on whether and how to restrict welfare benefits for EU workers. In this context, our paper has two aims: to identify all EU Member States’ national policy positions on whether and how to reform the current rules for the free movement of workers in the EU; and, second, to explore the reasons for Member States’ divergent preferences on this issue, with a particular focus on the role of cross-country differences in national welfare institutions. To examine these issues empirically, we use data obtained from a new survey of national policy-makers in all EU Member States conducted by us in 2019. It is the first of its kind and provides the basis of more comprehensive analysis of EU Member States’ policy positions on free movement than has so far been possible. PAPER #3 The politics and governance of migration: contestations, practices and power AUTHOR(S) Emma Carmel (University of Bath) Regine Paul (University of Kassel) Katharina Lenner (University of Bath) ABSTRACT This contribution brings key perspectives from a wide range of disciplines into critically engaged dialogue, to create a new approach to understanding and theorizing how migration is governed and with what effects. Our conception of “politics and governance” centers around (1) practices (2) contestation. Mainstream studies of the “politics” of migration have been conceptualized rather narrowly around the institutional politics of migration. However, we contend that ‘politics’ does not just reside in institutions, and formal political structures. In this paper, we take a more encompassing view. First, we argue that governance – including the governance of migration – resides, and is reproduced, in highly structured and unequal relationships. These relationships are not confined to institutional relationships and actions of (public) authorities. Rather, they involve the hierarchical ordering of wider social, economic and political relationships: between places, political economies, actors, institutions. Second, that politics is enacted and materialized in the practices that instantiate, contest or reproduce such hierarchical orderings. Third, that it is the interaction of these political practices in specific empirical contexts that jointly shape migration experiences and how migration governance develops over time. This conceptualization eludicates the grey area between policies ‘on paper’ and complex migration practices on the ground. But it does so with a political lens: a clear focus on the power relations that shape governance in action, and their implications – for migrants, and for the wider context within which they move or stay. PAPER #4 The Politicisation and Framing of (EU) Migration (Cooperation) in The Gambia. Transition to Democracy as a Game Changer? AUTHOR(S) Ilke Adam (VUB) Omar Cham (VUB) ABSTRACT Migration was prominently set on West African political agendas with Europe’s increasing pressure for cooperation since the 2000s. Notwithstanding, we have hardly any insights about how politicised migration is in that region, how West African policy makers frame migration and why. Relying on newspaper data, we analyse the politicisation and framing of migration in The Gambia from 2009 to 2020. This small West African state with a very high emigration to Europe is a good case study to verify the so-called ‘regime effect’ in migration policy-making, as it underwent a democratic transition in 2016. The analysis shows that the transition did not lead so much to a policy change, but to a change of migration politics on the most salient sub-issue, cooperation on forced return with migrant receiving states. We show that democratisation led to a clear multiplication of national and international claims-makers on this topic, polarising policy positions for and against cooperation, and a diversification of justification frames. The paper thus shows how democratic policy makers in the Global south, even more than in autocracies or Western democratic states, struggle with creative and diversifying justification frames to cater the needs of both donors and electorates.

discussant

Patrycja Matusz

Wroclaw University

author

Michalis Moutselos

University of Cyprus

author

Martin Ruhs

EUI

author

Joakim Palme

Uppsala University

author

Moa Martensson

Uppsala University

author

August Danielson

Uppsala University

author

Emma Carmel

University of Bath

author

Regine Paul

Kassel University

author

Katharina Lenner

University of Bath

author

Ilke Adam

VUB

author

Omar N Cham

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Methodological implications of researching deportability and deportation: Session 3 The methodologies of data collection

Thu July 8, 09:30 - 11:00, Session #96 workshop | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

organizer

Agnieszka Radziwinowiczówna

CMR

organizer

Ibrahim Soysüren

University of Neuchatel

Over the last two decades, the promotion of the deportation of foreigners and its extensive implementation have gone hand in hand with a growing interest in the topic among researchers in humanities, social sciences and legal studies. One of the outcomes of this interest is the term “deportation studies” (Coutin, 2015) coined and increasingly used to define research on numerous aspects of the deportation of non-citizens. One can argue that this field of inquiry is solely defined by the research topic, the deportation of foreigners, that can be defined as the “compulsory removal of ‘aliens’ from the physical, juridical and social space of the state” (Peutz and De Genova 2010:1). During this workshop we will argue that there are methodological aspects of deportation studies that make this area of inquiry distinct. They will be analysed during the four sessions of the workshop. Session 1 discusses methodological challenges related to working with various actors of the “deportation corridor” (Drotbohm and Hasselberg 2015): law enforcement agencies, non-governmental organisations and lesser represented groups of deportees (e.g., children). Papers in Session 2 analyse the access to the field: recruitment challenges and positionality of the research participants and the researchers. Session 3 discusses the methodologies of data collection: bilingual and multilingual research, longitudinal research, feminist ethnography as well as projective and interactive techniques in deportation studies. Finally, Session 4 discusses the ethical challenges of researching the vulnerable populations of deportees and deported people. The authors of the papers will present the methodological aspects of their own empirical research in Africa, Asia and Europe. This workshop continues discussions started in September 2020 during a seminar at the University of Wolverhampton. This is an open workshop that welcomes all the researchers interested in the topic.

participant

Judith Altrogge

University of Osnabrueck

participant

Maybritt Jill Alpes

Ghent University

participant

Almudena Cortés

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

participant

Tamirace Fakhoury

Lebanese American University & Sciences Po Paris

participant

Kwamou Eva Feukeu

UNESCO & Stellenbosch University

participant

Alessandro Forina

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

participant

Shahed Kseibi

participant

Belal Shukair

participant

Agnieszka Martynowicz

Edge Hill University

participant

Marieke van Houte

Local practices and frames in support of inclusion of precarious migrants

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #97 workshop | SC Migration Politics and Governance

organizer

Ilker Ataç

researcher, Vienna

organizer

Sarah Ann Spencer

COMPAS

Migrants with precarious immigration status face many forms of exclusion and deprivation such as hampered access to work and welfare services. These barriers can run counter to the socio-economic goals of local policies, undermining strategies to promote social integration, participation and sustainable development. Some municipalities provide access for those residents to basic services, often despite and against national political discourses and legal frameworks. These practices can lead to cooperation across administrative borders, and between local state actors and civil society, while giving rise to tensions with national tiers of government. While cities may frame their overarching mission as that of an ”open”, “diverse” or “human rights city” linked to concepts such as “urban citizenship”, the “right to the city” and “spatial justice”; those frames may or may not guide their approach towards residents with precarious status, justified with reference to rationales such as inclusive security, humanitarian, human rights, deserving workers, socio-economic and administrative efficiency (Spencer & Delvino 2019). The workshop aims at exploring current research in this field. This includes key concepts, governance structures, frames and practices. A mix of theoretical reflection and empirical cases is sought. The organisers will share a conceptual paper, drafted under the auspices of a new collaborative project under the JPI Urban Europe programme, Local Responses to Precarious Migrants: Frames, Strategies and Evolving Practices in Europe (LoReMi), with the workshop participants in advance that will lay the basis for the exchange. Participants are asked to include comments on the proposal in a short prepared input to open the discussion.

participant

Simon Güntner

Technische Universität Wien

participant

Els de Graauw

Baruch College, City University of New York, USA

participant

Anouk Flamant

Inshea

participant

Sarah Schilliger

University of Basel

participant

Henrik Lebuhn

Humboldt University Berlin

participant

Dirk Gebhardt

Living in Diversity: How do people without migration background react to and participate in majority minority neighbourhood contexts

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #98 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Marina Lazëri

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

chair

Kim Knipprath

VU Amsterdam

Over the last forty years, researchers in the field of Migration and Ethnic Studies looked at the integration of migrants and their descendants in host societies. Concepts, methodological tools and theoretical frameworks have been developed to measure and predict integration outcomes across different ethnic groups and in comparison, with people of native descent. Yet, even though there is wide acknowledgment that the integration process is a two-way process, researchers have primarily had a one-sided focus on studying the integration of migrants and their descendants. The BaM project puts forward that addressing this blind spot has become more urgent now given that in many Western European cities people without a migration background are becoming a minority themselves. This situation - in the literature referred to as a majority-minority context - is a new, but rapidly growing phenomenon in Western Europe. In this panel, we present four papers which focus on advancing the conceptual framework of the Bam project while providing insights based on qualitative data collected in Amsterdam and northern England. The first paper introduces the concept of “laboring” diversity and discusses its role within the growing literature around ‘conviviality’. The second paper focuses on the “becoming a minority” framework in the north of England which was heavily influenced by the Brexit process. The third paper makes use of Elias and Scotson’s established–outsiders model, to illustrate everyday dynamics of power relations between different types of residents with and without a migration background. Finally, the fourth paper looks at how the Covid-19 crisis has impacted the social climate regarding ethnic diversity in Amsterdam. PAPER #1 Between willingness and labor: how people without a migration background ‘labor’ diversity in their majority-minority neighborhood AUTHOR(S) Josje Schut (VU Amsterdam) Ismintha Waldring (VU Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Among scholars, the idea is broadly shared that people without a migration background who rhetorically love ethnic diversity still tend to self-segregate from ‘ethnic others’ in various ways. As such, their attitudes and practices towards diversity are not aligned, and some suggest that this rhetorical appreciation of diversity can serve as a buffer for not having to engage with diversity. Yet, as people without a migration background have numerically become one of many ethnic minority groups in several contemporary European cities, it could be argued that it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to uphold their exclusionary practices in these so-called majority-minority cities and neighborhoods. This article is situated within the burgeoning body of literature around ‘conviviality’, which examines people’s quotidian practices of exclusion as well as practices of inclusion. Based on twenty semi-structured interviews conducted in a majority-minority neighborhood in Amsterdam, we attempt to understand why and how people without a migration background put “work” into promoting connections with neighborhood residents with a migration background. We thereby scrutinize the different ways in which people without a migration background ‘labor diversity’, varying from micro- to more explicit forms of labor, and their motives to do so. By bringing power literature into our theoretical framework on convivial labor, we show how this group, despite being a numerical minority and despite showing willingness to engage, remain in the power position to decide how and on what aspect they labor, while having the option to ‘opt out’ from these practices. PAPER #2 In the wake of Brexit: living in diversity in majority minority neighbourhoods in the North of England AUTHOR(S) Andrew Wallace (University of Leeds) Adrian Favell (University of Leeds) ABSTRACT The formulation of the Becoming a Minority project poses a question of how its framework and conceptualisation of key majority minority questions may apply to other similar scenarios in Western Europe, beyond its central focus on large port/second cities. Our paper transposes the BAM framework to the North of England, where majority minority relations lay at the heart of the Brexit outcome in the UK and the ongoing dynamics of British politics. We propose a translation not only across borders to the UK, but also away from the large metropolitan cities where BAM has honed its approach. Drawing upon two localities in the large scale UK ESRC funded project ‘Northern Exposure: Race, Nation and Disaffection in “Ordinary” Towns and Cities after Brexit’ -- Halifax and Wakefield -- we seek to raise questions about how the project maps onto to places that are not large cities, in some circumstances are peri-urban, and which are ‘super-diverse’ in their dynamics even in the absence of large ‘migrant-origin’ populations. In so doing, we aim to tease out some of the overlaps and tensions with the BAM study and offer some critical reflections on racial/ethnic geographies, diversities, divides and interactions within an urban region beyond the West European urban core. PAPER #3 Second-generation: `the established and the outsider in the neighborhood´ AUTHOR(S) Elif Keskiner (VU Amsterdam) Ismintha Waldring (VU Amsterdam) ABSTRACT The emerging phenomenon of majority-minority cities refers to the reality of increasingly ethnically diverse neighborhoods where everybody belongs to a minority group. At the same time another phenomenon parallels this majority -minority formation and that is gentrification: Neighborhoods that 30 years ago experienced a “white-flight” and were almost taken over by migrants and their descendants, are now experiencing a ‘come back’ by the young urban professionals or middle-class young families who purchase affordable housing in the gentrified neighborhoods. This creates an interesting condition for the migrants but also their descendants who are born and raised in these neighborhoods and live there over 30 years. On the one hand second-generation groups are ‘the established’ of the neighborhood due to their extended stay and familiarity with the setting. On the other hand the new comer white middle classes can spring a feeling of ‘outsider’ due to their class or ethnic status as well as their condition being the “buyers” in the neighborhood. Using Elias and Scotson’s established–outsiders model, we illustrate everday dynamics of power relations between different types of residents with and without a migration background. Their contribution uncovers that second generation who embody the constellations of being an established and an outsider simultaneously, function not only as bridge builders but also as mirroring figures of power relations between neighborhood residents. PAPER #4 The impact of Covid-19 in ethnically diverse neighborhoods AUTHOR(S) Maurice Crul (VU Amsterdam) Frans Leslie (VU Amsterdam) Laure Michon (VU Amsterdam) ABSTRACT In 2019, the BaM team conducted a major study into the social climate regarding ethnic diversity in Amsterdam, which was part of the large international BaM project, Becoming a Minority. We conducted the research in majority minority neighborhoods, neighborhoods where there is no longer a numerical majority group, and everybody effectively belongs to an ethnic minority now. Our respondents are the inhabitants without migration background, people who are born in the country, who have two parents also born in the country. The Amsterdam data mainly shows a positive picture. It is not just because of the demographic shift that ethnic diversity in Amsterdam is becoming the norm. Our data shows that also among those without migration background, who actually live in ethnically diverse neighborhoods, there is an overwhelming positive attitude towards ethnic diversity. Because of the sum of all the smaller and bigger daily practices of all its inhabitants, Amsterdam is evidently moving towards being more inclusive and more open to cultural diversity. And then came Covid-19! What is the current status? Under the stress of the Corona crisis, do openness and tolerance remain, will they diminish, or will they maybe even increase? Are some groups in the city disproportionately affected? Based on the results of our large Covid-19 Survey and interviews with local residents, we will discuss these questions in detail.

author

Elif Keskiner

EUR-CIMIC

author

Adrian Favell

University of Leeds

author

Maurice Crul

Vrije Universiteite

discussant

Peter Stevens

Ghent University

author

Josje Schut

author

Ismintha Waldring

EUR-CIMIC

author

Andrew Wallace

University of Leeds

author

Frans Lelie

author

Laure Michon

City of Amsterdam

Selection, hiring and discrimination in the Labour Market

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #99 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Stefania Marino

Manchester Business School

Chair: Stefania Marino Discussant: Anders Neergaard PAPER #1 Where nationalism meets class formation: hiring discrimination against applicants with a migration background by Dutch municipalities AUTHOR(S) Hans Siebers ABSTRACT Hiring discrimination (Pager and Shepherd 2008) against people with a migration background has been documented and demonstrated extensively (Baert, 2018; Riach and Rich, 2002; Zschirnt and Ruedin, 2016). The literature focuses particularly on forms of discrimination, including taste-based and statistical discrimination (Birkelund et al., 2020; Midtbøen, 2014). However, much less is known about the factors and mechanisms that actually produce this discrimination (Gaddis, 2019; Midtbøen, 2014; Reskin, 2003). In 2018 and 2019, we studied hiring processes of four Dutch municipal organisations by way of a questionnaire among selectors (N = 551), a questionnaire among migrant and non-migrant applicants (N = 751) as well as 48 interviews with selectors, migrant and non-migrant applicants. Findings showed that these municipalities discriminate against applicants with a migration background. One factor and one mechanism are responsible for this discrimination. Factor: This discrimination is driven by Dutch nationalism. Both in its previous multicultural form and in its current ethno-nationalist form, it classifies people with a migration background as outsides based on origin and assumed cultural differences. This othering reduces the chances for applicants with a migration background to be hired. Mechanism: Processes of class formation allow nationalism to become operational in hiring. As gatekeepers of class, selectors assess applicants’ disposal of cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1984, 1986), i.e. being ‘enthusiastic’, ‘energetic’ and ‘motivated’. Due to insecurity stemming from nationalism, migrant applicants are less successful to profile themselves on those job-unrelated and non-functional requirements and thus to be hired. These findings are new to the literature. PAPER #2 The importance of documented language skills in hiring processes: experiences from Norway AUTHOR(S) Marianne Kindt ABSTRACT The presence of ethnic labor market discrimination has been established beyond reasonable doubt in Europe as well as in the US. Less is known about under which conditions discrimination is likely to occur. In this paper we contribute to this by asking how employers evaluate language skills among job seekers: What kind of information do employers use in order to reveal the level of language skills? To what extent is language skills used to legitimate different treatment of job seekers with a minority and a majority background? In Norway, the state provides an exam, documenting the level of language skills. Consequently, an applicant can include this documentation as a part of the CV. The data consists of a field experiment (comprising 150 tests=300 applications) performed in Norway, accompanied with qualitative interviews with 66 employers. Further, we analyze data from a survey with employers from 600 different businesses. The preliminary findings indicate that documentation of language skills, is not used as a reliable source of information of this skill. First of all, only a limited number of employers were familiar with the system and criteria of documentation. Second, employers tend to use other and not as legitimate criteria when evaluating language skills. Third, when employers talk about the importance of “language” they often refer to social and communication skills, more than grammatical skills. As the test does not give information about the candidates’ softer language skills, it is often seen as irrelevant. PAPER #3 When the accent betrays you: The role of foreign accents in school-to-work transition of the ethnic minority youth in Germany AUTHOR(S) Jörg Dollmann ABSTRACT Research on school-to-work transitions has repeatedly pointed to the problems immigrants and their descendants face at the entry to the labour market (Heath, Rothon and Kilpi 2008; Kalter and Kogan 2006). Inadequate educational qualifications, lack of vocational training, insufficient language proficiency, deficiencies with regard to relevant social capital resources have been named as sources for immigrants’ disadvantages. In our study we focus on another possible explanation: immigrants’ foreign accents. Scarce research in this areas has shown that accented speech is likely to influence individual employability and occupational status attainment (Carlson and McHenry 2006). Foreign-born individuals with a non-native accent are considered to be of lower socio-economic status and are rated worse on characteristics related to aptitude, intelligence or competence (Cargile 2000; Ryan, Hewstone and Giles 1984). Since general-use sources of observational data do not contain information about immigrants’ accents, persisting ethnic gaps in labour market entry after controlling for relevant background characteristics are often interpreted as employers’ discriminatory behavior. However, employers can immediately detect accents during job interviews, which may subsequently influence their employment decisions, especially in occupations where an accent-free language is a productive resource. Relying on the 6th wave of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey (Germany), which contains several unique features, including audio records of individual accents and life-history calendar information, we examine whether young people aged 19-21 with foreign accents experience disadvantages when searching for apprenticeships and at the first job entry, and whether these disadvantages are more distinct in occupations with more pronounced customer contact. PAPER #4 Temporary student-migrant-workers: The legal and social production of difference AUTHOR(S) Olivia Maury ABSTRACT Temporary visas are on the rise in the EU and many of these temporary migrants also work. Student-migrants constitute an important part of the temporary labour force who often due to visa requirements work to collect enough income to renew their visas. Based on interview data with non-EU/EEA migrants (N=41) holding one-year student residence permits in Finland, I analyse the specific modalities through which non-EU student-migrants are moulded into flexible labour power in Finland. Theoretically, I underscore the constitutive relation between capital and difference (Chakrabarty 2000) and the systematic production of heterogeneous exploitable figures. To advance the argument, I propose an analytical perspective of the legal production of difference based on the student-migrants’ migratory status and the social production of difference that shape the discriminatory practices directed towards the student-migrant-workers as well as employers’ perception of them as attractive migrant labour. The paper points to a social context in which legal status together with intersections of race, gender, nationality and perceived age produce axes of differentiation that channel certain student-migrants into low-paid areas of work while barring many of them from highly skilled paid work. In conclusion, the paper demonstrates how capital profits from the temporally fragmenting border regime and how international students, despite on a governmental level being categorised as desired migrants, are not shielded from the intimate effects of the border regime nor from racist and sexist labour market structures.

discussant

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

author

Hans Siebers

author

Marianne Kindt

author

Jörg Dollmann

author

Olivia Maury

Leveraging Social Networking Sites for Migration Research

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #100 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

PAPER #1 Using Facebook Advertising Data for Social-Economic Vulnerability Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon AUTHOR(S) Ingmar Weber (Qatar Computing Research Institute) Masoomali Fatehkia (Qatar Computing Research Institute) Fouad Mrad (UN ESCWA Lebanon) ABSTRACT While the heaviest fighting in the Syrian civil war has stopped, an estimated 5 million Syrians remain living outside their home country. Of these, roughly 1.5 million found shelter in Lebanon. Ongoing efforts by organizations such as UNHCR to support the refugee population are often ineffective in reaching those most in need. According to UNHCR’s 2019 Vulnerability Assessment of Syrian Refugees Report (VASYR), only 44% of the Syrian refugee families eligible for multipurpose cash assistance were provided with help, as the others were not captured in the data. In an ongoing project, we are investigating the use of non-traditional data sources, such as Facebook advertising data and others, for population level vulnerability assessment. In a nutshell, Facebook provides advertisers with an estimate of how many of its users match certain targeting criteria, e.g. how many Facebook users currently living in Beirut are “living abroad”, aged 18-34, speak Arabic, and primarily use an iOS device. (Answer: 1,200, as of Nov. 30, 2020.) In this work, we evaluate the use of such audience estimates to model spatial variation in the socio-economic situation of Syrian refugees across Lebanon. Using data from VASYR as ground truth, we find that iOS device usage explains 90% of the out-of-sample variance in poverty across the Lebanese governorates. However, evaluating predictions at a smaller spatial resolution also indicate limits related to sparsity, as Facebook does not provide audience estimates for less than 1,000 users. PAPER #2 A Brexodus? European migrants in the United Kingdom in the light of the Facebook advertising data AUTHOR(S) Francesco Rampazzo (University of Oxford) Jakub Bijak (University of Southampton) Agnese Vitali (University of Trento) Ingmar Weber (Qatar Computing Research Institute) Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research) ABSTRACT In June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. Since 2016 the UK Office for National Statistics has been reporting a positive but declining net migration of EU nationals. Given the uncertainty surrounding Brexit, this paper attempts to ascertain if a "Brexodus" is really happening by using weekly estimates of European migrants in the UK obtained from the Facebook Advertising Platform. The anonymised count data are disaggregated by age, education, and country of nationality; the period of analysis is from March 2019 to March 2020. We use a simple Bayesian trend model with indicator variables for age, education, and country, to analyse the changes in the numbers of migrants. The Facebook data suggest a decreasing number of EU migrants in the United Kingdom. The results show that the largest migrant age groups, 20-29 and 30-39 years old, are decreasing the fastest over time in comparison to 15-19 years old. In addition, the largest educated group, Tertiary educated, is decreasing faster than Secondary educated Facebook migrant users. The Facebook data are not representative of the entire EU migrant population, however they can be used to infer trends of change in a timely manner. PAPER #3 Sampling emigrants on a global scale through advertisements on Facebook and Instagram AUTHOR(S) Steffen Pötzschke (GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences) Bernd Weiß (GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences) ABSTRACT Research on international migrants has seen a sharp increase during the last decades; however, most extant studies focus on immigrants. This means that researchers usually limit their analysis to a single or a small number of countries and investigate how newcomers fare in them, what consequences their arrival has for the respective societies, etc. In contrast, research that takes one specific group of emigrants into view and studies them in a great variety of countries is scarce. To a large degree, this is due to the methodological, logistical, and financial challenges associated with cross-national sampling and surveying of populations that are already hard-to-reach when focussing on a single country. Building on preliminary results of the German Emigrants Overseas Online Survey (GEOOS), we investigate how advertisements on Facebook and Instagram can be employed to reach and subsequently survey emigrants on a global scale. Within a field period of only four weeks (August-September 2020) and using a sampling budget of under 2,500€, this study collected data on more than 3,500 Germans in over 140 countries. This includes subsamples, each consisting of several hundred participants, in Latin America, Asia, and Africa; hence, regions from which comparatively few German emigrants participated in previous surveys (cf. Ette et al., 2020; Pfeiffer & Heimer, 2007). The contribution provides detailed information on our sampling approach, including measures taken to stratify the sample in terms of age, gender, and geographic distribution. We, furthermore, investigate to which degree the surveyed emigrants could have been reached with established methods and detail on the sociodemographic composition of the sample. Where appropriate, we compare methodological aspects and substantive findings between world-regions. Our results suggest that this sampling approach constitutes meaningful addition to emigration scholars’ toolkit. PAPER #4 Using Facebook advertisements for sampling migrant family networks AUTHOR(S) André Grow (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research) René Flores (University of Chicago) Ilana Ventura (University of Chicago) Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research) ABSTRACT Recruiting representative samples of migrants and their families into survey research tends to be difficult. Census-based approaches that draw on population registers or random telephone samples often suffer from undercoverage (e.g., if migrants are not listed in the phone register) or are prohibitively expensive (as migrants account for only a small part of the general population, random samples need to be very large). Common approaches that seek to address these issues suffer from their own shortcomings. Snowball sampling, for example, is often considered a viable and cost-effective alternative to random sampling of hard-to-reach populations, but this approach is at risk of creating community bias, thereby leading non-representative samples. In this paper, we explore a new approach for sampling migrants and their families into survey research. Building on the work of Pötzschke and Braun (2017), we use targeted Facebook advertisements to recruit a representative sample of Mexican immigrants in the United States for participation in an incentivized online survey. A key methodological advancement of our work is that we extend this approach by social network sampling. In more detail, we encourage participants of our survey to invite members of their family (both in preceding and succeeding generations) to also participate in the survey. By linking the answers of family members, it becomes possible to study, e.g., intergenerational differences in the integration in the host society. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of this new approach to sampling migrant family networks and present first results in terms of cultural integration into the host society. PAPER #5 Please Accept My Friend Request: Using Facebook as a recruitment tool in the COVID-19 era AUTHOR(S) Sophia Iosue (University of Oxford) ABSTRACT I was set to conduct fieldwork for my dissertation with migrant Filipino domestic workers in Milan, Italy in March 2020. This coincided spectacularly with the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns, with Milan becoming an epicentre for Europe’s outbreak. In this paper, I reflect on how the forced switch to internet-mediated research increased the number of research participants I could access and improved the quality of our interviews. I argue that technology is particularly suited to research with specific groups of people, such as Filipino domestic workers. Previous research has examined technology’s role in facilitating communication and intimacy for transnational families (Salazar Parreñas, 2014). Indeed, I contend that specifically because of participants’ familiarity with communication technologies and their reliance on Facebook to communicate with their families, technology was a productive tool for my research. In many ways, using Facebook yielded more interesting results than face-to-face fieldwork would have. In addition, I consider my experience using Facebook as a tool to recruit, build rapport and stay connected with participants. Previous research has noted Facebook’s usefulness in recruiting research participants, especially those who are typically marginalized in society (Baltar and Brunet, 2012). However, before condoning the use of Facebook in research entirely, it is essential for the discipline to consider some of the elements that have not yet been broached, such as how relationships between participants and researchers can and should evolve after the research is completed.

author

Ingmar Weber

Qatar Computing Research Institute

author

Masoomali Fatehkia

Qatar Computing Research Institute

author

Fouad Mrad

UN ESCWA Lebanon

author

Francesco Rampazzo

University of Oxford

author

Jakub Bijak

University of Southampton

author

Agnese Vitali

University of Trento

author

Steffen Pötzschke

GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences

author

Bernd Weiß

GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences

author

André Grow

author

Ilana Ventura

University of Chicago

author

Emilio Zagheni

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research

author

Sophia Iosue

Pamela Steele Associates Ltd

author

Emilio Zagheni

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research

Migrant entrepreneurship, self-employment, and economic strategies

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #101 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and the labour market in Europe

Joblessness and the transition to parenthood: Variation by migrant background explored and explained Daniël van Wijk Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Helga A.G. de Valk Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Aart C. Liefbroer Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Joblessness is an important experience in young adults’ lives and may create and reinforce existing inequalities between youth. It also may have effects on family lives, including on the decision to have children. Recent work shows that joblessness among young adults results in postponement of parenthood. Little is known, however, about how the impact of joblessness varies between second-generation migrants and non-migrants and how this thus may increase potential inequalities between groups. As the children of immigrants make up increasing shares of the population in many developed countries, especially among young adults, understanding current and future fertility patterns requires knowledge of the fertility behaviour of second-generation migrants. Based on theories that stress the normalization of disadvantage, we hypothesize that young adults who experience disadvantage themselves as well as in their social environment react less strongly to joblessness than those in more advantaged positions. Given that compared to non-migrants disadvantage may be more common among certain second-generation origin groups, the latter may be more likely to become parents despite being jobless. We examine these relationships using event history analyses based on Dutch full-population register data. Preliminary results show that both second-generation migrants and non-migrants and both men and women postpone the transition to parenthood when they are jobless. The effect of joblessness is however much stronger among non-migrants. Men with an Antillean or Aruban second-generation background and women with a Moroccan, Turkish, or Surinamese second-generation background in particular are more likely to have a first child when they are jobless than non-migrants. Future analyses will examine to what extent these differences can be explained by levels of educational attainment and by the prevalence of disadvantage in intra- and intergenerational social networks. === Are immigrants either pulled or pushed into self-employment in Western European countries? Floriane Bolazzi Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca Ivana Fellini Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca Self-employment is an important channel for immigrants' economic incorporation in most Western European countries, but motivations for entering self-employment remain an open question. Recent studies stressed either the hypothesis of immigrants being pushed into self-employment to cope with scarce employment opportunities (unemployment push hypothesis) or, instead, to be pulled by limited career chances as employees (blocked mobility hypothesis). However, no comparative study is available to assess which condition prevails in different contexts. Moreover, in the absence of direct information, previous studies only used indirect measures to proxy immigrants' motivations. For the first time, in this paper, we exploit self-reported reasons for entering self-employment collected in the 2017 EULFS ad-hoc module. Firstly, we estimate the prevalence of involuntary versus voluntary and neutral reasons across 14 Western European countries to directly assess whether immigrants are mainly forced (pushed) into self-employment or whether they voluntarily choose it (pulled). We then explore, assuming country fixed effects, the influence of individual factors (area of origin, years since migration, education and occupational status one year before). Finally, we estimate the influence of country-specific structural factors (unemployment rate, self-employment rate and share of low-skilled occupation). We find that immigrants who involuntarily enter self-employment accounts for a minority in all countries, that is, the pushed hypothesis is not prevailing, but everywhere immigrant self-employed are more concerned by the unemployment push than natives. Moreover, the higher the disadvantage in terms of unemployment, the more immigrants are involuntary self-employed compared to natives. Last, we find an association with the area of origin, that is, the cultural traits and/or the social capital within the same ethnic community is a determinant of immigrants' preferences. === Role perceptions and job expectations of Gambian journalists Gabriele Puzzo University of Bologna Alagie Jinkang University of Bologna Luca Pietrantoni University of Bologna Salvatore Zappalà University of Bologna The perception that journalists have of their role has become more ambivalent and liquid after the turn of the century (Koljonen, 2013) since it is created in a struggle over discursive authority in conversations about the meaning of journalism in society and, thus, in the culture (Hanitzsch, 2007). In The Gambia, journalists’ role perception is complex and influenced by cross-cultural aspects, with journalistic ideals being subject to discussion after the end of dictatorship, journalists’ migration to Europe and the advent of social media. Moreover, although journalists’ role perceptions help them to give meaning to their work (Hanitzsch & Vos, 2017), research on additional effects of role perception is scarce: for instance, it is not clear whether journalists’ role perceptions affect their expectations and their actions, with literature showing contradictory evidence (Mellado & Van Dalen, 2014; Hanusch et al., 2015; Tandoc et al., 2013; Weaver et al., 2007). Therefore, within the H2020 PERCEPTIONS project framework, our aim is to contribute to the literature by exploring whether and how role perceptions of journalists predict their job expectations in two different cultural contexts: The Gambia and Europe. We disseminated an online survey to Gambian journalists living in either The Gambia or having migrated to Europe. We measured: a) the importance assigned to different journalists’ functions, such as “watchdog”, “propagandist”, “citizen-oriented” and “consumer-oriented” (Mellado, 2012), and b) job expectations (Villa-George et al., 2011). Results show the different perceptions and expectations in journalists living in the two cultural contexts. === A Passport to Western Lifestyle: Chinese Golden Visa Citizens in Portugal and Hungary Sofia Gaspar Iscte-Cies Fanni Beck Central European University Golden Visa Programs have thrived in the EU for a while now, allowing third-national citizens to acquire residence permits or citizenship in exchange for financial investment. Two European countries in which these programs have been recently attracting investors are Portugal (Residence Permit for Investment Activity – since 2012) and Hungary (i.e., Hungarian Residency Bond Program - 2013-2017), despite their semi-peripheral position in the EU and relatively modest ranking within imaginaries of global development hierarchy. Among the main applicants, Chinese citizens are those who benefit most from these programs. Contrary to the view that Golden Visa schemes are mostly determined by financial and economic-led motivations, this paper highlights how Chinese investors in Portugal and Hungary are (also) driven by lifestyle and educational motivations for their children, in asking for these residence permits. Our observation field is multi-sited - Lisbon and Budapest metropolitan areas -, in order to obtain a comparative cross-national approach. Using in-depth interviews to Chinese Golden Visa applicants established in both cities, we explore how their narratives contain non-material ideals, and a desire for a more relaxed and ecological lifestyle, as well as better educational opportunities for their children in cosmopolitan Western countries – yet outside of the Anglophone world. These non-materialist motivations contrast and challenge possible instrumental and economic reasons behind residency through investment programs. We sustain that Chinese citizens can uncover more complex set of motivations applying for Golden Visa schemes, since they search for reproduction of their high-middle class privileges while settling down in better lifestyle environments abroad.

author

Gabriele Puzzo

Università di Bologna

author

Alagie Jinkang

University of Bologna

author

Sofia Gaspar

ISCTE-IUL

author

Fanni Beck

Central European University

author

Daniël van Wijk

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

author

Helga A.G. de Valk

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

author

Aart C. Liefbroer

Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

author

Floriane Bolazzi

Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca

author

Ivana Fellini

University of Milano-Bicocca

author

Luca Pietrantoni

University of Bologna

author

Salvatore Zappalà

University of Bologna

How to design meaningful policy of living together for (vulnerable young) migrants and non-migrants. Failures, achievements and hopes for future

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #102 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Izabela Grabowska

SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mobility Research Group

In this panel session we are giving floor to the experiences of various stakeholders, who, at the local level engage in developing and conducting various integration programmes addressed at vulnerable young migrants. The session is dedicated to getting a country and local- specific insight into the conditions, design and experiences of integration programmes from X countries that take part in MIMY consortium and beyond. It also aims at evaluation on existing integration mechanisms offer space for reflection on the future design of the policies that could be inclusive and meaningful for migrants. In particular the session will raise the following questions: - Integration policies in the absence of national integration policy - The role of local government/ dissolved powers in facilitating/supporting integration programmes - Stability of integration mechanisms - Is bottom-up integration policy possible/welcome? - Role models and scaling good practices PAPER #1 A ‘weak state’ and the empowerment of local stakeholders in Poland in supporting young vulnerable migrants AUTHOR(S) Dominika Blachnicka-Ciacek (SWPS University, Mobility Research Group) Agnieszka Trabka (SWPS University) Dominika Winogrodzka (SWPS University) ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to present the perspective of local stakeholders in Poland who work with young vulnerable migrants. Poland, traditionally a sending country, has been experiencing an unprecedented influx of migrants in recent years, which makes it an interesting field to observe the complexity and flows of the integration processes. Based on the very recent qualitative data generated in the international H2020 project MIMY we will analyse the main challenges that local stakeholders face in the politically and socially difficult times as well as the ways in which they overcome these challenges. From the interviews, one of the emerging theme is the notion of weak or absent state that withdraws from the responsibility of developing an integration policy, which means that other actors (both public institutions and NGOs) need to step-in to facilitate migrants’ integration. In our analysis we will attempt to reflect on how to design a meaningful and successful policy of living together that would be inclusive for most vulnerable young migrants in Poland. How do the existing mechanisms and good practices applied at a local level could be transformed or integrated into a more coherent policy on national level? This paper and the case of Poland will be juxtaposed in this session with other consortium countries in order to get a comparative perspective. PAPER #2 Young migrants in vulnerable conditions and the issue of the “integration”: Italian stakeholders’ and young migrants’ point of view AUTHOR(S) Eleonora Crapolicchio (UCSC Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano) Cristina Giuliani (UCSC Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano) Daniela Marzana (UCSC Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano) Camillo Regalia (UCSC Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano) ABSTRACT Immigration involves deep changes in the contexts of interaction for both natives and immigrants (Cushner, 2008). Nevertheless, immigration is still described as both a source of problems and an opportunity for individuals and communities (Rania, Migliorini, & Cardinali, 2015). It is therefore important to evaluate the integration policies and strategies, that can favor and/or hinder a positive relationship among immigrants and local communities. Using Italian data from international H2020 project MIMY, this contribution aims to examine stakeholders’ and immigrants’ perspectives about the “integration” of young immigrants in vulnerable conditions living in Italy. The study adopts a qualitative methodology, based both on semi-structured interviews to local stakeholders involved in providing services to migrant youth and focus groups with young migrants (18-29 years old) in order to explore their ideas, opinions, thinking and values about integration and its challenges. We expect to collect information at multiple levels (individual and social) and through a dual perspective (stakeholders and young migrants), to explore attitudes and opinions associated to vulnerabilities and resources of young migrants. We also expect to provide a picture of services and projects that operate at local level to favor the integration processes of young migrants, underlining difficulties and strengths. PAPER #3 Together in diversity. A new policy agenda for the immigration society AUTHOR(S) Godfried Engbersen (Dutch Scientific Council for Government Policy and Erasmus University Rotterdam) ABSTRACT In the Netherlands, the proportion of residents with a migration background in the population has risen considerably in the last few decades - from 9% in 1972 to 23% in 2019 - and will continue to rise in the coming decades. Moreover, the group of residents with a migration background is becoming increasingly diverse. In 2017, the migrants living in the Netherlands hailed from 222 different countries of origin. In addition to the increased ethnic heterogeneity, there is also an increase in the number of migrants temporarily staying in the Netherlands. After five years, more than half of the migrants have left. The increasing ethnic heterogeneity and temporariness of stay have major consequences for social cohesion and the living together of social groups in Dutch society. In this paper, we argue that in addition to traditional integration policy, a new policy agenda is necessary to facilitate the living together of migrants and non-migrants in different local settings. The government, in particular the local government, plays a key role in this. In this paper, we outline four building blocks of a structural policy for living together in diversity: (1) Improving the reception and civic integration of all migrants; (2) stimulating social cohesion by ensuring an adequate public infrastructure at the neighbourhood level and strengthening intercultural competences in public sectors such as education; (3) strengthening labour participation by Investing in active labour market policies and combating labour market discrimination; (4) and more coherence between migration policy and issues of labour participation and living together. PAPER #4 Summary talk on (migrant) youth and social cohesion. Discussion AUTHOR(S) Anita Harris (Deakin University, Australia) ABSTRACT In the summary talk Professor Anita Harris will share her insights into (migrant) youth and social cohesion. She will also critically discuss the papers presented in this panel session.

discussant

Anita Harris

Deakin University, Australia

author

Dominika Blachnicka-Ciacek

SWPS University, Mobility Research Group

author

Agnieszka Trabka

SWPS University

author

Dominika Winogrodzka

SWPS University

author

Eleonora Crapolicchio

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano

author

Cristina Giuliani

UCSC Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano

author

Daniela Marzana

UCSC Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano

author

Camillo Regalia

author

Godfried Engbersen

Erasmus University Rotterdam

Reflexive Migration Studies 6

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #103 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

The socio-economic and socio-psychological integration of refugees from Syria and the receiving community in Sweden Naikhari Irastorza Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM), Malmö University Jason Tucker Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM), Malmö University During 2015 and 2016 Sweden received a large number of refugees from Syria. As a response to this a “temporary” laws were introduced which saw the withdrawal of permanent residence permits for most of those whose asylum claims were accepted. There has also been growing support for parties who call for the need to reduce immigration (notably asylum migration), which adds new challenges to the Swedish integration model. The paper presents the findings of a mixed methodology project looking at the socio-economic and socio-psychological integration of both refugees from Syria and the receiving community in Sweden. Further to this, it explores the inter-relationship of these two aspects of integration in three of Sweden’s largest cities. With the Swedish model of integration focusing on access to the labour market, the socio-psychological and relational aspects of integration in the country have been under researched. This research addresses this gap. It is built upon a state-of-the-art mapping of the literature and policy in the Sweden, conducted in 2019 as an earlier aspect of the project. The methodology includes a survey conducted among refugees from Syria (n=600) and the receiving community (n=1200), in addition to six focus groups with the arriving and receiving community in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. These findings are part of a larger project called “Forced displacement and refugee-host community solidarity” that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 822401. === Migrants, foreigners, refugees? Boundary work and categorization in the articulation of attitudes towards migration Radka Klvaňová Masaryk University Ivana Rapoš Božič Masaryk University Bernardette Nadya Jaworsky Masaryk University Alica Rétiová Masaryk University While considerable research on migration highlights the perspectives of newcomers, this contribution aims to shed light on the perspectives of the receiving population. We explore attitudes towards migration in Czechia, a country with low levels of immigration but highly negative perceptions of newcomers. These sentiments crystallized during the 2015 “refugee crisis” in heated public and political debates, and the country accepted only 12 refugees from the 2,691 required by the EU Relocation Scheme. To explore the attitudes towards migration among the Czech public, we draw upon the concepts of symbolic boundaries and boundary work that allow us to approach attitudes as dynamic meaning-making processes embedded in cultural repertoires. We will present the preliminary findings of our ongoing research project based on qualitative semi-structured interviews. This method aims to stimulate narrative responses describing interviewees’ notions concerning people on the move and lead to better understanding how they operate with different categories, such as migrants, foreigners, and refugees, when they talk about migration. Although in practice these terms have overlapping meanings, our findings show that the boundaries between “us” and “them” are drawn differently for each category. While “foreigners” are perceived rather neutrally, “migrants” and “refugees” are defined as “others” representing a potential threat. We also tackle the methodological question of how to address people on the move in research on migration-related attitudes. === Migration, nativism, and populism: the case of Freedom and Direct Democracy in Czechia Jonáš Suchánek Charles University Jiří Hasman Charles University Vít Bořil Charles University The political climate in Europe has recently experienced an apparent shift as the topic of migration became dominant throughout the political and media discourse during the years of 2015 and 2016. Many populist radical right parties (PRR) across Europe started capitalizing on a strong anti-immigrant rhetoric, reached their electoral peak and grew in number of members considerably. Consequently, several studies analyzing the impact of immigration on electoral support and voting behavior have emerged, often finding somewhat contradictory results. However, most of the research has focused predominantly on highly visible manifestations of contemporary populist movements (e.g. Brexit and Trump’s victory), therefore most populist or/and nativist upsurge events are still relatively omitted across the discipline. To partially fill this gap in academic literature, we spatially analyze the electoral support of the main PRR party in Czechia – Freedom and Direct Democracy – Tomio Okamura (SPD). Based on the results of OLS regression, spatial autocorrelation, and geographically weighted regression, this study finds that there is no significant relation between the actual presence of migrants and the electoral support of SPD on the municipality level. We conclude, it is rather the impact of certain socioeconomic, demographic and geographical attributes of studied localities that predict such voting. === The Practice of Highly Skilled Migration: Meaning and Temporality in Migration Amongst Non-Movers in Istanbul and Tel Aviv Nora Meissner Tel Aviv University Based upon structural notions of brain drain/gain, most research regards high-skilled migration as a category of analysis that can only be understood in relation to external factors. Thus, high-skilled migrants are often considered the paradigmatic example of voluntary economic movers. Yet, scant research has been done on how highly skilled individuals actually think, feel, and talk about migration, or what their strategies for and struggles around migration are. In other words, little is known about how migration works for highly skilled individuals and why it prompts some of them to leave while others choose to stay. Seeing migration as an agency-centred category of practice, my presentation aims to further our understanding of high-skilled migration as a meaningful social action that involves both staying and leaving. Drawing on original fieldwork and in-depth interviews with young, highly skilled women and men in Istanbul and Tel Aviv, I investigate the meanings they attach to migration, and how these are shaped by their respective social position. Based on the concept of agency as something that is temporally situated, I further explore the role that past and present experiences as well as projections of the future play in their subjective conceptualizations of migration. By going beyond economic models and state-centred perspectives, my research provides an emic viewpoint on human movement amongst the highly skilled. This endeavour resonates with the reflexive notion of sociology, while calling for a critical examination of the categories of analysis currently being used in migration studies.

author

Vít Bořil

Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Science, Charles University

author

Jiří Hasman

Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Science, Charles University

author

Jonáš Suchánek

Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Science, Charles University

author

Nahikari Irastorza

author

Jason Tucker

MIM

author

Radka Klvanova

Masaryk University

author

Ivana Rapos Bozic

Masaryk University

author

B. Nadya Jaworsky

Masaryk University

author

Alica Rétiová

Masaryk University

author

Nora Meissner

Tel Aviv University

Complementary pathways for refugee protection in the EU: Current state of affairs and the way forward 2

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #104 workshop | SC Migration Politics and Governance

organizer

Zvezda Vankova

Lund University

organizer

Albert Kraler

ICMPD

The recently adopted European Commission proposal for a new European Pact on Migration and Asylum places a major emphasis on developing legal pathways to refugee protection, both by building on existing resettlement efforts as well as by further developing so-called complementary pathways to protection, such as humanitarian admission schemes or study or work-related schemes. Reflecting its long history, resettlement has been extensively studied, both in its historical forms and what has been termed “new resettlement” operated largely by UNHCR from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, research on complementary pathways is still largely limited to a handful of policy studies commissioned by international organisations or the EU. Furthermore, since the concept of complementary pathways for refugee protection is a relatively novel policy idea, there is not much experience on the ground at the national level in the EU with this concept. The aim of this workshop is to bring together different lines of research and practice in the context of active refugee admission policies, with a specific focus on complementary pathways. In order to do so, the workshop aims at bringing together academics, practitioners and refugees to discuss current state of affairs, including emerging initiatives supporting the establishment of different complementary pathways, practical obstacles, the participation of different actors and organisations involved. In order to do that, the proposed workshop will consist of two parts of 90 minutes each. The first panel will be devoted to academic presentations examining different complementary pathways for refugee protection. The second panel will entail a discussion with practitioners and possibly refugees themselves presenting their experiences with these new instruments.

participant

Marina Brizar

Talent Beyond Boundaries

participant

Giulio Di Blasi

Global Refugee Sponsorship Initiative

participant

Frank Albrecht

Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

participant

Golde Christel Ebding

migration_miteinander e.V.

Migrant Transnationalism 2

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #105 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

Migration, Remittances and the Fiscal Contract Ana Isabel López García Universität Konstanz Barry Maydom Birkbeck, University of London How does the receipt of remittances shape attitudes towards taxation? We argue that receiving remittances weaken the fiscal contract of taxation in return for public services. Those who receive remittances can use the money sent by friends or family overseas to obtain public services like health and education on the private market instead of through tax-funded government provision. Using survey data from Africa and Latin America, we find that those who receive money from abroad are less supportive of taxation and more likely to approve of tax evasion and avoidance. This finding is robust across regions and to controlling for a range of variables and matching individuals on observable characteristics. The evidence suggests that, by disconnecting individuals from the national political-economic community, migrant remittances can undermine the development of a robust fiscal contract. === Transnational functions of Kyrgyz communities in Moscow Aleksandra Filatova Analytical Consortium "Perspective" In this study, we analyze the transnational functions of Kyrgyz communities in Moscow. In particular, we detail the general characteristics of the community organizations through their functions and classify them as institutional diaspora organizations, countryman and tribal organizations, and umbrella organizations. For empirical research, data collection was performed in the form of semi-structured interviews with leaders of seven Kyrgyz communities in Moscow. In addition to the informants, observation, and active participation in events organized by community organizations. We describe, in detail, the profiles of the community organizations, their similarities and differences in their functions what they perform in both Moscow and the Kyrgyz Republic. We draw conclusions about the functions of communities in political participation and representation, their role for community members in crisis. Furthermore, their transnational role in the development of the Kyrgyz Republic, declared by our interviewees. And the level of their communications between communities inside Russia, those fuse their homeland and the host country, as well as other Kyrgyz communities in the world Finally, we summarize the main differences in terms of the transnationality of communities. Compatriot communities focus mainly on functions related to the Kyrgyz Republic, and umbrella organizations focus on functions related to Moscow. Institutional organizations of the Diaspora have the highest characteristics of transnational communities and perform tasks in the Kyrgyz Republic and Russia and have a broader understanding of Diaspora. In addition to synthesizing our contributions, and indicating some useful pathways for future research. === Examining transnational care circulation trajectories within immobilizing regimes of migration: Implications for proximate care Laura Merla UCLouvain Majella Kilkey USheffield Loretta Baldassar UWA In this paper we argue that the current political context of restrictionist migration policies is dramatically affecting people’s capacity to cross borders to engage in proximate care with their relatives, which is a central, yet often overlooked, feature of transnational care practices. We examine how the wider context of temporality, restrictive mobility, and heightened uncertainty about the future affect people’s ability to be mobile and to move back and forth for caregiving. In examining the wellbeing effects of such restrictions, we highlight their variable impact depending on factors such as socio-economic positioning, life-course stage and health. The first sections of the paper present the care circulation framework and the particular meaning and function of proximate forms of care, as well as the main categories of care-related mobility that support this. We illustrate the dynamics and challenges faced by transnational family members, who engage in these care-related mobilities, through three vignettes involving care circulation between India and the UK, China and Australia, and Morocco and Belgium. In the final section, we discuss our vignettes in relation to the political, physical, social and time dimensions of current regimes of mobility that impact on care-related mobilities. We argue that the regimes of mobility that currently govern care-related mobilities are best understood as ‘immobilizing regimes’ with important and undervalued implications for ontological security and wellbeing. === Political Motivations for Migration Among People of Turkish Origin in Germany Dirk Halm InZentIM/ZfTI Martina Sauer InZentIM/ZfTI Caner Aver ZfTI The paper examines how political views influence migration-related decisions of successor generations of people of Turkish origin in North Rhine-Westphalia who intend to resettle in Turkey. Over the past decade, the political developments in Turkey, and consequently the bilateral relations between Germany and Turkey, have been shaped by largely negative dynamics. Turkey’s autocratization has led not only to strained interstate relations but to a deterioration of the social climate in Germany as a country of immigration. In addition, the issue of xenophobia and racism in Germany has repeatedly been raised. It can be assumed that an interplay between perceived discrimination in Germany and Erdoğan’s popularity as a self-styled “advocate of Turks” in Germany results in greater susceptibility to populist promises and Turkish-nationalist identity-building. Such political motivations may thus come into play, particularly in combination with other motivations and given the different options of interstate migration: Many people of Turkish descent in Germany, regardless of citizenship, have the virtually unrestricted option of resettling in Turkey. Such political motivations for migration besides political persecution have rarely been considered or theoretically embedded in migration research. The paper contributes to filling this gap in the literature. Drawing on representative primary data (1,000 interviews) collected from adults of Turkish origin in North Rhine-Westphalia in 2019, the paper examines the role of political motivations for migration to Turkey, including intention to migrate, attachment and affiliation to the home country, political participation and political interest and attitudes, and social integration.

author

Majella Kilkey

University of Sheffield

author

Loretta Baldassar

The University of Western Australia

author

Ana Isabel López García

Universität Konstanz

author

Barry Maydom

Birkbeck, University of London

author

Aleksandra Filatova

author

Laura Merla

author

Dirk Halm

InZentIM/ZfTI

author

Martina Sauer

InZentIM/ZfTI

author

Caner Aver

ZfTI

Transnational youth mobilities in real time and over the life-course

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #106 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

chair

Karlijn Haagsman

University Maastricht

The contributions in this panel investigate transnational young people’s mobility in real time and over their life-course, using multi-sited research designs. The aim is to question conventional categories used in migrant youth research. Studies that employ categories of 1st and 2nd generation or ‘left-behind’ youth simplify the mobility of young people by focusing on their or their parents’ first international move, or by presuming them to be immobile, respectively. Yet recent transnational migration scholarship on ‘second generation returns’ has shown that young people engage in their own transnational activities through travels to a ‘homeland’ and that these experiences shape their identities and sense of belonging. Young people have distinct mobilities, views and experiences with respect to adults and shape their own transnational realities. Yet second generation returns literature is mainly based on recollections by adults of their own youth, focus on relocation to a ‘home’ country, and produce single monolithic accounts of young people’s relationship to a homeland. This panel brings together interrelated papers that are part of the Mobility of Young Lives project (MO-TRAYL) that investigates mobility in real time, that is, as it happens, and throughout the life-course from a youth-centric perspective in order to develop new ways of investigating the effects of mobility on young people’s lives. The contributions include both in-depth ethnographic studies and large-scale surveys in countries of origin and European countries of residence, and together, make a case for moving beyond the conventional analytical categories of 1st and 2nd generation migrant youth or 'left-behind' youth and using categories that put mobility at the center. PAPER #1 “Left-behind” children in Ghana and “disrupted” educational trajectories: the role of local social capital AUTHOR(S) Onallia Osei (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT It has been well-documented that migration of parents can affect the educational outcomes of so-called ‘left behind’ children at origin, sometimes positively but also negatively. Most existing literature focuses on the role of migrant parents in facilitating (or not) the education of their children who remain in the origin country. This literature, which is mainly quantitative in nature, focuses on educational outcomes without providing a clear picture of these children’s schooling processes and what children do to overcome obstacles. Studying how educational trajectories unfold and how youth deal with ‘bumpy’ trajectories is important for understanding educational outcomes of these youth. To understand the disruptions youth face and how they deal with them, we focus on youth who have experienced bumps in their educational trajectories. We investigate educational trajectories during primary and secondary education of ‘left behind’ children in Ghana, based on 15 months of ethnographic fieldwork. We find that the causes of disruptions in left-behind children’s education are frequent changes in place of residence, financial hurdles, lack of academic support and motivation. To overcome such hurdles, these young people agentically mobilize social support from their local networks for their educational projects. PAPER #2 ‘Home’ visits through the lens of elite mobility: uncovering the experiences for personal growth of transnational migrant youth AUTHOR(S) Sarah Anschütz (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT International education and tourism studies have shown that travel abroad has positive impacts on young people, leading to an increase in self-confidence, and offering a space for reflection and the development of a cosmopolitan mindset. These skills and characteristics are known to facilitate academic achievement and valued in the work environment. However, research on travel benefits has almost exclusively focused on youth without migration background. By contrast, trips of migrant youth to their or their parents’ home country have been understudied and predominantly looked at through concepts of belonging or ethnic identity. This paper heeds the call to de-migranticize migration research by using the lens of elite mobility that has been used to study youth without a migration background, to analyse the benefits of trips for young people of Ghanaian to their or their parents’ home country. Drawing on 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork with 25 young people in Belgium and accompanying them on their trips to Ghana, we show that travel offers opportunities of growth for migrant youth. We uncover how ‘home’ visits strengthen young people’s self-confidence, provide reflection moments and help to develop a cosmopolitan mindset. PAPER #3 Changing relationships to ‘home’ through transnational mobility: migrant youth’s visits to the country of origin AUTHOR(S) Laura Ogden (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT This paper explores how mobility experiences shape migrant youth’s changing relationships to their or their parents’ country of origin. Increasing numbers of migrant youth in the Global North are transnationally mobile. Yet their mobility has largely been studied retrospectively from the country of residence, resulting in simplified and static depictions of relationships to the country of origin. This study takes a processual approach, focusing on mobility trajectories and exploring the sensorial, embodied and emotional aspects of mobility as it unfolds. Drawing on 14 months of mobile ethnographic fieldwork with 20 Ghanaian-background young people (aged 15-25) living in Hamburg, Germany, we focus on visits to Ghana to explore how mobility trajectories change relationships to the country of origin over time (across several visits) and space (between different places within one visit). We use Urry’s typology of proximity to analyse the specific and changing constellations of people, places and moments that constitute visits and thus shape these relationships. We also reflect on the methodological implications of using three mobile methods: mobility trajectory mapping, accompanying mobility in real-time, and before-and-after interviewing. PAPER #4 ‘Giving back’ across time and space: motivations for engaging in development activities in Ghana among transnational youth AUTHOR(S) Gladys Akom Ankobrey (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT Much has been written about the contributions of migrating adults to the ‘homeland’, which range from private transfers to single households, to community development projects. While most studies on diaspora engagement in development focus on the impact of such activities on the country of origin, little is known about what transpires during development encounters and how this affects migrants’, and especially young people’s, sense of motivation to engage in development work over time. This paper addresses these gaps by combining migration and development, transnational migration studies and second generation ‘returns’ literature, to explore the motivations of transnational youth to engage in development work, which we refer to as ‘giving back’, in the context of their mobile lives. Drawing on 16 months of multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in The Netherlands and accompanying young people during trips to Ghana, we show that ‘giving back’ contributes to a specific sense of purpose that connects them transnationally. Young people’s expectations of ‘giving back’ were embedded in community narratives, which framed this as a means to ‘become successful’ in culturally valued ways. While they sometimes encountered unexpected surprises, emotions experienced during moments of ‘giving back’ generally nurtured young people’s aspirations, resulting in enhanced transnational engagement.

discussant

Willy Sier

University of Amsterdam

discussant

Ruth Judge

Liverpool University

author

Onallia Esther Osei

Maastricht University

author

Sarah Anschütz

Maastricht University

author

Laura J Ogden

Maastricht University

author

Gladys Akom Ankobrey

Maastricht University

Discrimination and racism in cross-national perspective 3: Discrimination and Racism in Cross-National Perspective: Dimensions of Disadvantage

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #107 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Parvathi Raghuram

The Open University

Chair: Parvati Raghuram, Open University Discussant: Miri Song, Kent For a long time, racism has been studied without references to discrimination and was mainly conceived as a specific expression of prejudice. The retreat from blatant forms of racism that are no longer tolerated today to more subtle and systemic forms of racism has paved the way for studies on ethnic and racial discrimination and inequalities. In response to the IMISCOE statement on structural racism and racial justice in the context of Black Lives Matter, this panel unites papers that explore dimensions of disadvantage. The papers draw on different empirical bases – from online comments to survey evidence – to explore different dimensions of disadvantage related to discrimination and racism. Central topics are stereotypes of minority groups, social norms, and xenophobia. Disadvantage, discrimination, and racism are explored in sports, hiring, and public discourse, focusing on Muslims, Blacks, and Polish immigrants to cover religion, skin colour, and migration as ‘motives’ for exclusion. This will allow the panel to discuss ways to overcome discrimination and racism. PAPER #1 A study of gendered ethnic stereotypes in Germany and the Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Valentina Di Stasio (Utrecht University) Susanne Veit (Utrecht University) ABSTRACT Immigrants face severe discrimination when applying for jobs in European labour markets, particularly if they have a Muslim background, and if they originate from North Africa or the Middle East. While previous research offered examined the contexts where discrimination occurs and the origin groups that are most vulnerable, we still have limited knowledge of the stereotypes that guide employers’ behaviour. Furthermore, the fact that ethnic discrimination is often compounded by gender discrimination suggests that ethnic stereotypes may very well be gendered. US studies have shown that the stereotypes applied to a given ethnic group tend to strongly overlap with the stereotypes associated with the male members of the same group; the stereotypes associated with ethnic women, on the other hand, are more distinctive. We test whether similarly gendered ethnic stereotypes are present in the European context. We present results from a cross-national survey conducted in Germany and the Netherlands and comparing the stereotype content that people attribute to groups varying in gender and national origin. We focus on historically disadvantaged minorities (Turkish), recent European (Polish and Spanish) migrants, refugees (Syrians and Somali) and distinguish between the stereotypes that are applied to the group in general and those that are gender-specific. PAPER #2 Skin Color and Risk Preferences AUTHOR(S) Daniel Auer (University of Mannheim and WZB Berlin) Didier Ruedin (University of Neuchâtel) ABSTRACT Everyday decisions from driving a car to entering a contract are heavily dependent on individual risk preferences. While the willingness to engage in risky behaviour changes over the life-course and varies by context, individual risk preferences are thought to be stable within a given temporal- and domain-specific environment. In a series of online experiments with N=4,994 participants in Germany, we demonstrate that skin colour affects their risk preferences. We repeatedly asked participants to pick between soccer players with different skills and skin colour. Those who received a financial incentive to pick the better-skilled option perform better in experiments where they could. When incentivized, participants with racist attitudes also differentiate less on the basis of skin colour. However, we find a general effect of skin colour on risk preferences in the lottery stage: By offering a `safe' player with known skills, and a `risky' player which was either better or worse -- with the same expected average skills -- we find that participants are increasingly likely to gamble, the darker the skin of the `safe' option. That is, the presence of a picture with Black skin appears to reduce the trust participants have in the skills of the `safe' player, and they are more likely to engage in riskier behaviour and look for other options. This human bias may explain partly why ethnic and racial minorities face discrimination and socio-economic challenges. PAPER #3 Cyberhate in the UK and Poland: a cross-national case study of online reactions to the killing of Arkadiusz Jóźwik AUTHOR(S) Katerina Strani (Intercultural Research Centre, Heriot-Watt University) Anna Sczcepaniak-Kozak (Institute of Applied Linguistics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznán) ABSTRACT Our small-scale study focuses on online reactions to the killing of Polish national Arkadiusz Jóźwik in Essex, in August 2016. It analyses tweets and below-the-line (BTL) comments of online news articles related to Jóźwik’s killing, both in English and in Polish. Our aims are: a) to identify themes and tropes that these posts seem to follow and b) to determine any differences in the strategies used by Polish and British online posters in their reactions to this case. We start with the wider context of Jóźwik’s killing, framing it around anti-Polish xenophobia in the UK. We continue with a discussion of online hate speech with a focus on Twitter and BTL comments, which shows a research gap in UK and Polish cyberhate studies. Our results identify hate speech strategies such as ‘us and them’ distinctions, racialisation, ‘deserving’ and ‘undeserving’ migrants, victimising the perpetrator’s (dominant) group, and victim-blaming. Contrary to definitions of hate speech as a targeted discourse, our study also shows that in online discussions triggered by a specific event involving host and migrant communities, hate speech may not be exclusively related to the ethnic groups involved in the event, but directed at a homogenised Other in a reductionist way.

author

Didier Ruedin

SFM

author

Valentina Di Stasio

Utrecht University

discussant

Miri Song

University of Kent

author

Susanne Veit

Utrecht University

author

Daniel Auer

University of Lausanne

author

Katerina Strani

Heriot-Watt University

author

Anna Szczepaniak-Kozak

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań

Migration Politics & Governance 11

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #108 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

South Sudanese Refugee Leaders as ‘Cultural Brokers’ in the Northern Ugandan Settlements Sarah Vancluysen University of Antwerp The literature on the governance of camps and refugee flows in general, still largely focuses on international humanitarian actors such as UNHCR, NGO’s and host state governments, largely downplaying or even ignoring efforts invested by the refugees themselves in the management of their settlements. This paper responds to this gap, by exploring the role of South Sudanese refugee leaders in the daily governance of the northern Ugandan settlements. Based on in-depth interviews with chiefs, elders, as well as elected representatives, two important challenges are discussed the refugee leaders are struggling with. Departing from their role as liaison between the (inter)national actors and ‘their’ refugees, I reflect on how refugee leaders are subject to conflicting interests: how much to give in to the external settlement authorities, while at the same time defending the benefits and concerns of co-refugees? Despite the creative ability of the refugees leaders to meet the requirements of the agencies as well as co-refugees, they experience feelings of distress and ‘cognitive dissonance’. More fundamentally, the elected representatives complain their membership of the committees is somehow meaningless, as their role in terms of management and coordination, is not paired with any economic resources, and can be seen as a form of ‘imposed voluntary work’ (de Sardan 2009). As such, the paper aims to increase awareness to the complex position settlement leaders and refugee representatives more generally find themselves in; and argues for the organization of proper dialogues, as well as the provision of more economic support. === INTEGRATION OF REFUGEES IN GERMANY THROUGH THE LENS OF THEORY OF SOCIETAL SURVIVAL ANEESHA JOHNY NATIONAL LAW SCHOOL OF INDIA UNIVERSITY, BANGALORE The paper is an attempt to examine the interaction of refugees with German socio-legal system through Talcott Parson’s AGIL Framework. The functional prerequisites for a society according to Parson are adaptation, goal, interaction and latent pattern maintenance. Society longs for stability in uncertainty and certainty in instability. Refugees bring in social, economic, cultural changes thereby triggering social processes and consequential social transformation in the host society. Refugee arrivals prompt the state to establish a legal structure, which defines and amends to suit the needs. Law ensures certainty in changing times by being the vehicle of transformation through stabilizing and adapting. The trigger for the study is whether law necessarily leads, or it follows social change. Post-Cold War the developed world has been reluctant in accepting refugees fleeing from the less developed/developing world. The dynamics of refugees in the developed world changed with the very notion that refugees are economic migrants. Hosting 1.1mn refugees of the 26mn refugees in the world makes Germany one of the top ten refugee hosting countries in the world; the only developed country to be in the list (1.5% of total population are refugees). The new asylum applications in Germany were 78564 in 2000 which reached its peak in 2016 (722370) and decreased by 2018 (161931). Germany though acclaimed for its refugee policy has issues like backlog of asylum applications, status determination and local integration. Parson’s framework and its interaction with German socio-legal context explains the mutually beneficial connection between refugees and the state. State’s response to refugee admission, accommodation and assimilation directly impacts socialization of the refugees. AGIL will be used in the study to comprehend how right protection ensure refugees survival and development of the country. === How digital solutions for the integration of refugees survive long-term: The interplay of a social cause and platform architecture Olga Usachova University of Padua Maximilian Schreieck Technical University of Munich ‪Helmut Krcmar Technical University of Munich Jan-Hendrik Passoth European-University Viadrina Digital solutions are considered to be an important component in efforts to improve the integration of refugees. Given that refugees rely on digital technology to an unprecedented degree, many digital solutions that support refugees have been developed in Europe following the so-called refugee crisis in 2015. However, most of these solutions are no longer active as of today. Despite several studies concerning the use of digital solutions (Arnold & Görland, 2017; Baldi & Ribeiro, 2018), it remains unclear why some initiatives have survived while most have not. In this paper, we explore the case of Integreat, an information platform for refugees that was founded in Germany in 2015 and is successful until today. To identify obstacles along its path of long-term success and to understand how they were overcome, we applied a translation theory lens, following actors through the stages of problematization, interessement, enrolment, and mobilization during the implementation and roll-out of the digital platform. Our findings show that the long-term survival of the Integreat platform builds on the formation of a network consisting of individual actors (core team, developer community, municipalities) that begin to act as if they were a single agent. The social cause as joint vision and the platform architecture as facilitator strengthened the establishment and support of network relations, contributing to the long-term success of the non-profit initiative. The study contributes to research on the success of non-profit initiatives for refugees’ integration by emphasizing the role of social good and platform architecture === Governing through the Migration-Development Nexus in Tunisia Alexander Jung School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg In recent years, development projects that seek to address employability in the Global South have become an important component of European donors’ efforts to prevent irregular migration. While some research suggests that more development is associated with more migration, other studies have shown that development may reduce migration. Given that migration studies have primarily taken an interest in the effectiveness of such policies, they have payed less attention to the role the migration-development nexus plays in governing populations. More specifically, while scholarship has analysed how interventions addressing migration are rooted in sedentarism, this paper argues that the migration-development nexus promoted by donors through employability projects in Tunisia does not merely work through containment but is also informed by coloniality and the logics underlying neoliberal governmentality. Putting migration studies, postcolonial scholarship, governmentality studies and critical development studies into dialogue, this paper thus analyses the governmentality of the migration-development nexus in Tunisia and makes a twofold argument. First, development interventions are not only a means to prevent migration, but migration policies also function as a policy field where neoliberal development interventions unfold. This implies the promotion of both a sedentary and neoliberal understanding of development. Second, the governmentality of the migration-development nexus entails a promise that only the most desirable Tunisians will get the chance to migrate regularly. To this end, this paper draws on interviews with donors and implementing organisations in Tunisia and suggests to focus on the coloniality and neoliberal and sedentary logics underlying the governmentality of the migration-development nexus. === Constructing and Deconstructing Irregularity: Approaches to Irregular Migration Management and their Evolution Filip Savatic Georgetown University How do states address irregular migration and why do policymakers change national strategies for reducing the number of individuals with an irregular status? In this paper, I present a novel typology of what I call “approaches to irregular migration management.” Specifically, I argue that two qualities define policies targeting irregular migration: (1) they serve either to address irregular migration that has already occurred or to prevent irregular migration from occurring in the first place, and (2) they can be either punitive or accommodating in nature. These two axes create four ideal-type “approaches,” which I call punishing, forgiving, suffocating, and mitigating. This typology offers a new lens for analyzing how states address irregular migration, with the adoption of certain policies indicating the development of a specific approach. In turn, I argue that states reform their policies, and thus adopt alternative approaches, as a result of two key factors: (1) the meanings attributed by policymakers to the perceived failures of an existing approach and (2) international pressure for policy change. To test my arguments, I conduct an in-depth analysis of the evolution of the management approaches adopted by France from 1945-2019. Through extensive archival research, I demonstrate how French policymakers perceived failures of the forgiving approach adopted during the immediate postwar period led them to reform French policies and adopt punishing and suffocating approaches from the 1970s onward. I then demonstrate how the French successfully pressured other European states to likewise adopt punishing and suffocating approaches in the context of European integration.

author

Sarah Vancluysen

author

Alexander Jung

University of Gothenburg, School of Global Studies

author

Filip Savatic

Georgetown University

author

Cheryl DiCello

Sugiyama Jogakuen University

author

ANEESHA JOHNY

NATIONAL LAW SCHOOL OF INDIA UNIVERSITY, BANGALORE

author

Olga Usachova

University of Padua

author

Maximilian Schreieck

Technical University of Munich

author

‪Helmut Krcmar

Technical University of Munich

author

Jan-Hendrik Passoth

European-University Viadrina

Integration and societal transformations from a value perspective

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #109 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Brigitte Suter

MIM

chair

Ingrid Jerve Ramsøy

MIM

The large number of refugee arrivals in 2015 has intensified debates on the meaning of integration and subsequent policy making on integration measures. Often shared values are seen as a way to secure societal cohesion. This panel engages with these debates and examines some of the explicit as well as implicit value statements. It further explores the valuing of various categories of immigrants from an intersectional perspective. As the official panel of the research initiative 'norms and values in migration and integration, it also contributes with a discussion on the pro's and con's of a value perspective to the field of integration. PAPER #1 Rethinking values, redefining masculinity: Syrian refugees in Istanbul and their volunteer engagement AUTHOR(S) Iza Kujawa (Adam Mickiewicz University) ABSTRACT Since 2011 more than 3.5 million people have sought refuge in Turkey fleeing the deteriorating situation in the war-torn Syria. The initially welcoming approach which took a form of the “open-door policy” framing Syrians as “guests” in need of immediate support, turned with time into more restrictive regulations and antipathetic attitudes. Various forms of “othering” and discrimination became a part of the experiences of refugees scattered across the country and located in various settlements and all major urban areas. In the circumstances, in which refugees’ vulnerability has become highly contested and gendered through nationalist and religious hegemonic masculinity accounts (Sözer 2019), this paper aims to shed more light on the experience of Syrian men based in Istanbul. Drawing upon data gathered due to in-depth interviews with Syrians engaged in grassroot volunteer work, this paper demonstrates their struggle in facing the label of a “refugee man”. The research demonstrates that the volunteer work, that is not being recipients of support but active participants in providing help to local vulnerable communities, allows them to negotiate their position and subjectivity. Furthermore, meeting and working with other Syrians as well as local and foreign activists, becomes a chance to rethink the validity of the up until now followed values and understanding of masculinity, which seem crucial in the search for belonging and process of integration. The paper is based on ongoing fieldwork carried out within the project “Norms and Values in the European Migration and Refugee Crisis.” PAPER #2 “Why is it a problem that somebody wears more clothing than less?”: Women’s negotiation of clothing norms and Islamic values in Northern Ireland AUTHOR(S) Amanda Lubit, Queens University Belfast ABSTRACT Both converts and born-Muslim women make complex nuanced decisions regarding clothing choices. They face intense daily pressure to abandon their values of modesty and humility, and to embrace local clothing norms. In Northern Ireland, where a history of ethno-national conflict heightens awareness and contestation of national identity, Islamic clothing labels wearers as outsiders and makes them a regular target of discrimination, harassment and even attack. These experiences create barriers to movement and have lasting emotional consequences that further restrict Muslim women’s ability to move and participate in society. In Northern Ireland visibly Muslim women have difficulty getting jobs, using public transportation, shopping and walking down the street. In this context, some women like Zahra chose to remove the hijab and become less visible. Moving to Belfast twenty-five years ago, Zahra discovered “I don’t want to advertise myself as a Muslim here.” By wearing the hijab, “always you tell the other ‘I’m different. Look I’m different” and that type draws negative attention. While some women remove their hijab, other women like Fiona chose to put it on. Speaking about the everyday conflict she experiences between conforming to Western societal norms and following Muslim values relating to dress, Fiona exclaimed “Why is it a problem that somebody wears more clothing than less?” Through this statement, Fiona highlights the illogic of gender expectations and clothing norms in Northern Ireland where Muslim women are chronically harassed for covering themselves rather than wearing the socially acceptable short skirts, midriff-baring tops, and heavy makeup. PAPER #3 Self-preservation of power in integration policies AUTHOR(S) Nicole Stybnarova (University of Helsinki) ABSTRACT This paper is addressing the objective of securing integration and cultural cohesion in a host state through immigration rules. First, the author summarises up to date critiques of integration of migrants – both as a concept and in its particular forms of policy. The author problematizes the critiques and offers a new insight focused on the question of who is benefiting from social and value cohesion. This insight is unravelled by examining how this objective of immigration rules came about in the historical doctrine of Law of Nations. Pieces of historical evidence on the exclusionary state practice (from the 17th century legal doctrinal theorists to 19th century US and UK practices) are offered to demonstrate that self-preservation of the governing power structures historically partook among the objectives of promoting social and value cohesion and assimilation of immigrants, particularly when immigration policy was involved as an instrument. The paper concludes with discussing whether the potentially still existent self-interest of the ruling class in preserving the order of power in the host society through maintaining homogenous society, can converge with the general interests of society. By using an example of the present integration policy in Denmark, the paper stresses points where these two interests clash. PAPER #4 Reciprocity in Integration: Circulating Values through the Swedish Integration Program AUTHOR(S) Ingrid Jerve Ramsøy (MIM) Brigitte Suter (MIM) ABSTRACT This paper approaches the notion of reciprocity in relation to integration work in Sweden. It draws on recent political theory’s adaptation of anthropological gift theory to understand integration through the lens of reciprocity. We draw on interview and other ethnographic material from fieldwork among integration workers in Sweden and discuss which social dynamics and power relations become visible when we apply the notion of reciprocity as an analytical lens. Considering how anthropological gift theorists have argued that reciprocity is an elemental part how social relations are constructed and construed, both in interpersonal relationships and on societal scale, how do notions of reciprocity play out in integration work in Sweden? We argue that the concept of reciprocity helps us understand which relationships are made possible in the dynamics between newly arrived immigrants and two central actors of immigration work – the state (as the invisible “gift giver”) and the immigration workers (as those with whom they enter into reciprocal relations on the ground).

author

Izabela Kujawa

Adam Mickiewicz University

author

Nicole Stybnarova

University of Helsinki

author

Amanda Jenifer Lubit

Queen's University Belfast

Highly Skilled Migrants

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #110 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

Health Crisis and International Mobility of European and non-European health workers in the South-East of France: Citizenship, Gender and International Process of Health Inequalities Reproduction Sirna CNRS, Centre Norbert Elias, EHESS, Marseille Population movements in the health sector, characterized by labor shortages and high feminization (Acker 2005; Castles and Miller, 2003), have affected sending and destination countries on a global scale, based on labour shortages and recruitment schemes (Mejia 1978; Bashford 2006; Kingma, 2006; Solano and Rafferty, 2007). Medical and paramedical staff have experienced increased international geographical mobility since the early 2000s as a result of selective migration policies (Cash & Ulmann 2008). In this context, the EU and EFTA have become destinations for many health professionals (European and non-European) as they accompany the evolution of health systems and the restructuring of forms of employment in the sector. Thus, analysing the reconfigurations of the current mobility of health personnel with foreign diplomas would make it possible to understand in depth these changes, these recompositions determined by this recent societal context. The Present Contribution aims to analyse the Geographical and Social Mobility of European and extra-European Health Workers in the South-East of France (PACA) in the Context of the Global Health, Social and Economic Crisis and the several convergent challenges that the French Healthcare System must face with. I propose a Comparative Analysis based on 34 Biographical Interviews with Physicians done in several Urban Hospital Centres (HP, CHU). Thus this work focuses on who migrates, their motivations, the outcomes for them and their extended families, their experience in the workforce, and ultimately the extent to which this expanding migration flow is related to development issues. It therefore provides new, interdisciplinary insight into core issues such as brain drain, gender roles, remittances and sustainable human resource development at a time when there has never been as a greater public and political interest in the migration of health workers as now. === Feeling welcome: Highly skilled migrants’ perceptions of the welcoming environment in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine and implications for (im)mobility intentions Julia Reinold Maastricht University Political efforts to create a welcome culture (Willkommenskultur) are often targeted at highly skilled migrants to attract and retain them in a global competition for talent. Little is known, however, about the factors contributing to migrants’ feelings of being welcome in the host country and the role of feeling welcome in migration decision-making. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by bringing in the migrants’ perspective. First, it examines which factors contribute to making migrants feel welcome in the host country, and second, it analyses how feeling welcome influences the (im)mobility intentions of highly skilled migrants in the host country. The research uses mixed methods and is based on data collected through a comprehensive online survey and 76 in-depth interviews with highly skilled migrants in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR), a cross-border region between the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. The EMR is an interesting case study since relevant stakeholders are working towards establishing a welcome culture in the region. This paper finds that both political and social factors explain whether, and in what ways, migrants feel welcome, emphasizing the importance of social cohesion in creating an effective welcome culture. The findings emphasise the importance of language in creating a welcome culture, including locals’ willingness to communicate and official information provision in foreign languages, as well as the migrants’ proficiency in the host country language. It is too early to draw conclusions regarding the implications of feeling welcome for (im)mobility intentions at this stage of the research process. === Locked in or pushed out? Consequences of COVID-19 for the return migration of Germans living abroad Nils Witte Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany Andreas Ette Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany Andreas Genoni Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany Nikola Sander Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany This talk is concerned with the implications of COVID-19 for the international mobility of high skilled migrants. In the context of the pandemic, migrants have been primarily conceptualized as either virus transmitters or victims of the virus. Internal and international mobility have been identified as potential catalyzers of virus diffusion early on (Giovanetti et al., 2020; Shi and Liu, 2020; Sirkeci and Yucesahin, 2020). Scholars have additionally drawn attention to the implications of COVID-19 for migrants with precarious legal status (Bukuluki et al., 2020) or those belonging to socially disadvantaged groups (Hu, 2020; Platt and Warwick, 2020). The reverse impact of COVID-19 on migration itself has attracted less attention thus far. One reason is the paucity of data on migration and its causes (Willekens et al., 2016). For obvious reasons, there is no straightforward method to detect the root causes of migration nor its absence. How can researchers know whether migrants were locked in or pushed out? Either they can enquire (non-)migration motives through surveys, or they can evaluate post-pandemic migration against some reference; here pre-pandemic migration would be an obvious choice. We contribute to the debate using both kinds of data exploring whether COVID-19 has affected migration. We draw on the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study, a probability based panel survey of German emigrants (Ette et al., 2020), and official migration data. The timing of the panel allows for comparing migration intentions of Germans living abroad immediately before the pandemic onset (N=2,678) with their actual migration as reported in the subsequent panel wave that fielded one year later. Preliminary findings suggest that COVID-19 has not pushed out substantial numbers of Germans living abroad. Based on targeted survey questions, in our talk, we further investigate to what extent the pandemic has locked them in. === The Influence of Social and Economic Integration on the Decision-making Process of Highly Skilled Migrants in Euregio Meuse-Rhine Vera Ronda Maastricht University/UNU MERIT In today’s knowledge economy, highly skilled migrants play an important role. This has led to many countries, cities and regions trying to attract and retain these individuals in the ‘global race for talent’. This paper explores a local perspective to highly skilled migration by looking specifically at the influence of social and economic integration on highly skilled migrants’ (im)mobility decisions in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine. The research is approached with a new viewpoint by looking at the role of both social and economic factors, which are usually looked at separately. The paper uses a qualitative methodology based on serial interviewing to explore variance over time and includes two waves of interviews from 2019 (n=75) and 2020 (n=45). The data is analysed using thematic analysis. Since COVID-19 has played a large role over the past year, the second wave of interviews included questions on the pandemic. The research concludes that both social and economic integration play a vital role in the (im)mobility decisions of highly skilled migrants. Furthermore, the paper shows that the importance of both factors changes over time, with social integration having a more significant impact when a person has been in the region for an extended period of time. Finally, the research finds that the participants’ families, partner and/or children, play a crucial role in making such mobility decisions.

author

Andreas Genoni

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Francesca Sirna

CNRS

author

Andreas Ette

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Julia Reinold

Maastricht University

author

Nils Witte

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Nikola Sander

Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany

author

Vera Ronda

Maastricht University

Migration Politics & Governance 14

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #111 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

Migration and Solidarity in Welfare States: The Dilemma of Disability and Mobility Leslie Ader University of Neuchâtel Foreign migrants entering Western Europe have been heavily scrutinized by host states. Under international law, states are allowed to reserve certain fundamental rights to their own nationals. As a result, most states negatively discriminate against foreign immigrants on the basis of nationality. The case of people with disabilities, however, is different. Disability is perceived as a common ground for positive discrimination in terms of welfare rights and access to benefits. There exists an intersecting policy contradiction between the “positive” discrimination of disabled people and the “negative” discrimination of migrants, which can be seen in the particular case of migrants with disabilities. The objective of this paper is to establish the evolution of the disability norm, discourses and migration policy-practices in Switzerland. In order to achieve these objectives, the following questions will be posed: How is disability addressed in the Swiss Migration Regime and what are the current practices? Furthermore, how has disability been defined and categorized within the Swiss institutional discourse? In order to answer these questions, this study will utilize the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) and Wodak’s Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA). Based off our initial preliminary results, disability is still addressed via the “medical model” rather than the “social model” and this focus creates a policy tension between migration policy practices and the disability norm. On the discursive level, five specific themes/narratives surround the intersection of disability and migration. These themes are also framed in a “medicalized” manner. By continuing to utilize the medical model of disability over the social model, the migration practices of Switzerland will continue to neglect a specific vulnerable group, foreign migrants with disabilities, and deny them access to welfare benefits that they desperately need. === Migrants in a national and local policy perspective. The approaches of Krakow and Wroclaw Ewa SLEZAK CRACOW UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS Agnieszka BIELEWSKA SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities The city migration policies can be seen as the reflection of national policies or as independent from them. The aim of the paper is to show how migration policies of Polish cities are shaped in the deficit of national level policies. The paper compares approaches of the Polish state and the Polish cities toward migrants, both the highly skilled ones based in transnational corporations and low skills working in other sectors of the economy. It also shows the growing gap between national and local level policies alongside the consequences it brings, which are exacerbated by the pandemic. The lack of solutions at the national level is compensated by actions of cities that make attempts to create their own migration policies. It is especially visible in the case of the group of the highly skilled migrants who are seen as factors that change the city position in global networks of power, and who are both a result and a reason of economic growth (Glick Schiller and Çağlar 2009; Kugler and Rapoport 2005; Federici and Giannetti 2010, Matusz-Protasiewicz and Rajca 2014). This paper analyses the migration policies of two Polish cities – Wroclaw and Krakow, the differences between the local approaches to migration management and the existing gap between national and local policymaking as well as the consequences occurring. It is indeed interesting to see how city authorities handle migration in the context of economic growth, its value in building cities’ place in the world and the global economy and creating a safe and friendly environment for newcomers. Last but not the least taken the pandemic we want to see how it impacts both influx and wellbeing of migrants, as well as the migration governance of the cities. === Ad-hocratic Immigration Governance. How States Secure Their Power Over Immigration Through Intentional Ambiguity Katharina Natter Institute of Political Science, Leiden University This article theorizes ad-hocratic immigration governance to capture a state’s intentional use of ambiguity in securing state power over immigration. It does so by dissecting the flexibility, expediency and informality with which Moroccan and Tunisian authorities have governed immigration since the turn of the 21st century. Drawing on over 100 interviews and in-depth policy analysis, the article shows that policies targeting immigrants in Morocco and Tunisia were either enacted through ministerial decrees that introduced exemptions for particular migrant groups without touching the overarching legal framework or were kept at the level of informal and case-by-case promises by individual policymakers or street-level bureaucrats. Moroccan and Tunisian authorities have thus privileged executive politics, exemption regimes and case-by-case arrangements on immigration over parliamentary law-making. I demonstrate how the intentional ambiguity created by such ad-hocratic governance allowed Morocco’s monarchy and Tunisia’s young democracy to respond to external and bottom-up demands for more immigrant rights while at the same time securing the state’s margin of manoeuvre over immigration. Such theorization of ad-hocracy sheds novel light on how immigration is governed not only across North Africa and the Middle East, but also in their European neighborhood. Ultimately, this article seeks to invite migration scholarship to break away from either unilaterally transferring ‘Northern’ theory to ‘Southern’ case studies or from claiming the exceptionalism of ‘Southern’ migration control policies. === The Implementation Gap in Migrant Integration Policies: Robust Evidence from Czechia Marie Jelínková Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University Ondřej Valenta Association for Migration and Integration Many scholars have discussed the concept of migrant integration. Similarly, normative goals of migrant integration policies on various levels have received significant attention. Less is known about the implementation of these policies. The literature suggests that the level of implementation gap differs among EU member states. It is more present in countries of Central and Eastern Europe especially in topics which do not receive significant political attention. Using the data from the Czech Republic, the paper answers to what extent are priorities of migrant integration fulfilled. To examine this, the article analysis a unique dataset of 3061 projects in the field of migrant integration. All these projects were implemented in the Czech Republic between 2010-2019. The results show that although funds for the migrant integration have increased since 2016, even taking into account the long-term increase in the number of migrants in the Czech Republic, their allocation according to the set priorities is very uneven. Among the most supported priorities is the support of knowledge of the Czech language and education. There is also some support in the social field. By contrast, the issue of discrimination and equal rights, access of foreigners to health care or support of professional competencies receives hardly any support. The results thus show a discrepancy in the fulfilment of the set goals, especially in the area of activities targeting the majority society and its institutions.

author

Katharina Natter

University of Leiden

author

Ondřej Valenta

GEOMIGRACE

author

Marie Jelínková

Charles University Prague

author

Leslie Ann Ader

Université de Neuchâtel/Swiss Forum for Migration and Population Studies

author

Ewa Slezak

Cracow University of Economics

author

Agnieszka Bielewska

University SWPS

Migrant participation in city life: Experiencing, creating and researching encounters in urban settings

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #112 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Andreas Papallas

University of Oxford

Since the 1990s, scholars from sociology, geography, and political philosophy among other disciplines have noted that public spaces in cities have become increasingly inhospitable to the distinct ‘other’, debating whether the spatial component of interaction between strangers is (in)capable of mediating social and cultural dissimilarities (cf. Sennett, Amin, Massey, Appadurai and others). This panel speaks to a need to explore the topics of belonging, identity, participation and interaction within the city more deeply. It aims to unpack concepts of encounter and interaction with others in the hope of building pathways between disciplines and approaches. Looking at everyday spaces and the quotidian as a sphere of interaction, managing diversity, contestations of identity and belonging that emerge as key concepts are as conflicted as the situations they tend to describe. This panel is composed of papers developed after the Urban Encounters symposium held at the University of Oxford in October 2020. The symposium aimed to create a discussion forum with a particular focus on belonging, identity, participation and interaction within the city. As such, the contributions to this panel and the lives they discuss span borders: relating to disciplinary borders, the rural/urban divide, international borders or the unwritten symbolic and discursive boundaries created in and between everyday urban spaces of encounter. All presenters will have 10 minutes to present their contribution that will serve as a basis to discuss how to integrate the different ideas in a special issue submission with interested members of the audience. We therefore welcome scholars, especially early-career researchers that are interested in publishing on this topic as a special issue, to join this session and the discussion. PAPER #1 The limits and potential of everyday migrant urban encounters on Beirut’s seafront AUTHOR(S) Nadine Khayat (University of Sheffield) ABSTRACT Beirut, capital of Lebanon, was originally settled by migrants and refugees arriving from Mount Lebanon in the 18th century. Over the 20th and 21st century the city accommodated 470,000 Palestinians, 1.5 million Syrians and an additional 18,500 refugees from Ethiopia, Iraq and other countries as well as enduring a brutal sectarian war (1975-1990). City form and resident experiences have been shaped by these complex histories, leading to spatial and sociological divisions. Beirut has 1m2 of green open space/person, (compared to 40m2/of public space/person recommended for healthy urban living by the World Health Organization. Beirut is a congested and contested city. It is not a hyperbole to claim the seafront as the only large-scale, free, fully accessible open space in Greater Beirut (Khalili, 2015; Beirut Zone 10, 2018). This talk looks at mundane practices to answer what can the seafront show us about how public open space can unite across usual divisions, and conversely, in what ways are these divisions replicated or further entrenched. Mapping, survey and observation methods allow understanding of micro-spaces of the seafront and links to city-wide and beyond territories. Users and practices on the seafront are temporal and spatial. Promenading, jogging, people watching, playing children, celebrating cultural holidays, boat touring, fishing, visiting restaurants, photographers, and peddlers roll like a film transition across weekdays, weekends, holidays over different locations and through a single day. However, though there is a diversity of activity here that is valued by many Beirut residents, my fieldwork shows that the seafront has specific affordances for (Syrian) refugees, a population who have fewer choices for recreational activities elsewhere. In this paper I outline how the seafront is a place where hybrid identities socialise, are present, and express themselves spatially in different manners. PAPER #2 History, relationships and social cohesion AUTHOR(S) Jeni Vine (University of Sheffield) ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the significance of history and relationships in determining why one neighbourhood may be more positive about migration and changing demographics than another. It explores the question of how interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches can both shape the field of migration and urban studies and promote migrants’ participation in the city. It draws links between inequality and perceptions of insecurity about migration. Themes of historicities (Hall, 2011; Hartog, 2015) and relationalities (Somers, 1992, 1994; Thrift, 2008; Barad, 2007) will be discussed using the lens of complex realism (Byrne and Callaghan, 2014; Byrne, 2019). These themes are then explored for their relevance to social cohesion in predominantly white, working class estates in the north of England, drawing on ethnographic research conducted between 2018-19 as part of a co-production with an advisory group rooted in the voluntary, community and faith sectors in Sheffield. Trajectories over time are explored together with a focus on possibility spaces. In complexity theory, some ideas and/or spaces become much more attractive than others at certain times and these can change rapidly when an idea or space reaches a tipping point. Potential attractors that make a difference to social cohesion are explored for their relevance (for instance, inclusive, democratic processes v. strong cohesion within one ethnic group which can lead to extremism). The paper argues that common cause can be built between the dispossession of the white working class in England and the dispossessions experienced by migrants. It provides a conceptual basis for this claim based on complex realism. PAPER #3 Intercultural City Program and public space: A content analysis on problematizations of the Barcelona Intercultural City Program AUTHOR(S) Iren Eylül Karaoglu (Pompeu Fabra University) ABSTRACT Since 2008, the Council of Europe has been promoting interculturalism as a city-level integration policy model under the name of Intercultural Cities Programme to facilitate intercultural interaction, fight prejudice and discrimination, and enhance inclusion and social cohesion. The member cities within the Intercultural City Network (ICC) have developed several policy programs to build open and inclusive cities which present diversity as a challenge that needs to be managed and at the same time as an advantage that would increase social and economic growth of the cities. The concrete actions of these policy programs include managing and creating public spaces that facilitate peaceful encounters, inclusion and convivencia. Here I assume that space is not a passive container but rather socially produced and experienced, which means that both intercultural contact and prejudice reveal themselves as important factors in various ways within the everyday constructions of space and place. Likewise, since policies are usually designed to address problems, it is important to investigate what the problems are perceived to be according to the policy programs. Accordingly, by adopting Carol Bacchi’s (2009) WPR (What is the Problem Represented to Be?) approach in policy analysis as an analytical framework, through content analysis, this paper focuses on the role of space in Barcelona ICC Program. It illuminates how public spaces are conceived and represented in the Barcelona ICC Program in relation to solving the inherent problematizations of this policy program. The findings suggest that the ICC Program conceives public spaces as settings of conflict, unless managed, and constitutes the subjects through an “us and them” discourse. PAPER #4 Assembling Neukölln’s politics of everyday multiculture and conviviality AUTHOR(S) Julia Borowicz (University College London) ABSTRACT This paper examines how conviviality and welcome are experienced in Berlin five years on from the so-called “refugee crisis” and “summer of welcome” in Germany. More specifically it looks at everyday expressions of activist politics, spaces of encounter and moments of the convivial in one of Berlin’s neighborhoods, Neukölln, an established neighborhood of immigrants and more recent asylum seekers in Berlin. Taking the neighborhood as the spatial scale of analysis, it identifies particular contact nodes within the neighborhood as expressions of diverse local economies of exchange, reciprocity, and solidarity. It thus focuses on the prosaic, mundane happenings that shape everyday lived experience in a neighbourhood enmeshed in the relationalities of work, leisure and activist politics. In the context of selective histories of inclusion and exclusion and the changing dynamics of European politics with respect to immigration, this research is guided by two overarching questions: Firstly, how are conditions of conviviality produced in the city of Berlin five years following Germany’s “welcome” of more than one million refugees? Secondly, how do more emergent spaces and practices of welcome, integration and solidarity conform to or challenge the formalized responses and visions of state actors? As such, this project situates itself within wider debates around the dynamics that have emerged in the shifting landscape of integration and asylum politics in Germany, aiming to offer greater understanding on how these dynamics intersect with lived experiences and conditions of belonging in this particular juncture: Neukölln today, five years following the welcome of more than one million refugees and in a neighborhood with a longer fraught history of and relationship to migration and multiculturalism.

discussant

Lucy Hunt

University of Oxford

author

Nadine Khayat

author

Jeni Vine

University of Sheffield

author

Iren Eylül Karaoglu

Pompeu Fabra University

author

Julia Borowicz

University College London

Materiality, embodiment and affect: exploring relations between migration and precarious life

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #113 workshop | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Marie Sandberg

University of Copenhagen

organizer

Katrine Syppli Kohl

VIVE - Danish Centre for Social Science Research

Organized by the Centre for Advanced Migration Studies, UCPH. Conveners: Marie Sandberg and Katrine Syppli Kohl, UCPH This workshop broadens the scope of migration research to incorporate various ways of being on the move in precarious life, in effect troubling the exceptionality of being a “refugee” and “migrant.” This requires new approaches that cut analytically across established categories, in particular the material, embodied and affective nature of being on the move. Migration is material: by exploring how buildings, camps and other materialities are at once manifestations of appropriation and control, we can analyze how the movement of both migrants and citizens is structured and re-structured in built and ‘natural’ environments. Migration is embodied: all human bodies are deeply affected by movement, for instance through early aging as well as physical and psychological marks. When the body is affected by movement, indeed, it points to the movement itself. Migration is affective: it engenders fear or compassion among those who already belong. The migratory pathway itself is triggered by affect: by anxiety and hope. Format: The workshop will include inspirational presentations (5 min. each) followed by participant group work and discussion. Participants are encouraged to reflect on the following: How can materiality, embodiment and affect help us think about the relationship between migratory phenomena and precarious life? What are the pitfalls of levelling irregularized mobile lives with other precariously lived projects (like unemployed or working poor)?

participant

Martin Ledstrup

participant

Lotte Pelckmans

Centre for Advanced Migration Studies

participant

Simon Turner

Advanced Migration Studies

participant

Martin Lemberg-Pedersen

Centre for Advanced Migration Studies

Migration Politics & Governance 15

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #114 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

Deportation for integration? How the integration paradigm is used to justify deportations Reinhard Schweitzer University of Vienna Sophie Hinger University of Osnabrück ‘Integration’ and ‘deportation’ seem to be two opposed ways of talking about and responding to immigration. Indeed, in many countries 'successful integration’ can be a ground for suspending a deportation or even awarding (exceptional) residence rights. However, as we will argue in this paper, the integration paradigm is also mobilised to justify deportations and effectively increase unwanted migrants’ deportability. Based on original research mainly in Germany and Austria, we will explore two kinds of connections between deportation and integration: On the one hand, we focus on cases in which the deportation of undeserving foreigners is presented as necessary to ensure the successful integration of those who are (more) deserving and of the host society as a whole. On the other hand, we will refer to cases in which the ‘reintegration’ of deportees in their countries of origin is used to legitimise and ‘facilitate’ their more or less forced return. In seeking to contribute to a critical understanding of the (mis)uses of the concept of integration, our analysis ties in with studies highlighting the various ways in which integration and disintegration or inclusion and exclusion discourses and measures are intertwined. === A relational comparative approach to emerging Intercultural Cities in Japan: “virtual Europeanisation” as de-facto neighbouring-cities competition/cooperation? Takahiko Ueno Hitotsubashi University Recently, there is a new tendency in local integration policies for immigrants in East Asian countries (Japan and South Korea) to be active in extra-regional networking, namely the Intercultural Cities of the Council of Europe, to overcome an impasse at national-scale governance. However, the function or the limits of this multiscale politics to the local governance is so far insufficiently researched, as the existing studies have focused local integration policies mainly concerning national or intra-regional (East Asian) scale, and there has been a lack of focus in relational aspects of various actors inside and between cities. This study takes a relational comparative approach to analyse the multiscale network-related dynamics in two Japanese Intercultural cities. By conducting an original survey on the subjective dimension of municipal and grassroots actors about the motivation to learn the know-hows mainly from European cities, it suggests that behind the “virtual Europeanisation” of simulating neighbouring-cities (often cross-border) cooperation, there is a municipal competition not only at Japanese national scale but also inside East Asia for the “leading city” in immigrant-integration policies. It also discovers a grassroots aspiration to use the competition as a stimulus for the policy development and neighbouring-cities cooperation sometimes difficult otherwise. === Policy Learning in Policy Diffusion. Experimental Evidence on How Swiss Politicians Learn from Migration Policies in Other Cantons Lea Portmann University of Lucerne Policy diffusion literature focuses on processes by which policy making in one polity affects policy making in other polities. Up to now, this literature has mostly taken a macro-perspective and has rarely directly explored the motives and behavior of politicians who are involved in diffusion processes. I advance this research by incorporating literature on policy learning into the study of policy diffusion. I focus on migration policies in the Swiss cantons where considerable policy variation and interrelations can be observed. I argue that the literature on policy learning can reveal neglected forms of how policy makers learn in diffusion processes that are based on specific assumptions about the underlying behavioral micro-foundations of political actors. Using a novel survey experiment among members of cantonal parliaments allows me to assess different learning processes of individual policy makers. This study reveals so far overlooked forms of policy learning across polities, which will be relevant for scholars interested in both policy diffusion and migration policy making. === Visible to many or hidden behind structures? The impact of social innovation for refugee integration in multi-level governance on spatial arrangements in neighbourhoods Judith Schnelzer Department of Sociology, University of Vienna Yvonne Franz Department of Geography and Regional Research Elisabetta Mocca Department of Sociology, University of Vienna Yuri Kazepov Department of Sociology, University of Vienna Far-reaching effects for many refugee-receiving countries and cities across Europe were caused by the “summer of migration in 2015”. Also Vienna (Austria) has received large numbers of refugees in 2015, consequently pressure was put on the reception and integration structures at city as well as national level. Hence, various actors had to work together to foster this societal challenge. In our novel approach we examine institutional social innovation in the Austrian conservative welfare state environment in regards to refugee integration for Vienna and its scalar and spatial effects. We hypothesize that not only better inclusion of refugees is achieved through socially innovative practices embedded in the Austrian multi-level governance system, but also effects on spaces and places are (re)produced through the spatiality and scalarity of these initiatives. We ask about: (1) the spatial and scalar anchoring of integration policies, (2) the spatial and scalar practices of actors of social innovations in refugee integration, and (3) (spatial) effects of social innovations with different spatial and scalar practices on the neighbourhood. Empirically, we draw on results from policy analysis and qualitative interviews with experts linked to socially innovative practices for refugees. Results show that social innovation contributes to the blurring of the scales and roles of actors within the Austrian multi-level governance system. We will suggest that social innovation in refugee integration needs a continuity in regards to the spatial as well as to the temporal dimension.

author

Reinhard Schweitzer

University of Sussex

author

Takahiko Ueno

Graduate School of Social Sciences, Hitotsubashi University

author

Lea Portmann

University of Lucerne

author

Judith Schnelzer

Insitute for Urban and Regional Research

author

Yvonne Franz

ISR

author

Elisabetta Mocca

Department of Sociology, University of Vienna

author

Yuri Kazepov

Department of Sociology, University of Vienna

UNIC Semi-Plenary: Superdiversity and Inclusion in Higher Education

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #115 workshop | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

organizer

Peter Scholten

coordinator IMISCOE

organizer

Ahmet Içduygu

Mirekoc

The UNIC Alliance of eight European universities (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Koc University, Ruhr University Bochum, University College Cork, University of Deusto, University of Liege, University of Oulu and University of Zagreb) based in post-industrial superdiverse cities was established with the primary mission to boost mobility and inclusion to achieve societal impact. Among the fundamental objectives of the UNIC Consortium, is to develop a structural platform for excellence on realizing inclusive universities, and a model of practice for transforming higher education in the superdiverse settings that define post-industrial cities. The term superdiversity, coined by Steven Vertovec, has been subject to much debate concerning its scope and implications. While the term has been applied to describe diverse urban settings across the world, in the scholarly literature concerning higher education institutions in post-industrial cities, inclusion has been the favoured approach. In line with the UNIC Consortium’s aims, this semi-plenary seeks to position the superdiversity debates in discussions on inclusion in higher education. The semi-plenary then brings to the fore key questions about the ways in which universities in super-diverse post-industrial cities engage with superdiversity in their institutional culture, organisation, teaching, research and student bodies. It raises questions about the implications of these for European higher education institutions and the superdiversity debates. In parallel with the aims of the UNIC consortium, this semi-plenary seeks to explore the relevance of a superdiversity lens in the governance structures of higher education institutions which are already hosting students from superdiverse cities.

participant

Elina Lehtomäki

University of Oulu

participant

Eduardo Javier Ruiz

University of Deusto

participant

Caitriona Ni Laoire

University College Cork

Researching refugees from a distance? Dovetailing research methods and swinging between proximate and on-line fieldwork with refugees after COVID 19 in Italy

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #116 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Chiara Denaro

University of Trento

chair

Paolo Boccagni

University of Trento

A not irrelevant after-effect of the Covid pandemic, since spring 2020, has been a drastic reduction of the scope for fieldwork based in face-to-face interaction with informants or participants. This has been particularly problematic for target groups that may be in themselves hard to reach, unless as a result of "thick" and long-term relationships, such as a number of asylum seekers and refugees. The panel proposes an interdisciplinary, methodological reflection on how the social, political and cultural study of forced migration can deal with these unprecedented developments. We draw on the preliminary findings of a comparative study of refugee-related forms of active citizenship and civic engagement in Italy. Within a broader trend to move from "offline" to "online" research tools, alternative methodological options have revealed varying degrees of viability and effectiveness, and raised different substantive and methodological dilemmas, depending on the specific research focus and interlocutor. While online interviews with institutional stakeholders may be a viable and productive alternative to vis-à-vis interaction, they may be not equally effective with asylum seekers and refugees. In turn, the challenge of doing ethnography on a large scale may be addressed by zooming down on local contexts to which a researcher has stronger access, or by maximizing snowballing with preexisting informants. Parallel to this, covid-driven forms of almost enforced domesticity, or at least of limited mobility, have opened up new space for online ethnography, and for visual research strategies, which deserve further reflection. In all of these respects, papers advance a reflexive and (self)critical conversation on the methodological challenges of research with refugees under the "new normal", from different approaches, and probably with long-term implications. PAPER #1 Hospitality on stage: Promises and pitfalls of refugee self-narratives from the Italian SPRAR system AUTHOR(S) Stefano Fogliata (University of Trento) Paolo Boccagni (University of Trento) ABSTRACT The current global health emergency has inspired a huge number of studies on the social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on refugees and migrants in transit. Much less has been written, though, on how the current situation of forced immobility influences the daily routines inside housing infrastructures and reception centres for migrants and refugees. On one hand, these collective facilities have been the target of massive grassroots protests regarding the poor health and spatial conditions inside them. On the other, the lived experience of local refugee housing - such as the SPRAR system in Italy – has been reshaped in all of its routines, in order to meet the requirements of (forced) social distancing. Both the caseworkers and their service providers had to redefine the previous forms of physical proximity with the hosted refugees, working on new ways of “monitoring” via social digital media such as Whatsapp or Zoom videocalls. This paper investigates to what extent such technical and physical new paradigms reproduce new dynamics of reciprocity and visibility between refugees-as-guests and “their” caseworkers. By following, analysing and directly participating in the crafting of 10 self-recorded videos by refugees and caseworkers, we investigate the unexpected negotiations of home, intimacy and control within institutional refugee hosting projects. Given the broader trend to move from the "offline" to the "online" in both social work practice and research, the paper reveals methodological challenges and unexpected opportunities for visual joint research strategies grounded on a mediated, “virtual” field. PAPER #2 Pandemic and "reception crisis" in Italy: notes from a research under quarantine AUTHOR(S) Davide Filippi (University of Genoa) Luca Gilberti (University of Genoa) ABSTRACT From social scientists’ perspective, Covid-19 pandemic represents a new and unexpected total social fact, forcing those researchers engaged in the study of global migration processes to redefine their gaze. As ethnographers, we examine both the effects of the pandemic on our objects of study and its consequences in the transformations of our methodological approach, also embracing digital and multimodal approaches. Which are the effects of the Coronavirus on border control, transit processes and, more generally, on the "reception crisis"? Which is the impact of lockdown measures on solidarity groups and local action in support of migrants? What is going on in the reception centers with the spread of the virus and the consequent government measures? What are the on-going consequences of this pandemic – both in medium and long term – on the governance of migration and the management of reception? What are the research methodologies and techniques to adopt and reinvent within this circumstance? Developed during the first Italian lockdown, the collected empirical material is based on an intense hemerographic and documentary research; on the analysis of numerous Facebook pages and blogs of social actors, associations and NGOs linked to the universe of reception and solidarity with migrants in transit on the Franco-Italian border; on the collection of oral sources, including numerous informal conversations and twenty telephone interviews with key actors. PAPER #3 The boons and banes of doing social research amid a pandemics: Lessons from fieldwork research on asylum policy-making AUTHOR(S) Raffaele Bazurli (University of Venice) Chiara Marchetti (Ciac Onlus Parma) ABSTRACT COVID-19 can be described as a ‘total event’ which disrupts virtually every aspect of human life. Social research is no exception. The draconian social distancing measures radically changed the possibilities of collecting empirical data, foremost when it comes to qualitative research which heavily draws on protracted, face-to-face interactions. This presentation aims at reflecting on the boons and banes of doing social research under such novel circumstances. Among the most obvious, detrimental consequences is the impossibility of carrying out research in physical sites due to the necessity of minimizing social contacts. This sensibly limits the breadth and depth of empirical investigation due to the difficulty of building trust relationship with informants over time. Relatedly, ‘unspoken’ data based on observation and informal interactions become virtually uncollectable. While communication via telephone and online platforms is a convenient substitute, the access to relatively hidden milieus—such as ‘illegal-ized’ migrants and their supporters—can be hardly achieved. The so-called ‘Zoom fatigue’ (i.e., the sense of exhaustion felt by people heavily relying on online platform for carrying out their working duties in spite of the pandemics) can make online interviews and ethnography an additional burden exacerbating psycho-logical distress. Yet, these difficulties also come with unexpected opportunities. Secondary sources, including policy documents, social media contents, and media outlets, become more important than ever, pushing researchers to engage in interviewing only once all other data sources have been explored in-depth. More broadly, COVID-19 is a revealing juncture that affects both how research is conducted and what is researched. As the pandemics sheds lights the pre-existing fragilities and injustices of Italy’s asylum system, it also becomes an opportunity to analyse them with greater impetus, in the pro-spect of driving policy and social change.

discussant

Raffaele Bazurli

University of Venice Ca' Foscari

author

Chiara Marchetti

University of Milan

discussant

Luca Giliberti

University of Genova

author

Stefano Fogliata

author

Davide Filippi

Università degli Studi di Genova

Creative approaches in migration research with families and/or young people

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #117 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Kate Smith

University of Huddersfield

chair

Rosa Mas Giralt

Leeds University

This panel seeks to build upon a long history of arts-based, arts-informed and aesthetic forms of research as a methodology for doing migration research and of participatory research with artists and communities on migration. Increasingly well-established across academia, the arts, activism and community work, creative approaches in research have gained attention as dynamic and valuable ways to enhance understanding of and communicate the diversity and complexity of human experiences. Through alternative imaginative processes and artistic forms of inquiry, creative approaches can be particularly relevant and a ground-breaking way of studying migration to understand the lived experiences of families and/or young people. This panel aims to open up a space for reflection on the role of creative approaches in migration research with families/young people and the role of research in creative work on migration that allow different questions to emerge and that bring about critical interventions in the kinds of knowledges produced about family migration. The papers included aim to explore both the tensions and opportunities that emerge when engaging with the use of creative methods or activities at any stage of the research process, from inception to dissemination. The panel will invite debate on the blurred boundaries of imaginative processes and artistic forms of inquiry, seeking to interrogate the fruitful messiness that may characterise these approaches rather than advocating prescriptive understandings of the role of creative approaches or providing guidelines of how to apply these methods. The panel incorporates discussion time to engage the audience in this debate. PAPER #1 The Transnationalism of the Celebration of the “Day of the Dead” in the Netherlands: A Cultural Backpack Tradition AUTHOR(S) Martha Montero-Sieburth (AUC lecturer) ABSTRACT This paper describes how Mexicans, residing in the Netherlands over the past twelve years have reified and maintained the celebration of the “Day of the Dead,” as a cultural backpack tradition-- a survival kit that symbolically and emotionally connects them back to their homeland. Discussed is the evolution of this celebration in the Netherlands, traced from its earliest enactment and expanded since 2007 to the present, using evidence gathered from: 1) academic research; 2) artistic representations; 3) organizational events; and 4) community and gastronomic events. While locally/regionally practiced in Mexico, this celebration has become a globalized cosmopolitan experience through: a) the Day of the Dead Parade in Mexico City, b) Spectre and Coco films, c) UNESCO’s 2008 status of cultural patrimony; and d) KLM’s airline promotions during October and November to Mexico. Mexican women partnered with Dutch men*, who live away from their root culture, express emotional ties and feelings about this tradition, and extend it to their newfound Dutch families. Globalization and dual culture partnerships are creating ethno spaces, affected by global flows where the deterritorialisation experienced intensifies feelings of belonging or retour (Appadurai, 1990), thereby edifying and rebuilding bridges between the root culture and Dutch society. Appadurai, Arjun (1990) Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Economy. Public Culture 2(2): 1-24. *Well over 70% of Mexican women are married to Dutch nationals or other European nationals, while only 8% are married to Mexican males in the Netherlands. PAPER #2 Using visual and digital research to better understand experiential physical activity, leisure and sport. An exploratory research focused on young refugees and asylum seekers’ perspectives AUTHOR(S) Noemi Garcia-Arjona (Laboratoire VIPS 2 (Violences, Innovations, Politiques, Socialisations et Sports), Université Rennes 2 (France)) Emilie Chatelain (Laboratoire VIPS 2 (Violences, Innovations, Politiques, Socialisations et Sports), Université Rennes 2 (France)) ABSTRACT Leisure and sports programs for young refugees and asylums seekers are continuously growing. Although both field experience and research are developed over the last twenty years, the conceptual and theoretical frameworks are not sufficiently modelled (Schulenkorf & Spaaij, 2015). The pressure of “good results” of these organizations towards different stakeholders (public and private institutions, partners, sponsors) leads to a growing critical perspective that denounces instrumentalization of their practices and thus not giving voice to the young refugees. The aim of this paper is to explore their everyday experiences and narratives linked to leisure and sports through an alternative and participatory form of inquiry. Following visual methods (Lomax, 2012) and digital migration research (Leurs and Smets, 2018), this study tries to understand embodied strategies of non-verbal communication through drawing, photo-elicitation and shareable visual content on social media and applications. We will conclude by analyzing the limits and challenges that migrant’s researchers can encounter using creative approaches. References Leurs, K., & Smets, K. (2018). Five Questions for Digital Migration Studies: Learning From Digital Connectivity and Forced Migration In(to) Europe. Social Media + Society. Lomax, H. (2012). Contested voices? Methodological tensions in creative visual research with children. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 15 (2), 105–117. Schulenkorf, N., & Spaaij, R. (2015). Commentary: Reflections on theory building in sport for development and peace. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 16(1/2), 71-77. PAPER #3 Biographical objects in research with migrant families: participant-led creativity and collective storytelling AUTHOR(S) Rosa Mas Giralt (University of Leeds (UK)) ABSTRACT This paper will explore the use of biographical objects in research with migrant families and the potential of this method to elicit interactive and collaborative accounts regarding family stories, values and heritage. As Roberts (2002, 66) indicates “a whole range of individual or family ‘memorabilia’ – watches, photographs, rings, presentational items and heirlooms of all kinds can have tremendous significance for people, evoking many memories and often forming part of family myths and traditions”. However, biographical research which makes use of objects has mainly been based on individuals’ perspectives and their possessions and less attention has been paid to the potential of this approach to elicit collective accounts from family groups. The paper draws from a study conducted with ten Latin American families living in the north of England which employed semi-structured group interviews (as part of a mixed-method approach) for which biographical objects had to be chosen, collectively and in advance, by the participant family members. The presentation will consider the participant families’ creative uses of this method, paying particular attention to three cases in which the families employed their chosen objects (a wedding ring, photographs collage and miniature flag) to re-tell the story of their family’s collective identity and values. It will be argued that, using a creative approach, these families re-asserted their own interpretation of the meaning of the migration project for their collective biographies, illuminating how mobility re-shapes familyhood. Hoskins, J. 1998. Biographical objects: how things tell the stories of people's lives. New York; London: Routledge. PAPER #4 Everyday Objects of Carceral Spaces: Immigration detention and mothering AUTHOR(S) Kate Smith (University of Huddersfield (UK)) ABSTRACT This presentation will focus on the exhibition - ‘Everyday Objects of Carceral Spaces’ – which utilised an arts-based and aesthetic methodology for disseminating research. The exhibition looks at the lived experiences of women in immigration detention and mothers in prison, and the everyday objects that feature in their stories. Working with Dr Kelly Lockwood (University of Salford, UK), artist Kani Kamil (kanikamil.com) and photographer Sherko Abbas to create the exhibition, this presentation will specifically focus on the everyday objects of women seeking asylum who were subject to detention in the UK. In most cases when someone is detained in the UK there is no time limit on how long they will be incarcerated - some women are held for many months and even years. Immigration detention includes immigration removal centres, as well as a network of short-term holding facilities in the UK. For the exhibition, the research data was analysed for the everyday objects that women spoke about and what those objects might tell us about their lives and identities in carceral spaces. Visual artists, Kamil and Abbas then inscribed the women’s accounts on to objects in ways that seek to personalise the objects, as well as creating a series of photographs of the objects in order to capture ideas of identity, everyday objects and carceral environments. The presentation honours and values women’s stories, while also giving space to consider what everyday objects tell us about the lives and identities of mothers seeking asylum in immigration detention.

author

Martha Montero-Sieburth

Amsterdam University College

author

Noemi Garcia-Arjona

Laboratoire VIPS 2 (Violences, Innovations, Politiques, Socialisations et Sports), Université Rennes 2 (France)

author

Emilie Chatelain

Université Rennes 2

Reflexive Migration Studies 5

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #118 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

In What Ways Does Perception of Migration Risks Change Migration Behavior? Ludmila Bogdan Harvard University The literature review shows that people learn about migration risks in one of three ways: from their own experience, from others just like them, and mass media. Through a quantitative survey of 300 people and 30 in-depth interviews, I explored how Moldovan people learn and engage with migration information. Based on the source of information, I found that people develop personal risks, perceived risks, and fear perceptions towards migration. This paper went further than the revised literature and examined how risk perception impacts people's engagement with migration information. Personal risks lead to practical ways of engaging and actively seeking information about safe migration. Perceived risks lead to passive receipt of information about migration, but not actively seeking it. Fear leads to avoidance of safe migration information and, where possible, to migration in general. === Race, Racism, and Migration – interdependent mechanisms Bolaji Balogun University of Sheffield Since the emergence of what has been termed the ‘refugee crisis’, but more appropriately understood as a crisis for refugees, there has been extensive scholarship on ‘migration, ethnicity, and minorities’ (MEM). Whilst this body of works engages well with migration, it is yet to grapple with the ways in which race interacts with ‘migration, ethnicity, and minorities’. In so doing, MEM scholarship elides the role of race in the construction of the boundaries of Europeanness. Taking this negligence as a point of entry, this paper focuses on the lack of attention to the ways in which colonial histories and political relations shape contemporary social hierarchy. It contends that postcolonial and in particular decolonial reading of MEM could untangle the mechanisms/contestations around migration. Despite the postracial silences in the mainstream European sociological approach to migration, this paper shows that race and racism are part of the configuration of migration. Using a new data premised on Critical Race Theories, this paper explores narratives of race and racism amongst black and mixed-race children of immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Poland. By focusing on how racial ideologies have been sustained in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) despite the physical absence of a colour-line, the study elaborates on racialisation in Poland as part of the global understanding of race and racism. It is a conception of the world largely based on self-identification and the identification of ‘the other people’. Yet Poland and its region are rarely placed under the lens of global racial formations as part legacies of European domination. === A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Class Experiences and Identities of Filipino Migrant Nurses from the Lenses of Translocality ARNIE CORDERO TRINIDAD Trinity College Dublin The paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the social class position, experiences, and identities of migrant workers from the lenses of translocality. The migration of workers and their maintenance of various networks links migrants to multiple localities such as their local communities, host society, home country, and other countries they may be considering for future migration. Their connection to these different sites is changing how migrants experience their class positions and socioeconomic conditions and how they frame their class identities, which has to be further teased out in research. This conceptual paper will argue that traditional class analysis based on the geographic boundaries of one nation has lost its explanatory value in understanding the complex class and socioeconomic experiences of migrants. Understanding class from the vantage point of one nation may lead to the failure to appreciate how translocal subtleties are shaping class dynamics experienced by migrant workers. The increasing globalization of the world necessitates viewing class structure and inequalities from the prism of “processes operating within the world economy” that creates a plethora of constraints and opportunities that create complex class positions and breeds different forms of social exclusion and contradictory locations among migrants. The paper will frame the theoretical and conceptual discussions on the author’s proposed dissertation on the experiences of Filipino migrant nurses in Ireland. === ‘Hellooooooooooooooo everyone!’: online encounters of Brazilians on the move Mieke Schrooten Odisee University of Applied Sciences Within social sciences, migration has traditionally been conceived of as a unidirectional, purposeful and intentional process from one state of fixity (in the place of origin) to another (in the destination). Based on a multi-sited ethnographic research on Brazilians ‘on the move’, conducted in the urban settings of Antwerp, Brussels (Belgium), Palmas (Brazil) and online (2007-2015), this paper draws attention to a group of people whose mobile practices do not fit this definition of migration. On the contrary, their experiences are marked by an ongoing mobility that consists of a multiplicity of potential routes, which are often unstable, and may be accompanied by changes in status. For many research participants, trajectories are often unpredictable and new mobilities unexpected and sometimes even unwanted, transforming their status from relatively ‘settled’ into an alternative and distinct re-location. Two key issues are being raised in relation to these trajectories. Firstly, many Brazilians – with very different profiles – tend to ‘live in mobility’ in order to improve the quality of life at home, as they plan to eventually return to Brazil. As such, leaving home becomes a strategy of staying home, which challenges what is usually evoked by the concept of ‘migration’. Secondly, these trajectories are often strongly affected by online encounters with left-behind family and friends, as well as with fellow countrymen in current or possible future places of stay.

author

Ludmila Bogdan

Harvard University

author

Bolaji Balogun

University of Sheffield

author

Arnie Cordero Trinidad

Trinity College Dublin

author

Mieke Schrooten

Odisee University College

Methodological implications of researching deportability and deportation: Session 4 Ethical challenges

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #119 workshop | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

organizer

Agnieszka Radziwinowiczówna

CMR

organizer

Ibrahim Soysüren

University of Neuchatel

Over the last two decades, the promotion of the deportation of foreigners and its extensive implementation have gone hand in hand with a growing interest in the topic among researchers in humanities, social sciences and legal studies. One of the outcomes of this interest is the term “deportation studies” (Coutin, 2015) coined and increasingly used to define research on numerous aspects of the deportation of non-citizens. One can argue that this field of inquiry is solely defined by the research topic, the deportation of foreigners, that can be defined as the “compulsory removal of ‘aliens’ from the physical, juridical and social space of the state” (Peutz and De Genova 2010:1). During this workshop we will argue that there are methodological aspects of deportation studies that make this area of inquiry distinct. They will be analysed during the four sessions of the workshop. Session 1 discusses methodological challenges related to working with various actors of the “deportation corridor” (Drotbohm and Hasselberg 2015): law enforcement agencies, non-governmental organisations and lesser represented groups of deportees (e.g., children). Papers in Session 2 analyse the access to the field: recruitment challenges and positionality of the research participants and the researchers. Session 3 discusses the methodologies of data collection: bilingual and multilingual research, longitudinal research, feminist ethnography as well as projective and interactive techniques in deportation studies. Finally, Session 4 discusses the ethical challenges of researching the vulnerable populations of deportees and deported people. The authors of the papers will present the methodological aspects of their own empirical research in Africa, Asia and Europe. This workshop continues discussions started in September 2020 during a seminar at the University of Wolverhampton. This is an open workshop that welcomes all the researchers interested in the topic.

participant

Nevena Nancheva

Kingston University

participant

Usman Mahar

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

participant

Robert Rydzewski

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan & University of Rzeszow

participant

Ester Serra Mingot

Bonn International Centre for Conversion

participant

Martin Sökefeld

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

participant

Izabela Wagner

Collegium Civitas & Université de Strasbourg

Future-making in Situations of Containment: Refugees and Migrants’ Imaginaries of the Future and Planning vis-à-vis the Border

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #120 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Stefan Millar

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

chair

Margarita Lipatova

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

chair

Laura Lambert

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

Chairs: Laura Lambert, Margarita Lipatova, Stefan Millar Discussants: Anja Simonsen, Tabea Scharrer The multiplication and militarization of border controls have created zones of containment and ‘stuckedness’ (Hage, 2009). Camps, hotspots and promises for local refugee protection aim at a spatio-temporal fixation of refugees and migrants (Agier, 2011, Mountz et al., 2013, Tazzioli and Garelli, 2018). These multiple practices, technologies and policies of immobilising that contain and order migrants can shape their future-making. At the same time, refugees and migrants might contest these practices of containment and their inscribed temporal ordering, thereby constituting themselves as political subjects that actively claim their futures. In this panel, we call for an examination into refugees and migrants’ future-making and planning (Kleist and Jansen, 2016) in situations of containment and ‘stuckedness’. This panel has two main objectives: firstly, we aim to understand how institutions, technologies and bordering practices that intend to contain migration shape refugees’ and migrants’ imaginaries of the future; and second, we are interested in refugees and migrants’ attempts of recreating their future in situations of stuckedness. Therefore, the studies presented in this panel take a micro-level approach to migration politics by looking at the encounter between migration governance and people on the move. They are based on in-depth ethnographic work in a wide variety of borderlands ranging from Kenya, Niger, Turkey, Greece to Finland. Ethnography allows for an analytical approach to the everyday contestations and attempts of refugees and migrants to recreate their futures in situations of containment. PAPER #1 ‘I’ll see you in Finland’: Dreaming At and Against Borders AUTHOR(S) Ville Laakkonen (Tampere University) ABSTRACT In this paper I analyse, through the journey of a single refugee and his family, how against the perceptions of migrants and the wishes of the Greek state, Greece has shifted from a transit country to effectively a country of containment. In terms of Europe-bound migrations in the Mediterranean, Greece is markedly different from Spain and Italy, the other well-known points of entry into the EU. It has never been a colonial power during the modern times and has, if anything, been largely known for outbound migration until some decades ago. For migrants coming from outside Europe, Greece has been envisioned by the majority as a transit country, a sentiment that has been echoed by the state, as the Greek asylum and migration policies have been lacklustre and downright hostile towards migrants. During the 2010s, however, the common European approach to border enforcement and migration controls has been to formalise the role of border countries as ‘buffer zones’ with extended containment facilities. This has changed the situation in Greece, where increasing numbers of migrants are now being forcibly detained against their own will (and against the will of the Greek state) and held in prolonged suspension with no view to continuing their journey in sight. Against this background, I explore the sense of loss of control and experience of waiting, but also the dreams engendered by the current situation, first in a Greek camp and later in Finland. PAPER #2 The Promises of a Better Future in Humanitarian Migration Control Infrastructures and Migrants’ Contestations in Niger AUTHOR(S) Laura Lambert (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology) ABSTRACT This paper studies the promises of better futures made to refugees and migrants to abandon their migration projects and migrants’ politics of contesting them. In the West African transit state of Niger, UN bodies created elaborate assistance and outreach infrastructures to make refugees and migrants abandon their Maghreb- and EU-bound migration projects. In connection to these infrastructures, promises of a better future were made to the concerned refugees and migrants as long as they stopped migrating. However, the UN infrastructures did not necessarily realize them. These “elusive promises” (Abram and Weszkalnys, 2011) concerned reintegration support in the case of the International Organization for Migration, while the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees promised livelihood and resettlement. In contrast to the promises made, many refugees and migrants experienced destitution and the foreclosure of better futures they had imagined for themselves. Some noticed that the promises were not realized because of hidden admission and operating standards of the UN infrastructures as well as political geographies and histories made absent in the everyday operation. Engaging in material politics (Barry, 2013), they made these omissions visible by engaging in vocal criticism and in the practical opposition of “exit”. Thereby, they constituted themselves as political subjects, refuting the role of passive victims and recreating the futures they had imagined for themselves. Based on 13 months of ethnographic fieldwork, the paper proposes a shift from problematizing migrants’ demands and imaginaries of the future as ‘excessive’ to problematizing the elusive promises inscribed in humanitarian migration control infrastructures. PAPER #3 Waiting for What? Hopes and Incertitudes in Navigating the Greek Asylum System AUTHOR(S) Margarita Lipatova (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology) ABSTRACT This paper is situated around the uncertain present produced within the European border regime and the strategies that asylum-seekers in Greece undertake to regain control over their situation both in the present and future. One of the most significant developments in the Greek border policy derived from the EU Agenda on Migration 2016, and specifically included the creation of the European hotspot model and securitisation of border control. The administration of Greek hotspots includes specific border procedures that aim to channel the asylum-seekers into categories of acceptance, rejection or legal liminality, in combination with the restriction of mobility, practically turning the islands into the sites of spatio-temporal governance. In my paper I examine how various forms of temporal orderings are interlinked with the limited capacity of asylum-seekers to predict and create their life projects in a given moment, keeping them in the non-creative, uncertain present. At the same time the expectation of existential immobility (Hage, 2005), that is the perception of not being able to move forward in one’s life in the event of being granted asylum, together with the prospect of the eventual withdrawal from humanitarian assistance and state support, often created feelings of neglect and non-belonging. In my presentation I will discuss the various forms of asylum-seekers’ mobilisations and reactions to practices of liminality inscribed in asylum management. I will argue that hope is a method to endure the incertitudes as well as to actively claim their future. Drawing on a year of ethnographic work in Greek borderlands, I will demonstrate how hope, as the capacity to “reimagine the present from the perspective of the end” (Miyazaki 2006) was incorporated by asylum-seekers in critique of bordering practices and contestation of future imaginaries as prescribed by the Greek asylum infrastructure. PAPER #4 Future-making in the face of Militarized Protection: The Case of Kakuma Refugee Camp and Kalobeyei Integrated Settlement AUTHOR(S) Stefan Millar (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology) ABSTRACT In this paper, I explore how refugees and asylum seekers residing in the Kakuma and Kalobeyei refugee camps navigate their plans and imaginaries of the future in response to the militarization of refugee protection by the Kenyan state. Refugee protection in Kenya has become increasingly militarized since 2014, with threats to close both Kakuma and Dadaab refugee camps, widespread security roundups in the Nairobi district of Eastleigh, and pressure on Somali refugees to repatriate. This militarization has come in the wake of Al-Shabaab violence in the country, retaliatory attacks to Kenyan Defence Forces entering Southern Somalia in 2011. Since the disbanding of the Department of Refugee Affairs (DRA) and its subsequent replacement by the Refugee Affairs Secretariat (RAS) in 2016, many senior staff were replaced with former military personnel and the refugee status determination process was slowed. In order to limit the increasing state sanctions and limitations, refugees must engage with and resist state agents' attempts to control their lives. For many refugees to receive refugee status for the purpose of resettlement or sponsorship, they must broker bribes, utilise personal networks, or leave the camp to find alternative means to register. Based on twelve months of ethnographic research in Kakuma Refugee Camp and Kalobeyei Integrated Settlement, I examine how refugees reorganise and plan their futures in the face of militarism and, in turn, how the state becomes constituted through daily interactions, practices, relations and institutional effects (Fassin, 2015; Thelen, et al., 2017). PAPER #5 Future-making while waiting for resettlement in Turkey AUTHOR(S) Mert Peksen – Graduate Center, City University of New York ABSTRACT This paper focuses on temporality and containment in the context of refugees who wait in Turkey for resettlement to a third country. Turkey currently hosts around 400,000 non-Syrian international protection applicants and refugees under conditional protection who are obliged to reside in a city that is assigned by the immigration authority. Policies such as registration requirements, travel permissions and weekly reporting obligations keep refugees in these Turkish towns. Moreover, refugees’ access to humanitarian services and social benefits is conditional upon continued residence in the city of registration. By focusing on the impacts of such restrictive policies over these refugees’ lives, I critically examine the relationship between refugee resettlement scheme and bordering practices in Turkey. While refugee resettlement has been promoted as one of the few legal and ordinary ways for further westward cross-border mobility, in the experience of non-Syrian refugees, it becomes a tool for keeping them where they are and suspends their future plans. Drawing on long-term ethnographic study of asylum in Turkey, this paper sheds light on the experiences and perceptions of waiting and explores refugees’ practices of realizing their aspirations both in Turkey and in their future host country.

discussant

Tabea Scharrer

MPI for Social Anthropology

discussant

Anja Simonsen

Institute of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen

author

Ville Laakkonen

Tampere University

author

Mert Peksen

City University of New York

Changing Cultures: Arts and culture as agents and means of change in migration societies; Session 2: cultural encounters

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #121 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Wiebke Sievers

ISR

There is a strong belief that artistic and cultural practices of immigrants and their descendants contribute to changing our understanding of cultures and identities in migration societies. They provide the input that enables us to move beyond the imagined homogeneous communities, as Benedict Anderson described them, towards narratives of identity and belonging that are more apt to capture the current post-migrant realities in many cities and countries both in Europe and beyond. Such a narrative change, in turn, is essential for a more equal and just society since it will help to prevent exclusion and discrimination. At the same time, there is empirical evidence that such a change has not even happened yet within the structures facilitating artistic and cultural practices in these contexts. The gate keepers at important points of entry, such as publishing houses, theatres or museums, as well as in the media and in academia prevent change with regard to both the artists and the contents receiving public attention. The three sessions we propose depart from the assumption that there is cultural change, but that it has not (yet) reached the utopian ideals expressed in the artistic and cultural practices of immigrants and their descendants. This implies that researchers need to adjust the tools they use for observing change, but also that joining forces with arts and culture may be a way to increase the impact of both research and the artistic and cultural practices of immigrants and their descendants. We take these observations as a starting point for a theoretical, methodological and empirical reflexion on how to conceive, measure and research change in this context as well as for a discussion of joint ventures for change between arts, culture and research. The second session is dedicated to concrete encounters that lead to change in specific locations as well as the impact of these processes of change beyond the local. PAPER #1 Challenging Italian national identity through literature and cinema. Voices and gazes of racialised artists AUTHOR(S) Annalisa Frisina (University of Padova) Sandra Agyei Kyeremeh (University of Padova) ABSTRACT Migrant descendants avoid narratives which perceive their black figures as alien elements within the body of the nation by underlining the complexity of their everyday experiences through their artistic productions. Resistance is lived also by using Italian in their works. In this contribution, we draw on Critical Race Theory (CRT) to focus on the “role of voice” (Delgado, 1990, 95). The anti-essentialist “voice of color thesis” recognizes the importance of giving oppressed groups the opportunity to voice their everyday experiences of exclusion and marginalization and of facilitating the creation of spaces in which they can be heard. Our new approach highlights the importance of examining the relationships created by migrant descendant artists with the public. We explore how racism affects migrant descendant artists’ everyday life experiences, how these youths resist hegemonic discourses and practices through their artistic productions and how their texts, books and movies inspire change in their interactions with different publics. The paper is based on interviews with 15 migrant descendant writers, actors and film-makers located in different areas around the northern and central regions of Italy, promotional materials and some online (social media platforms) and offline launch activities as well as participant observations during book and movie launches. This rich material allows us not only to study artists’ narratives, but also to identify the practices they use to create their favorite publics as well as the contexts in which they can reach the mainstream with their messages. PAPER #2 How do “migrant” and “world” music change local and national cultures? An insight from Cologne carnival, related antiracist networks and recent cultural politics AUTHOR(S) Monika Salzbrunn (University of Lausanne) Birgit Ellinghaus (alba KULTUR, Cologne) ABSTRACT Ayse Çağlar and Nina Glick Schiller have invited migration scholars to put constructively into question the transnational paradigm by “Locating Migration” (2011). Based on our work on the dynamics of the Cologne carnival (Salzbrunn 2014; Ellinghaus and Salzbrunn 2019), this paper assesses the impact of “migrant” and “world” music on local and national cultural policies. Cologne’s history has always been shaped by migration, even though the enrichment of the music and carnival scene thanks to migrants has been recognized and celebrated only for a couple of decades. During the last thirty years, Cologne carnival as well as the broader music scene in Cologne has undergone profound changes: new repertories referring to different social and religious references, updated lyrics of songs, hybrid styles with sources from musicians with multiple origins, links between the anti-Nazi resistance movements and current anti-fascist initiatives. In the cultural scene of Cologne diversification processes have been initiated both top-down and bottom-up, leading to resilient changes concerning the use of musical references and the visibility of new cultural actors. We will analyse the creativity and openness of the cultural scene of Cologne after a one-year shutdown of culture due to the pandemic. This will tell us about political consciousness, decision-making and re-shaping of institutions and the short-term and long-term strategies and effects of cultural politics. Starting from a local case study, we will broaden our perspective to regional dynamics and put those in a broader national and supranational context (2005 UNESCO Convention, European Agenda for Culture). PAPER #3 Words matter. Museums remove offensive terms in the Netherlands: changing representations of ‘self’ and ‘Others’ AUTHOR(S) Christine Delhaye (University of Amsterdam) ABSTRACT On September 12, 2019, the Amsterdam Museum announced that it would stop using the label Gouden Eeuw (Golden Age) as title of its permanent collection. The museum, which chronicles the history of the city, decided to do so because this term frames the Dutch history from the perspective of the rich and powerful and erases abuses such as poverty, war and slave trade. This intervention of the Amsterdam museum was an important step in a longer process of change in the hegemonic ‘regimes of representation’ produced by Dutch museums (Hall, 1997b). The contestation of language by migrants and their offspring had a great impact on this process. This paper will analyse their role in critiquing the hegemonic regimes and bringing forward alternatives, and by doing so, enacting change, as well as the responses of three museums in Amsterdam to these initiatives: the Rijksmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum and the Tropenmuseum; a national, a municipal and an ethnographic museum, respectively. In order to capture how migrants and their offspring intentionally initiated and enacted change, I will draw on Ann Swindle’s theory on culture in action that focuses on the tools and resources by which culture is produced and reproduced, and allows to analyse social actors as mobilizers and users of these means in order to execute their chosen strategies of action (Swindle, 1986). To grasp the process of change in the institutions, I draw on Howard-Grenville and others (2011) who use the concept of liminality to understand how institutions open up for change. PAPER #4 Everyday encounters with national day celebrations: the case of Turks in Norway AUTHOR(S) Karolina Nikielska-Sekula (University of South-Eastern Norway) ABSTRACT This paper aims to discuss how minorities change the elements of Norwegian Constitution Day celebrations through their micro practices and how this is reflected in a landscape of public celebrations. The case discussed here is the one of the city of Drammen, which is home to a significant Norwegian-Turkish population. My findings are based on three types of data: (1) visual ethnography of the parades over the period of three years (2014-2015-2016), (2) field notes and unstructured interviews with the users of Norwegian-Turkish facilities conducted during the Constitution Day in 2015, (3) and in-depth interviews with second- and third-generation Norwegian Turks regarding their patterns of the celebrations. Additionally, I analysed an 8-hours long life streaming of the 2020 celebrations, which due to the COVID-19 pandemic were held online, and a public facebook page promoted by Drammen Municipality as a place where people could share pictures from their private celebrations. Theoretically, I draw on the concept of Local Traditional Knowledge (Ingold & Kurttila 2000), and following from it, the notion of heritage in becoming (Nikielska-Sekula 2019). Heritage in becoming refers to engaging with the environment by improvising and imitating ancestors’ practices. It represents a practical implementation of inherited practices in adjustment to the local circumstances in which the individuals and groups find themselves. In this paper, these involve national heritage in Norway, adjusted and passed down by Norwegian-Turks over generations, resulting in a new pattern of how individuals celebrate local national heritage.

discussant

Michael Parzer

University of Vienna

author

Annalisa Frisina

University of Padova

author

Sandra Agyei Kyeremeh

University of Padova

author

Monika Salzbrunn

University of Lausanne

author

Birgit Ellinghaus

alba KULTUR - International Office for Global Music

author

Christine Delhaye

University of Amsterdam

author

Karolina Nikielska-Sekula

University College of Southeast Norway

Social and cultural capital of immigrants and their Labour Market Integration

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #122 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Rinus Penninx

University of Amsterdam

Chair: Rinus Penninx Discussant: Lisa Berntsen PAPER #1 The higher, the better? The relative impact of social capital on high- and low-skilled immigrants' labour market integration in Germany AUTHOR(S) Julia Rüdel ABSTRACT The advantages and disadvantages of having certain kind of social contacts are well discussed in social science and integration research. Immigrants tend to rely more often on social contacts for labour market access and success as a substitute for disadvantages like discrimination and loss of human capital. I aim to refine previous research by applying a relative approach of social capital on labour market integration by taking the socio-economic position of ego and alter into account and additionally test for different social capital dynamics among high- and low-skilled immigrants. Based on panel data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) I use a position generator to operationalize social capital on the one hand as the relative upper relative reachability and on the other hand diversity in accessed social position. Using fixed effects with lagged independent variables preliminary results suggest that immigrants' labour market success (measured as ISEI) is less related to comparatively the highest accessed social contact, but that it increases with a greater diversity in the personal network. This especially holds for high-educated immigrants. Hence, for immigrants' labour market integration the assumptions that the better positioned the contact, the more resources should advantage the ego, cannot be confirmed. PAPER #2 The Role of Culture for Migration in a Setting of Free Mobility AUTHOR(S) Rosa Weber ABSTRACT Recent literature on migration from East to West Europe focuses on Polish migration to the U.K. and shows that migration decisions have become more complex since the expansion of the EU. There is a clear need to expand the empirical and theoretical literature to other settings and to get deeper insight into these new migration patterns. This paper studies migration within the Nordic countries and focuses on cultural or ethno-linguistic differences by mother tongue. We aim to disentangle the effect of individual and contextual characteristics as well as culture or ethno-linguistic affiliation on the likelihood to move. In Finland, about 5% of the population is uniquely registered as Swedish speakers. For many decades, emigration rates among Swedish speakers have been higher than among Finnish speakers, while their return migration rates have been lower. Exploiting Finnish register data, we differentiate between individuals who grow up as Swedish speakers or Finnish speakers. Considering that we have information on parents’ mother tongue, we can moreover distinguish between: (A) Swedish speakers with two Swedish-speaking parents, (B) Finnish speakers with two Finnish-speaking parents, (C) Swedish speakers with one Swedish and one Finnish-speaking parent, and (D) Finnish speakers with one Swedish and one Finnish-speaking parent. Detailed information on the timing of the move and the destination as well as return migration moreover allows us to distinguish between short and long stays abroad. Results show that Swedish speakers with two Swedish-speaking parents are more likely to emigrate than Finnish speakers, and they predominantly move to Sweden. Finnish speakers with two Finnish-speaking parents are somewhat less likely to emigrate. Still, they are more likely to move to countries other than Sweden, such as the U.S., U.K., and Germany. Those who grow up with one Swedish and one Finnish-speaking parent have emigration risks that lie in-between the other two groups. PAPER #3 Linguistic Barriers to Immigrant Labour Market and Cultural Integration in Italy AUTHOR(S) Daniela Ghio ABSTRACT We investigate whether and to what extent deficiencies in the destination language affect labour market and socio-cultural adaptation by immigrants’ mother-tongue and gender in Italy, disentangling effects due to communication (understanding and speaking) and more formal linguistic skills (reading and writing). We use the Italian survey on Social Condition and Integration of Foreign Citizens for modelling sixteen demo-linguistic equation systems, with adaptation outcome and linguistic barrier equations. Endogeneity and spurious correlation are addressed by leveraging presumably exogenous variation from age of arrival and knowledge of Italian during childhood. We find linguistic barriers to immigrant integration into Italian society: effects of deficiency in communication skills are more relevant than impacts of formal linguistic skills. However, differences exist by gender and across immigrants’ linguistic groups. Despite for some groups they may not be an obstacle to a successful labour market integration (e.g. Chinese immigrants), poor linguistic skills in Italian can drive towards a cultural segregation. Results support policy interventions in language-training programmes modelled on individual demo-linguistic characteristics to effectively break down barriers to immigrants’ integration.

discussant

Lisa Berntsen

Tilburg University

author

Julia Rüdel

author

Rosa Weber

author

Daniela Ghio

COVID and migrant workers in Food and Care

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #123 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Nahikari Irastorza

Chair: Nahikari Irastorza Discussant: Stefania Marino PAPER #1 Feeding the nation: COVID-19 pandemic and the emerging global regimes of seasonal migration in agri-food AUTHOR(S) Roxana Barbulescu ABSTRACT This paper examines how and to what extend nations organised recruitment of migrant workers from abroad to work in agriculture since the start of the pandemic. Countries regularly recruit migrant workers for the duration of the agricultural season. In 2020, the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic coincided with the recruitment time of seasonal workers. This paper analyses the strategies developed to face the shortfall in workers employer-led in origin recruitment, extension of visas for existing migrant workers, activating the right to work for asylum seekers and investing and expanding capacity to recruit locally. Building on cases of UK, US Australia and in the EU, Germany and Spain, Poland - the paper discusses emerging global regimes of seasonal migration in agri-food. PAPER #2 Placing the state at the centre. State-promoted employment of cheap migrant workers in the EU agro-industrial sector AUTHOR(S) Cecilia Vergnano ABSTRACT The shortage of labour in the agro-industrial sector of western EU countries during border closures in spring 2020 was calculated at around more than one million workers, mostly from Eastern Europe and Northern Africa. States responded with exceptional measures to ensure the supply of low-cost foreign workers during the first stage of the pandemic crisis. At the same time, the governance of the pandemic has created new borders and frontiers: while unnecessary mobility is forbidden or strongly discouraged, migrants and racialized labourers are often placed on the frontline of infection risk under the banner of ‘essential workers’. EU economies’ structural need for low-cost foreign labour is usually invisibilized by nationalistic and populist discourses on immigration. Similarly, border and migration studies tend to overlook states’ role in sustaining the demand of employers for low-cost migrant workers. This paper argues for the need to place at the centre of the research agenda on migration the role of states and supranational entities (such as the EU) in promoting path dependence in the employment of cheap migrant workers in specific sectors. By exploring the way the intersections between institutional frameworks, regulations and public policies produce domestic labour shortages in the agro-industrial sector, and the role of states in ensuring the supply of low-cost foreign labour in ‘normal’ and ‘exceptional’ (i.e. lockdown) times, this paper will provide a comparative account of three models of agro-industrial work organization which proved to be especially vulnerable to the pandemic crisis: Italian and Spanish horticulture and the German meat processing sector. By focusing on the demand side (rather than exclusively on the supply side) of the labour market, this paper aims to contribute to the epistemological proposals of Anderson (2019) and Dahinden (2016) of ‘de-problematizing’ migration. PAPER #3 Covid-19 and the looming crisis of care: social and economic impacts of the pandemic on migrant labor AUTHOR(S) Nuno Dias ABSTRACT This paper aims to understand the impact of covid-19 on the care economy, in particular on migrant workers and how it affects the dynamics of the care market. Although the notion of ‘essential workers’ was largely debated during the global lockdown, after March, 2020, there was short coverage on how the pandemic affected particular social groups and occupations. Some workers, whose jobs remained essential, were not acknowledged for their endurance during lockdown and beyond. Gradually, some evidences have been emerging regarding the particular impact of Covid-19 on women and, in particular, women in low skilled sectors such as cleaning and caring. Given the furtherance of the recommendation to stay at home, work from home and to avoid public gatherings, a significant number of jobs are not favored with the gift of choice, having to opt between safety or income. The focus of this paper is twofold: firstly, resorting to interviews with individual migrant care workers, aims to understand the circumstances of migrant care workers before and after covid-19 to map the multiplicity of effects of the pandemic on this segment of the labor force (e.g. unemployment, income reduction, health hazards, cost of working, access to social protection, social stigma, family management, etc.); secondly, we intend to understand the effects of the pandemic on the care market itself by analyzing official statistics from the Employment Survey of the Statistics National Institute, from Unions and NGO’s dealing with migrant care workers on evaluating what types of risks and calculations are determining the presence of workers in the care economy and the eventual changes in their relation to employers PAPER #4 Care workers without papers in pandemic times: notes on the socio-institutional responses to the essentiality-irregularity dilemma AUTHOR(S) Thales Speroni ABSTRACT For decades, researchers have emphasized the importance of migrant care work for the reproduction of welfare regimes. Simultaneously, some analyses on the social production of migrant ""illegality"" have shown that migrant workers must face significant obstacles in Europe. The current socio-sanitary crisis requires that this dilemma be addressed in migratory studies and at different public administration levels. In this sense, this paper analyses a public policy developed by Catalonia's government to discuss the forms and obstacles to socio-institutional responses to the essentiality-irregularity dilemma. In June 2020, Catalonia's government opened a call for subsidies for the employment of migrant people in the field of care work. The policy consists of economic aid to employers (families) to covers the costs of Social Security contributions corresponding to 12 months. The policy aimed to regularize the care workers' residence status and to formalize labour relations. Therefore, this institutional initiative involved the (inter)action of a sub-national level of public administration, the employing families, and migrant workers. For this reason, the evaluation of this policy and its comparison with other similar international proposals is a fruitful way to reflect on the essentiality-irregularity dilemma in Europe. This paper is organized into three parts. First, we analyse the Catalonian policy's design and implementation and interpret interviews conducted with representatives of third sector organizations. Second, we compare this policy with similar ones to recognize how the differences and similarities may explain the positive and negative outcomes identified. Third, we discuss the limitations of this type of policy and, to conclude, we reflect on other types of institutional initiatives needed to face the essentiality-irregularity dilemma in Europe.

discussant

Stefania Marino

Manchester Business School

author

Roxana Barbulescu

University of Leeds

author

Cecilia Vergnano

author

Nuno Dias

author

Thales Speroni

Superdiversity Challenging Higher Education: A “UNIC” Approach for Societal Impact

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #124 workshop | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

organizer

Elina Lehtomäki

University of Oulu

organizer

Ahmet Içduygu

Mirekoc

organizer

Birce Demiryontar

Koc University

The UNIC Alliance of eight European universities (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Koc University, Ruhr University Bochum, University College Cork, University of Deusto, University of Liege, University of Oulu and University of Zagreb) based in post-industrial superdiverse cities was established with the primary mission to boost mobility and inclusion for societal impact. Among the fundamental objectives of the UNIC Consortium, is to build a structural platform for excellence on achieving inclusive universities, and a model of practice for transforming higher education in the superdiverse settings that define post-industrial cities. With international migration and entrance of students from non-traditional background to tertiary education, European universities have increasingly come to reflect the superdiverse populations of their cities. However, both policy responses and the academic literature concerning this superdiversity is often framed around the term inclusion. We see a gap in the literature linking superdiversity to higher education. The UNIC Consortium perceives applying a superdiversity lens to higher education as essential for understanding the nature of the interactions between universities and cities and achieving societal impact. In this workshop, the contributors take on this challenge and the possibility for furthering academic debates, to reflect on existing governance practices in higher education institutions, undertaken with the alternative framings of superdiversity. In the process, the session will contribute to discussions on making European Universities superdiversity-ready. The workshop will be initiated with a brief presentation of the UNIC Consortium’s state-of-the-art report on the intersection of superdiversity and higher education. It will map and build on studies exploring how superdiversity affects higher education, and the ways in which universities can and should respond to the needs of their superdiverse communities. This analysis will establish a framework for discussion, mainly focusing on the experiences and perspectives of teaching, academic, and administrative staff as well as students.

participant

Elif Keskiner

EUR-CIMIC

participant

Piaras MacEinri

University College Cork

participant

Çetin Çelik

Koç University

participant

Koraljka Modic Stanke

participant

Jani Haapakoski

University of Oulu

participant

Kate Kirk

Erasmus University Rotterdam

participant

Eduardo Javier Ruiz

University of Deusto

participant

Caitriona Ni Laoire

University College Cork

participant

Gorka Urrutia

DEUSTO

participant

Marco F Martiniello

CEDEM

Changing Aspirations in Contexts of Forced Migration

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #125 workshop | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Lea Müller-Funk

German Institute of Global and Area Studies

organizer

Ayşen Üstübici

Koç University

This workshop focuses on dynamics of refugees’ aspirations for (im)mobility. Situating migration aspirations within the literature on agency and structure, the workshop pursues conceptually an approach that places forced migrants as active social actors at the centre of the debate. Our starting point is that policies conceptualising forced migrants as in need of protection should not overlook their agency and ability to make future plans. Building on the theoretical literature on aspirations and migration (Carling 2002; De Haas 2014; Carling and Collins 2018; Carling and Schewel 2018; Schewel 2019), we put emphasis on what forced migrants do and aspire to do in various contexts of immobility, displacement and settlement, how they live in “liminal spaces” (Brun, Fàbos, and El-Abed 2017) or in situations of material and political dispossession. At the same time, the workshop highlights temporal dimensions of aspirations that are changing over time in different ‘stages of migration’, including the leaving, the journey, the entrance, (re)settlement, on-migration or return (Erdal and Oeppen 2018). The workshop will build on previous workshops co-organised by Milena Belloni, Lore Van Praag, and Christiane Timmerman in November 2017 at the University of Antwerp and IMISCOE 2017 and by Lea Müller-Funk and Natalie Welfens at the University of Amsterdam in November 2019 and on their joint intervention in Open Democracy “The refugees who dare to aspire” (Welfens, Müller-Funk, Belloni, Üstübici, 2020). The discussion will be based on pre-circulated reflection questions on conceptual, methodological, ethical considerations.

participant

Milena Belloni

participant

Anja van Heelsum

IMES Amsterdam

participant

Natalie Welfens

University of Amsterdam

participant

Eda Kiriscioglu

University of Amsterdam/Koc University

participant

Jorgen Carling

PRIO

participant

Ilse van Liempt

Utrecht University

participant

Kerilyn Schewel

University of Amsterdam

participant

Aurora Massa

University of Naples, L’Orientale

participant

Meriç Çağlar Cesley

Central European University

participant

Sevda Tunaboylu

Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Contesting the North-South divide in immigration control: from undisputed differences to unexpected commonalities

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #126 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Claudia Finotelli

Universidad Complutense de Madrid

chair

Irene Ponzo

FIERI

The debate around immigration control policies has been largely focused on Western traditional destination countries portrayed as a sort of benchmark against which the other countries—when not completely neglected—are compared. The risk is of grouping the outliers in a single cluster and framing dissimilarities being pitfalls, as it occurs in the case of Southern Europe. Indeed, the idea of a North-South divide in immigration control policies has been a persisting feature of the current migration debate. Southern European countries are still considered as late-comers, which have to manage unexpected flows on the fly without a clear immigration model. This image of Southern European countries as weak guardian of the borders with precarious admission systems has contributed to forge the “negative exceptionality” of the Southern European model in comparison with Western Europe. Against this backdrop, this panel has a two-fold aim: i) to bring Southern Europe into the debate over immigration control regimes by questioning the existence of a North-South divide in immigration; ii) to argue that commonalities of specific immigration policy domains across European states tend to prevail over internal consistency of single countries’ overall immigration policy. To this end, the papers will unravel different components of migration regimes in order to understand their actual functioning and go beyond national-based typologies. In doing that, the panel will offer a comparative analysis of three key policies domains: policy visa and external controls, internal controls and labour migration. Moreover, it will address the recent developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic with special regard to labour force’s shortcomings in agriculture and amnesties of irregular migrants. PAPER #1 Policing Entries, Enforcing Exits AUTHOR(S) Giuseppe Sciortino (University of Trento) ABSTRACT Unwanted migration has been credited with the unleashing of Europe’s darkest side, feeding populism and xenophobia. Starting in the early ‘80s, Northern European states have developed a model of migration management that has emphasised the temporal and spatial externalisation of borders, in order to filter “wanted” from “unwanted” migrants (asylum-seekers being mostly in the latter category). Such model has been imposed, at first, on reluctant Southern and Eastern European states (responsible for nearly all migration-critical EU external borders). For a long time, there has been a structural strain between the Northern European migration policies – focused mostly on the prevention of asylum seekers – and the Southern ones – focused on controlling flows of irregular workers. In the last decade, there has been a strong, and often uncritical, process of convergence in the control policies of most European states. The original Northern model has become the widely accepted normative model supported and invoked by public opinion across the whole EU. The paper will analyse comparatively the functioning of the policies meant to police the entries on the territory of the EU (visa policy, carrier sanctions, border controls, counter-trafficking and counter-smuggling operations) and to deport those who have no right of abode in the union. These policies are meant both to contain the overall volume of unwanted flows and populations and to intervene in its internal composition. External controls, in other words, are strictly tied to the management of an irregular migration regime PAPER #2 Coping with seasonal demands in times of Covid19: the cases of Spain and The Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Blanca Garcés (CIDOB) Berta Güell (CIDOB) Jeroen Doomernik (University of Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Seasonal Workers Programmes in Agriculture represent a common labour migration policy in Europe, which have been put in place for several decades to fulfil labour demands in the field. At the turn of the 21st century, the EU introduced circular migration schemes with temporary jobs in sectors such as agriculture to foster ordered and “legal” migration flows with the aim to cover the needs of the labour market and fight against “illegal immigration” (Reigada 2011). Although such schemes are different in terms of size and nature, and constitute different regimes of migration governance across countries (López-Sala et al 2016), they were shaped by similar labour demands and, in the current context of COVID-19, face similar constraints, basically consisting in the need to find “functional equivalents” and “functional alternatives” (Pastore 2004) with other groups of workers (national and foreign residents or irregular immigrants) already in place. This paper focuses on the cases of Spain and the Netherlands as two countries that entail the European North-South divide and analyses how boundaries in the field of temporary and circular migration schemes become more blurred during the pandemic. To this aim, the paper makes use of qualitative data (in-depth interviews with key informants) from the EC H2020 project “ADMIGOV Advancing Alternative Migration Governance” (2019 to 2022). PAPER #3 The quest for internal migration control in the Netherlands and Spain: different objectives, different approaches, different results AUTHOR(S) Gabriel Echeverria (University of Trento) ABSTRACT Analysing the approach and efficacy of EU countries in controlling international migrations, the Netherlands and Spain have often been portrayed as opposite examples. The former as the top of the class when coming to strict control enforcement and effective migration deterrence, the latter, in good company with countries like Italy, Greece or Portugal, as an example of weak control measures and inconsistent results. Yet, the dichotomist hypothesis of a North/South divide that stays behind this type of interpretation, frequently associated to a not too veiled moral judgment on the good and the bad, is difficult to maintain even after a first scratch to the surface. Migration policies are not static and countries display in this field a very dynamic conduct that may generate at times convergence or divergence with the others. Moreover, their efficacy is influenced by a complexity of factors that are related to the configuration of societies as a whole and the relation between their subsystems (culture, politics, economics, welfare, etc.). The paper, exploiting the results on an innovative multi-sited qualitative research among irregular migrants in Amsterdam and Madrid, will comparatively analyse the migration regimes in the two countries, focusing on internal controls. Two ambiguous realities will emerge, with similarities and differences, degrees of convergence and persistence of variance, complex enough to escape a clear-cut description in terms of opposites. PAPER #4 Challenges and ambiguities of the policies for immigrants’ regularisation in Southern Europe: the Portuguese case in context AUTHOR(S) João Peixoto (School of Economics and Management (ISEG), University of Lisboa) Jorge Malheiros (Centre of Geographical Studies (CEG) of the University of Lisbon) ABSTRACT The idea that most immigrant receiving countries face a crisis of control has become pervasive since the 1990s, when neoliberal globalisation, as well as securitarian and nationalist policies, gained space. When irregular migration occurs, the basic ex-post policy choices are limited to ignore the problem, enact deportation strategies or create mechanisms for regularisation. In Southern European countries, irregular immigration became endemic. Using Portugal as a reference, this chapter intends to examine how such processes were implemented and why they have been enacted. Because the features of the Portuguese case share elements with the other countries, some comparative analysis is developed and positioned at the global EU level, to evaluate the blurring of migration regimes’ boundaries. Under a similar general umbrella, followed by left to right-wing governments, the policy solutions in Portugal have varied and covered the various options implemented by the Southern European countries. Until the mid-2000s, some regularisations consisted of general amnesties, others relied on economic conditions and others depended on bilateral agreements. The reasons behind its implementation were diverse, including the need to regulate ex-post labour shortages, to control the presence of “invisible” immigrants, to fight social dumping and the respect for immigrant’s rights. More recently, extraordinary regularisations were replaced by an ongoing case-by-case model, which remains as a solution for the structural problem of irregular migration and for specific emergency crises such as the recent pandemic crisis.

author

Giuseppe Sciortino

Università di Trento

author

Berta Güell

CIDOB

author

Jeroen Doomernik

IMES Amsterdam

author

Gabriel Echeverria

University of Trento

author

João Peixoto

School of Economics and Management (ISEG), University of Lisboa

author

Jorge Malheiros

Centre of Geographical Studies (CEG) of the University of Lisbon

author

Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas

CIDOB

Social networks in migration studies: contemporary approaches and emerging issues

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #127 workshop | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

organizer

Basak Bilecen

University of Bielefeld

organizer

Raffaele Vacca

University of Florida

The central role of social networks in shaping migration flows and destinations, migrant incorporation, and transnational practices has been well acknowledged by scholars of migration studies in the past few decades. Going beyond network metaphors, contemporary research has started not only to make use of existing, large-scale network datasets to model and understand the role and implications of social networks for international migration, but also to collect new, more detailed and diverse social network data with a variety of innovative tools. Moreover, qualitative studies have been on the rise in exploring and theorizing more detailed accounts of personal ties in which migrants are embedded. Against this background of new theoretical and empirical developments enlightening the nexus of social networks and migration phenomena, this workshop aims to bring together a diverse array of scholars and projects that are currently using social network data and methods to study international migration. In line with IMISCOE’s focus on multidisciplinary and comparative research, the workshop will feature scholars who conduct research on migration issues from an interdisciplinary perspective, including sociology, anthropology, and economics; and in different national contexts across Europe and the United States. Workshop participants will: * Highlight the theoretical and methodological contributions that social network research brings to contemporary migration studies. * Present cutting-edge methods and tools that have recently been developed for the collection and analysis of network data in migration research. * Discuss challenges and practical issues surrounding research design with international teams, fieldwork interruptions due to Covid-19, and lessons learned on ways to deal with these problems. * Compare and share lessons and best practices from studies involving network designs across different disciplines and countries.

participant

Janine Dahinden

University of Neuchatel

participant

Louise Ryan

London Metropolitan University

participant

Renáta Hosnedlova

Sciences Po Toulouse

participant

Miranda J. Lubbers

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

participant

José Luis Molina

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

participant

Maritsa Poros

The City College of New York, CUNY

participant

Giacomo Solano

Migration Policy Group (MPG)

participant

Frank van Tubergen

Utrecht University

Privileged Mobilities 1

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #128 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

Shifting EU mobilities during sanitary crises: The implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on models of membership Acil Abdul Hadi Toulouse School of Management - Toulouse Business School Monika Bozhinoska Lazarova University of Bamberg Kerstin Martel Copenhagen Business School Ivan Olav Vulchanov Copenhagen Business School In the European Economic Area, and particularly the Schengen Agreement Area, mobile employees have moved between countries, searched for work and settled in accordance with the existing framework guaranteeing free movement on the background of citizenship. The uncoordinated and seemingly arbitrary national level restrictions of movement following the COVID-19 pandemic have, during 2020, created shifting and at times paradoxical entry conditions for individuals who lead mobile lives. Mobility rules have been drastically reshuffled through closed borders, bilateral agreements and travel corridors, questioning the validity of the Schengen Agreement and setting the scene for “cross-border immobility”. Despite the constraints’ temporary nature, researching the implications of severe movement restrictions in times of sanitary crises is highly relevant in illustrating the degree to which mobile individuals base their life choices on established principles of free movement. In order to assess this empirically, we have applied multiple in-depth marginal case study analyses of the mobility conditions for individuals with various citizenship and residency combinations, all exemplifying extreme cases. The individuals of our study have attempted to travel during the pandemic for professional and personal purposes, and the complex combinations of their citizenship, residency, and affiliations with various locations have resulted in different situations where the pre-crisis basis for movement has been replaced by novel constraints. The data stems from a combination of qualitative interviews, personal written reflections and official document analysis. By examining the travel restrictions implemented in EU states during the COVID-19 pandemic, we aim to build on theory of society membership criteria. === Privileged Migrations? Latin American Onward Migrants from Spain to other European Countries Antía Pérez-Caramés ESOMI. University of A Coruna Intra-European migration has gained relevance in the last decade, mainly due to the intensification of crisis-driven mobility trends from Southern European countries, but also to the upsurge of onward movements of migrants previously settled in any other European country. In the Spanish case, this trend is particularly salient within the Latin American community, given the easier access to the Spanish nationality (2 years of legal residence whereas other third-country migrants require 10 years of legal residence), and also because they count on extended transnational links with Latin Americans in other European countries. In this paper, I will explore the process of onward migration of Latin Americans from Spain to other European destinations, discussing whether the category of privileged migrations is suitable for this migratory phenomenon under the light of the use of their status as Spanish citizens but also having into account their labour trajectories both in the country of first and subsequent destination. The methodology combines sociodemographic analysis with qualitative multi-sited fieldwork in three countries of destination of Latin American onward migrants from Spain: United Kingdom, Germany, and France. === Pervasive rural representations and COVID-19: Understanding privileged migration and inequalities in rural Scotland Christina Noble James Hutton Institute Margaret Currie James Hutton Institute Ruth Wilson James Hutton Institute Jonathan Hopkins James Hutton Institute The image of the rural as a retreat, haven and safe space perseveres (see Halfacree 1993), and with the global pandemic of COVID-19 during 2020, remote and rural spaces have been attractively presented as places to escape the worst of imposed COVID-19 restrictions. Whilst these static and sanitized rural representations are not new, they have resurfaced prominently as second home purchases in rural areas have grabbed headlines, attracting predominately lifestyle migrants from largely middle-class backgrounds (Weedon, 2020). Migration is central to policy discussions around rural resilience, and even small demographic changes can potentially impact more greatly upon the viability and sustainability of key services within rural communities. Importantly, migration is not a singular act, it affects more than the person who physically moves in and out of rural communities and the effects can be far-reaching. This paper will utilise recent responsive research into the present impacts of COVID-19 on remote and rural Scotland across key sectorial rural interests and the potential future outlook to explore these nuances further. The qualitative interviews will highlight how migration has changed as a consequence of COVID-19; that new inequalities may have been exposed; and the importance to consider local experiences for planning a future for rural communities in the face of COVID-19 and Brexit. === High-skilled migration to Germany: narratives of migrant workers from Brazil and the emotions involved in the migratory journey Daniel Braga Nascimento Institut für Deutsches, Europäisches und Internationales Recht - Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) How do emotions influence the decision of staying longer in the country of destination or returning to the home country? Germany has many options of visas to high-skilled migrants to access the labour market and this article explore the emotions involved in living in the country as a high-skilled migrant worker. The method of data collection was qualitative, using semi-structured interviews. Utilizing an interview protocol, sixteen Brazilians were used as a sample in six different states (Berlin, Bayern, Baden-Würtmberg, Sachsen, and Rheinland-Pfalz) in eleven different cities in Germany. The empirical research took place from March and April 2020 having Berlin as the research-base. The emotional turn is a focus of researchers on the processes that migrants experience during their journey. As a Theoretical Framework, the lens of Transnationalism was used to enrich the analysis of the data collected. Data shows that more than 3 million Brazilians live abroad, although this number does not count people with dual citizenship or those who are undocumented. From 2011 to 2019, there was a 183% increase in the permanent leave of Brazilians according to the Receita Federal do Brasil (Brazilian tax collector). The results showed that emotions related to belonging ,culture, longing, guilty, anger, return, language, and politics had an important factor on their migration process and decisions. For the majority of the informants, quality of life was considered as more important than economical factors (salary).

author

Kerstin Martel

CBS - Copenhagen Business School

author

Acil Abdul Hadi

Toulouse Business School

author

Monika Bozhinoska Lazarova

University of Bamberg

author

Ivan Olav Vulchanov

Copenhagen Business School

author

Antia Pérez-Caramés

ESOMI

author

Christina Noble

The James Hutton Institute

author

Margaret Currie

James Hutton Institute

author

Ruth Wilson

James Hutton Institute

author

Jonathan Hopkins

James Hutton Institute

author

Daniel Braga Nascimento

University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

An intersectional and global approach to the study of gender and migration

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #129 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

chair

Nicola Piper

Queen Mary University of London

chair

Petra Dannecker

University of Vienna

This panel provides an overview of the key themes that organise the new Palgrave Handbook on Gender and Migration. Combining interdisciplinary and multi-methods perspectives, the contributions to this panel run through two narratives: intersectionality and globality/transnationality. In reflecting upon the complex and multi-layered nature of inequality, migration is presented as a process shaped by gender, class, race, and nation, and conditioned by public policies, international regimes, states’ and other normative definitions, often rooted in colonialism. The contributions to this panel highlight the centrality of care and gender-responsiveness in the governance of migration.  The significance of ‘South-South’ migration is also brought to the fore, taking our understanding of gender and migration beyond western contexts, adding a further layer to the multi-directional, multi-sited and complex nature of gendered migration and how it is experienced. PAPER #1 Reflexivity and its Enactment Potential in Gender and Migration Research AUTHOR(S) Kyoko Shinozaki (Salzburg University ) ABSTRACT Migration and feminist researchers have long been engaging in discussions concerning fieldwork and methodology. One of the common, recurring claims made is the importance of reflexivity about (researchers’) positionality. Taking the hitherto discussion of positionality as a point of departure, which has so far mainly focused on data collection, the aim of this contribution is threefold: First, it maps out some of the main contours of debates in feminist studies, ethnic and racial studies, and critical migration studies to ascertain the importance given to the issue of power and inequalities between researcher and researched in field relations and knowledge production. Second, this paper asks how much of this “reflexive turn” is something specific to qualitative migration research. Finally, the paper explores the co-production of knowledge, dissemination, and the creation of broader engagement as a feedback system of “public science” to enact reflexivity. PAPER #2 Gendered Transnational Parenting AUTHOR(S) Valentina Mazzucato (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT Transnational families in which parents and children reside in different nation states have existed for centuries, yet scholarship has paid attention to this phenomenon only in the past 20 years. The feminization of migration, resulting in more mothers migrating independently and leaving their children in the care of someone else, has contributed to the recent attention. Studies have found that mothers and children are affected negatively in various dimensions of their well-being. Gender norms are often seen as part of the explanation. As mothers are often the primary care providers, their co-presence is considered a prerequisite to healthy child development. If mothers cannot fulfill this parenting norm, this results in stress and guilt for these mothers and emotional loss for children. Men’s roles as breadwinners is seen as more compatible with their migration. Yet, there are only a limited number of studies that have looked at fathers and comparisons between migrant mothers and fathers are even scarcer. This paper will discuss and contrast effects of transnational separation of migrant mothers and fathers. While gender norms are taken into account, this paper will also look at contextual and structural factors that can explain possible differences. PAPER #3 Gendered Mobilities and the Blurring Boundaries between Sex Tourism, Marriage Migration and Lifestyle Migration AUTHOR(S) Sirijit Sunanta (Mahidol University ) ABSTRACT Lifestyle migration refers to the relocation of relatively privileged individuals in a pursuit of a better, more fulfilling life. Initially conceptualized to study migration within Europe and the Americas, the concept has later been adopted to study migration from the Global North to the Global South including destinations in Asia and Africa. Gender has been understudied in the literature of lifestyle migration although what constitutes a good life is highly gendered. Studying the migration of predominantly older German men to Pattaya, Thailand, this study found that the intimate relationship with Thai women—ranging from casual encounters with bargirls, to boyfriend-girlfriend relationship and to marital partnership, is integral to the migration decision. Embedded in a history of gendered mobilities between Thailand and Germany, the settlement of German men in Pattaya reveals the blurry boundaries between sex tourism, marriage migration, and lifestyle migration. Bringing in the feminist concept of global care chain shifts the emphasis of lifestyle migration from individual migrants to global inequality that underpins care mobility and the global intimate. PAPER #4 Gender and International Student migration AUTHOR(S) Parvati Raghuram (Open University) ABSTRACT Students have been important constituents of migratory flows but until recently they were seen as temporary short-term migrants and were therefore excluded from mainstream migration debates, including those on gender and migration. However, the rapid rise in international student migrants in recent years has led to a spate of research on this group. Yet, and despite the fact that women form a growing part of international student flows, little gender analysis has been conducted. This paper begins by setting out the framings of parallel conversations in gender and migration and student migration. It then focuses on what the two bodies of work can learn from each other. The next section explores how and where gender matters in the student migration trajectory – from decision-making about migration to the migration experience and finally the post-study transitions. In doing so it points to the limited work exploring these issues and highlights areas for future research. The paper concludes by broadening out these issues and interrogating gender, international and student in debates on gender and international student migration.

author

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

discussant

Eleonore Kofman

MDX

author

Kyoko Shinozaki

Paris Lodron University of Salzburg

author

Sirijit Sunanta

Mahidol University

author

Parvathi Raghuram

The Open University

discussant

Johanna Leinonen

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

author

Magdalena Suerbaum

Migrant Transnationalism 10

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #130 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

Accidental Yugosphere – Belonging, identity, and space in migrant buses Mišo Kapetanović School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of St.Gallen How do rising mobilities change the migratory experience? The paper explores geographies of belonging among post-Yugoslav migrants settled in German-speaking Swiss cantons and migrants' seasonal journeys to the sending region. By combining the ethnography of mobility and sociolinguistics (code-switching and code-mixing), the research engages in migrants' conceptualizations of space, distance, and belonging to offer an empirical, class sensitive analysis of transnationalism. Migrant groups from the region of former Yugoslavia represent an instructive case for understanding the interplay of mobilities and transnationalism in the European context. With more than fifty years of continuous emigration and several distinct migration waves, the region's groups share peculiar dynamics of divided identity politics and joint social practices. Since the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks, and others re-organized according to their ethnonational identities and acted separately in political representation, diaspora associations, religious missions, and education. Nevertheless, in everyday practices, individuals from these groups remain oriented to each other due to language intelligibility and cultural intimacy, organizing joint business ventures, entertainment, and cultural associations. Thus, the situation lends itself to a study on how labor migrants understand and operate in mobilities and how they use and co-create transnational spaces. The paper studies migrant buses operating between the sending and receiving region and the ways in which migrants navigate between the Swiss, the national, and the regional spaces, here referred to as an accidental Yugosphere. I focus on the personal navigation strategies and linguistic practices used to support them. These practices indicate the new relationships between home/away, here/there, us/them and are moving away from the sending/receiving logic of the nation-state. === So close, so far: hope and belonging among Syrian refugees and the host community in Lebanon Ramona Rischke HU Berlin and DeZIM Nader Talebi HU Berlin The paper presents findings from three quantitative data collections among Syrian refugees and the host society in Lebanon conducted in 2019, 2020, and early 2021 as a part of an interdisciplinary and joint large-scale research project: TRANSMIT (Transnational Perspectives on Migration and Integration). The surveys (1250 - 2800 observations) include a two-wave panel and an online survey. They jointly cover a wide range of topics ranging from current and past living situations, expectations about the future, integration dynamics, and assessments related to the “October 2019 uprising” in Lebanon. The country has experienced a multi-faceted crisis in the past two eventful years. Lebanon’s economy collapses with a political deadlock on top of its institutionalised sectarian system preventing it from effective crisis-management. Moreover, it encapsulates several features of the region with its considerable mobility of people, ideas, and capital. Hosting the highest number of refugees per capita worldwide, Lebanon itself experienced a long-lasting civil war (1975-1990), which formed initially around the question of Palestinian refugees, resulted in massive internal displacement, and has continued effects on society today. Our preliminary findings suggest that complex boundary-making processes are at work, despite shared history and regardless of ‘cultural’ similarities between Syrians and Lebanese. This affects the experiences of both Syrian refugees and the host population, including their sense of belonging to society. Our data facilitates a deeper understanding of the experiences of Syrian refugees, hopes, and expectations in Lebanon in particular, and of dynamics related to (forced) migration more generally. === Cultural difference and social connections in the context of multiple migration Aleksadra Winiarska University of Warsaw, Institute of Applied Social Sciences and Centre of Migration Research Justyna Salamońska University of Warsaw, Centre of Migration Research Sabina Toruńczyk-Ruiz University of Warsaw, Faculty of Psychology Marta Kluszczyńska Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań Aneta Krzyworzeka-Jelinowska University of Warsaw Migrant narratives give insight into the experience of cultural difference as well as the establishment and maintenance of social relations and connections in diverse contexts. In the case of non-linear and more complex migration trajectories involving several international moves (which we term multiple migration) these narratives can take on novel meanings. The aim of our paper is to explore how migrants navigate social connections and cultural practices. Although these issues have been extensively studied among settled migrants, the context of multiple migration has yet rarely been considered. While research on economic migrants shows that they tend to cluster with co-ethnics, the literature on cosmopolitanism suggests that migration may foster openness to more diverse and non-national identities and ties. Exploring the narratives of multiple migrants may provide insights to how those who have lived in more than two countries experience such opposing processes. In our analysis we examine Polish multiple migrants’ ties with important others in the country of origin, in the country of current destination, in countries previously visited, as well as other places worldwide. We are also interested in the role of culture and language in maintaining relations and their different forms. Who do multiple migrants establish connections with? How do they perceive the cultural difference and social diversity that they experience as a result of migration? Our paper will be based on a qualitative panel study of Polish multiple migrants based worldwide, conducted within the MULTIMIG project at the Centre for Migration Research, University of Warsaw. === Between hype and hope - digital nomads in Croatia Caroline Hornstein Tomic Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar Dora Bagić The World Bank, Office Zagreb Maja Kurilić Foundation Znanje na djelu / Wissen am Werk The crisis-ridden year 2020 has attracted public attention to an emergent group of temporary residents in Croatia referred to as digital nomads. This small but vocal group of remote workers has chosen to settle mostly in the coastal regions and the capital Zagreb. While Croatia´s hospitality in 2020 was compromised not only due to COVID-19 related lockdown measures but repeated earthquakes in spring and at the end of the year, new policy measures to facilitate temporary residency have directly responded to the current hype around digital nomads. The need to attract foreign workforce has in recent times been pointed out by stakeholders in domestic politics and industry, however a comprehensive migration policy addressing the labor shortage in key industrial sectors is missing, and so the reframing of public discourse on migration. The easing of conditions for digital nomads therefore has triggered hopes for a policy and discourse shift. Whether those are justified, a better understanding of temporary residency practices and remote work in Croatia is crucial. Based on semi-structured interviews with digital nomads and temporary return migrants, focus groups, and social media discourse, we analyze what digital nomads and temporary return migrants have in common: in practices, motives, and impacts on local contexts. The life-style migration, in which digital nomads engage as “serious leisure” (B. Yuen Thompson 2018), intersects, and yet differs from temporary return migration, a practice familiar to Croatia as classic country of emigration with a large diaspora, and an increasingly transnationally mobile young generation.

author

Miso Kapetanovic

University of St. Gallen

author

Ramona Rischke

HU Berlin, DeZIM

author

Aleksandra Winiarska

University of Warsaw

author

Justyna Salamońska

University of Warsaw

author

Sabina Toruńczyk-Ruiz

University of Warsaw, Faculty of Psychology

author

Marta Kluszczyńska

Center of Migration Research

author

Caroline Hornstein Tomic

Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar

author

Dora Bagić

The World Bank, Office Zagreb

author

Maja Kurilić

Foundation Znanje na djelu / Wissen am Werk

author

Aneta Krzyworzeka-Jelinowska

Warsaw University

Urban Solidarity in International Perspective: Towards a New Research Agenda

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #131 workshop | SC Migration Politics and Governance

organizer

Harald Bauder

Ryerson

organizer

Martin Bak Jørgensen

Aalborg University

Around the world, cities are key sites for understanding migrant integration and refugee protection. Although, nation states typically claim authority over the selection and acceptance of migrants and refugees, cities tend to be the places where migrants and refugees integrate into the social fabric of society, where they participate in economic and social life, and where they develop a sense of belonging. In fact, many cities protect and include inhabitants who are denied legal status by nation states. In Canada and the US, these cities are called “sanctuary cities;” in other countries they have labels such as solidarity cities, cities of refuge, communities of reception, and cities of welcome. This workshop brings together leading researchers to discuss recent advances and emerging research needs for exploring innovative urban approaches towards migrant and refugee inclusion. A specific objective of the workshop is to explore an agenda to advance theoretical knowledge and practical understandings related to urban sanctuary, solidarity and hospitality towards vulnerable migrants and refugees in different parts of the world. Participants will provide a short opening statement followed by open discussion. The audience will be encouraged to participate actively in the discussion.

participant

Maurizio Ambrosini

university of Milan

participant

Jonathan Darling

University of Durham

participant

Helen Schwenken

IMIS

participant

Óscar García Agustín

Aalborg University

participant

Stefanie Kron

Rosa Luxemburg Foundation

participant

Andreas Pott

Institute for Migration and Intercultural Studies (IMIS), University of Osnabrück

Migrant Transnationalism 6

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #132 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

Bridging images and providing experiences: Migrant entrepreneurs in Icelandic tourist sector Anna Wojtyńska University of Iceland Unnur Dís Skaptadóttir University of Iceland Pamela Innes University of Wyoming Images are powerful incitements for different kinds of mobilities. Placed on the margins of Europe, Iceland often allures with its unspoiled nature and unique landscapes. Frequently, these images were the very reasons that brought some of our interlocutors to Iceland. A few of them decided to develop their own enchantment into tourist-related businesses, often tailored to people from their countries of origins. In this paper we look at transnational entrepreneurship in terms of its social and cultural aspects, rather than focusing on it solely as economic practice. Based on data collected during three months of ethnographic fieldwork in the north of Iceland, we discuss the role of migrant entrepreneurs for regional development, local community life and emerging transnational space. During the course of the study, we talked to several migrant entrepreneurs coming from different countries (mostly from Germany and Scandinavia), that have settled in rural areas in Iceland. Our findings show how migrants’ continued multi-sited embeddedness enables and perpetuates cross-border flows of images and ideas, as well as people, linking the peripheral rural areas with global spaces. While stimulating tourism in the region, migrant entrepreneurs we talked to were also providing jobs for foreign workers. Many were actively involved in promoting and so reinforcing certain images of Iceland as well as enthusiastically engaged in retaining local heritage. Keyword: transnationalism, migrants' entrepreneurship, representation, rural areas === “Dancing between two worlds”: Identity and responsibility amongst Samoan diaspora in Australia Laura Simpson Reeves The University of Queensland This paper explores how the concepts of ‘identity’ and ‘responsibility’ are intertwined and enacted in the everyday lives of the Samoan diaspora in Greater Brisbane, Australia. Based on two years of qualitative, unstructured interviews with 16 participants identifying as part of the Samoan diaspora, this paper discusses how the diaspora identity is performed through acts of duty and a sense of responsibility. First, I describe how members of the diaspora feel a sense of responsibility to their household that is both financial and non-financial. Second, I discuss how responsibility to broader family and community both in Brisbane and in the islands largely manifested as financial contributions, and the challenges this poses for individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Third, I explore how participants felt a responsibility to their future selves, based on decisions made in the past by their parents or other relatives. The paper concludes with a discussion about how identity – and the loss of identity – remains tied in to these duties and responsibilities. === The challenges, opportunities and ambiguities of the "in-between". Asylum-seeking children and their families in reception centres in Belgium Katja Fournier Odisee University of Applied Sciences Kaat Van Acker Odisee University of Applied Sciences Dirk Geldof University of Antwerp & Odisee University of Applied Sciences In 2020 one out of four (24,1%) asylum seekers living in collective refugee centres in Belgium were minors: approximately 5.000 children and youngsters. The majority is living with family members, a smaller group are unaccompanied youngsters. They stay in the centres during the period of their asylum procedure, which lasts one to three years. Most of the collective refugee or asylum centres in Belgium are hosted in infrastructures that served other purposes in the past. It are seldom child-friendly places. Asylum seeking children and their families find themselves in an intrigate web of multiple 'in-betweens' of time, space, homing, childhood, parenthood, identity and the spectrum of vulnerability and resilience. Living in a reception centre alters child-rearing practices and family dynamics, sometimes leading to parenting on hold. How do children experience their stay in these centres and the period in limbo, after migrating with their family? Is the ‘best interest of the child’ guaranteed? And how could their stay in these infrastructures become more child-oriented? The paper is based on a multi-methods research on children in Belgian collective refugee centres, including 112 in-depth interviews with parents (43), children (29) and staff of all levels (38) in 9 refugee centres in Flanders and Wallonia. Furthermore it includes 15 expert-interviews and a the outcomes of an expert network. In the paper, we focus on the different processes of loss, negociation and (re)creation that can come into play in the 'in-betweens', comparing the perspective of the children on the living conditions in the refugee centres, with that of their parents and of the staff. === Emerging models of financing transnational businesses- Evidence from African immigrant entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom Jude Kenechi Onyima Middlesex University London Transnational entrepreneurship provides growth opportunity for immigrants who face dauting challenges in growing their businesses in host communities. Notwithstanding that it may be a cheaper alternative, they are still faced with problem of access to right finance. African immigrant entrepreneurs in the UK appeared to be worst hit by this challenge because of perceived discrimination by high street banks and lack of supportive ethnic capital unlike their Asian counterparts. Recent events show that globalization and innovations in digital technology appeared to have transformed funding arrangement for typical business creating new funding vehicles such as crowdfunding and venture capital. However, how financing of transnational businesses has transformed in the face of ‘new communities’ and social capital created by embeddedness in transnational environment have received little attention. This study is therefore focused on exploring how opening of transnational space, digitisation of financial services and transnational entrepreneurship shaped financing pattern of transnational entrepreneurs. This study will use case studies of eight Black African transnational entrepreneurs living in the UK to examine models of financing transnational businesses as well as the ecosystem that supports their functioning. Knowing that lending in immigrant entrepreneurship is not purely an economic affair, this study will assist policy makers and regulators to understand emerging trans-local funding paradigm. It will also shed light on conceptualization of informality in the context of ethnic business financing which support institutions need in tailoring their products.

author

Anna Wojtynska

University of Iceland

author

Unnur Dís Skaptadóttir

University of Iceland

author

Pamela Innes

University of Wyoming

author

Laura Simpson Reeves

University of Queensland

author

Katja FOURNIER

Centre for Family Studies, Odisee

author

Kaat Van Acker

Odisee University of Applied Sciences

author

Dirk Geldof

University of Antwerp

author

Jude Kenechi Onyima

Middlesex University London

Reflexive Migration Studies 1

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #133 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

Walls of change: narratives of border crossing on the walls of Athens Gemma Bird University of Liverpool Jelena Obradovic-Wochnik Aston University This paper will draw on photographs taken in Athens between 2017 and 2020 of messages to and from people crossing borders and seeking asylum. It will draw on images of graffiti, posters and stencils to demonstrate how banal artefacts (Obradovic-Wochnik & Bird, 2019) that may fade in to the city scape tell the story of the changing relationship between the city and those making informal and impermanent lives within it. How changing political responses and narratives can be read on the walls of Greece’s capital city. The photographs are the result of repeated visits to the city over the last three years, alongside engagement with different actors living, working and volunteering there. Within these images are complex narratives relating to housing, messages of welcome, messages of border closure, responses to legal and political decision making and everyday stories of life surviving in a city, country and European Union that is not always welcoming. Building on the engagements of others with the walls of Athens (Tulke, 2017, 2019) this paper will focus on the concept of change. Changing streets, changing politics and changing stories hidden in plain sight on the walls of a city that tells so many stories and holds so many memories. In presenting these changes we challenge the ‘whitewashing’ (the literal use of white paint) as a banal object (paint) doing the bordering work of the state (Obradovic-Wochnik & Bird, 2019) in trying to forget enacted resistance to bordering and the human lives ensconced within these walls. === WHAT COMES TO MATTER AS BORDER: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF THE WORK OF KNOWING AND DOING BORDER-NESS IN PARIS Lola Luce Elena Aubry University Of Southern Denmark This paper looks at how volunteers helping out migrants in Paris come to know, experience and make the city of Paris as a borderland through their various practices of welcome and struggles in the city. To do so I use the concept of border-ness as coined by Sara Green (2012) to refer to the sense of what count as/in border(ing). I unfold the concept and conceptualise it as an embodied and situated sense of the border-like qualities/meaning of place, practices, people, relations, materialities, temporalities which I link to the Geographic literature on the Sense of Place. Based on my in depth and long term ethnographic fieldwork among the network of associations, NGOs and collectives doing welcome for migrants in Paris I demonstrate how perceiving and feeling the border in Paris is an ongoing, situated, relational, affective and multiple process of knowledge in which the people I acted with were immersed in and participated to while acting. I show how their capacity to participate to the negotiation of border practices but more largely, what they do and do not do, emerge from the ongoing knowing-doing of Parisian border-ness. As they help and struggle, they are ongoingly defining what does and does not matter/count as border and bordering in the specific context of Paris. Three different stories from the field are told in detail as to present three different modes of knowing-doing border-ness: the evacuation of a make-shift camp, a visit to the Parisian deportation bureau, and a session of preparation to the French Asylum procedure. === Crossing (medial) borders: on the agency and mediality of migrants’ objects Costanza Caraffa Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max Planck Institute Almut Goldhahn Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max Planck Institute By crossing borders, migrants leave behind material traces: objects of first necessity such as water bottles, lifejackets, food packaging, but also very personal belongings like photographs, letters, or religious items. Often seen as trash, these abandoned objects are already in the focus of anthropologists and archeologists (Hamilakis 2018; Hauser 2018; Soto 2018), of artists, and of museums. The potential of these objects to generate identification, community and communication is related to the important question to whom they belong (Gatta 2016) as well as to a raising debate on the possible forms and the ethicality of their display (Cimoli 2018). These issues are at the core of the installation „Objects of migration – photo-objects of art history”, realized by the Italian artist Massimo Ricciardo in the Photothek of the Kunthistorisches Institut in Florenz – Max Planck Institute. Ricciardo put migrants’ objects collected on the shores of Lampedusa and Sicily in a dialogue with photo-objects and structures of the Photothek, including its physical space. This art-historical photo archive is a place of continuous negotiations of knowledge (Edwards 2011; Caraffa 2020), it participates at the same time with its taxonomy in the capitalist system at the origin of many current migratory phenomena. The installation provokes reflections on value systems, canon formation and definitions of cultural heritage. But what happens when the perspective changes due to the crossing of medial borders – when fragile three-dimensional objects leave the protected area of an ephemerous installation and become two-dimensional images by their display on a screen or in a publication? This medial short circuit changes the perception and opens a leak for a voyeuristic moment (Sarr/Savoy 2018), showing the difficulties of a fully decolonized handling of the materials. However, the same leak opens up the opportunity to rethink the project in a participatory way. === Psychosocial support as Border practice. The experience of EMERGENCY NGO in Italy Laura Serri EMERGENCY NGO Alessandro Dibenedetto EMERGENCY NGO Loredana Carpentieri EMERGENCY NGO Due to their experiences of stressful life events, migrants are vulnerable to developing mental health problems, yet they may face structural and socio-cultural barriers when accessing psychosocial support services. Language, poor resources, lack of awareness, fear of stigma and a mismatch between the local health system and perceived needs of migrants are key-barriers to accessing care. To overcome those barriers EMERGENCY NGO provides psychosocial support service, operating in Italy in several territories, both in urban and rural settings. In line with the conference themes, this work proposes a reflection on psychosocial support for migrants as “border practice"", in which the encounter with the Other takes place, negotiated by cultural mediators. The paper will delve into the foundations of psychosocial support interventions, built upon the close collaboration between psychologists and cultural mediators, to show how the two components work together with the aim of communicating health-related information across the various languages and cultures and helping patients in developing the perception of diseases and awareness about their rights. Hence, the concept of ""border"" here has not the meaning of ""barrier"". Rather, it refers to the liminal space of co-construction. This qualitative study will include interviews with beneficiaries and project staff members, data analysis and participant observation, carried out in three of the EMERGENCY's facilities in Milan, Venice and Ragusa. The study will also focus on the role played by psychologists and cultural mediators in promoting inclusion of migrants during the Coronavirus pandemic, which may have worked as a magnifier of their psychological precariousness. === The cross-border stiuation of refugees and migrants in Turkey during the pandemy Günes Koc İstanbul Arel University With Corona the question of border has been introduced at different levels such as class, race and citizenship. During the lockdown people from upper and middle classes had the chance to work at their homes or to go to country side, while people from lower classes had necessarly to work. Pandemy showed that the border includes class and racial questions and also the questions of borders of national states in terms of inclusion and exclusion, such as in the case of Greece. The refugee question is a question of biopolitics, formulated by Foucault (2015) and Agamben (2001) who decide about who can be made live and this question appeared as a question of race, class and as a refugee question. The refugees fighting at the borders of Greece for being recognized at the borders to enter into the borders of Greece, have been banished from the borders and have been sent to the cities they were registered in Turkey. During these border movements the refugees are throwen upon ‘the nacked life’ (Agamben, 2001) whose state of quo was shaped by precariat at many levels such as loosing jobs, having no shelter and don’t have any protection from pandemy as well as lack of health care. In this paper i will work on the stiuation of the refugees and Syrian migrants in Turkey, how they are effected by Corona in terms of loosing their jobs, loosing their houses, lack of the health care and encountering of discrimination at many levels.

author

Gemma Bird

University of Liverpool

author

Jelena Obradovic-Wochnik

Aston University

author

Lola Luce Aubry

Border region research group, Sdu

author

Costanza Caraffa

Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz - Max-Planck-Institut

author

Almut Goldhahn

Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz - Max Planck Institut

author

Laura Serri

EMERGENCY NGO

author

Alessandro Dibenedetto

EMERGENCY NGO

author

Loredana Carpentieri

EMERGENCY NGO

author

Günes Koc

İstanbul Arel University

Inequalities and the arts

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #134 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Elsa Mescoli

CEDEM

chair

Laura Haddad

University of Hamburg/University of Osnabruck

This panel aims at gathering presentations of data and analysis from empirically-based research conducted in different European and non-European contexts, and focusing on a wide range of art practices and groups of populations. The objective of this panel is twofold. First, it aims at understanding which inequalities still operate in the art domain with regard to migrants/people with migrant background/people belonging or assigned to cultural minorities. Inequalities may concern, among other topics: the access to culture, both as consumers, producers and managers of culture; gender issues; processes of racialisation on the stage (or in the recruitment phase) and related processes of exclusion; stereotypes, including those that represent these people as lacking cultural capital and needing to be targeted by specific policies to foster their cultural participation. Second, this panel aims at studying how these inequalities as well as the different forms of cultural hegemony that lie behind them are challenged by the concerned people/artists through, for example: bottom-up initiatives of cultural participation/artistic production; the performance of (specific aspects of) ethnicity; explicit acts of resistance and/or advocacy initiatives, etc. PAPER #1 Symbols, paintings and stories: contesting social inequalities through temple-arts within Indian Diaspora in the United Kingdom AUTHOR(S) Vinod Sartape (Central European University) ABSTRACT Temple as a physical entity plays an important role in displaying art and culture. Apart from regular ardas (prayers and sermons), Sikh temples have becoming a potential ground to represent community history and culture through religious symbols, images, and wall-paintings. Moreover, the display of historical artifacts (medieval coins, swards, letters) as sacred objects in the museums and libraries located in the temples is a recent phenomenon that informs the significance of temple-arts. This display, however, largely represents the popular narratives of culture and history while undermining the marginalized cultural narratives. In essence, this scenario reproduces social inequalities prevalent in everyday Sikhism. The symbolic representation of art and culture, thus, serves a two-fold purpose: it remains a basis of reproduction of cultural superiority in mainstream Sikhism, and it also becomes a means for the marginalized groups to construct the alternative cultural narratives while creating their own iconography and religious symbols in order to counter the dominant narratives. Through alternative temple imageries, symbols and rituals the lower caste Sikhs (or Ravidasis) find an expression of being an independent religious community while denouncing the mainstream Sikhism. Based on my temple-ethnography among Sikh and Ravidasia communities in the UK, this paper explores temple-arts as a mode of cultural representation and its socio-cultural implications in everyday life. The broader question this paper elaborates on is – how socio-cultural inequalities are reproduced through temple-arts and symbols and how marginalized community counters these inequalities while creating an alternative art and culture. PAPER #2 Institutionalizing hip-hop arts and culture in French-speaking Belgium: Challenging and perpetuating some inequalities? AUTHOR(S) Axel Mudahemuka Gossiaux (University of Liège) ABSTRACT In some European countries, there seems to be a growing process of institutionalization of hip-hop arts and culture in the public cultural sector and French-speaking Belgium does not seem to be unrelated to it. Speaking of how and why public policies would recognize, support and promote such artistic and cultural practices and dynamics, the French situation offers an example where hip-hop became a resource for public action helping meet public policy objectives designed for example, to address some social problems attributed to the category of “suburban youth” (Faure and Garcia 2005). Such “political uses of the social function of art” (Lafargue de Grangeneuve 2008: 212) in France have made rap music defined in light of the “‘suburban problem’, a media framing which makes it a music of the Others, whose otherness is inseparably social and racial. Rap artists inherit this racialized framework and must compose with him in multiple professional interactions” (Hammou and Simon 2018: 30; Hammou 2016). Through a cross-case analysis of several (socio-)/cultural projects in the multicultural cities of Liège and Brussels, I would like to come back to the issue of the institutionalization of popular cultural and artistic practices through a questioning around the perpetuation of inequalities in these areas and their policies’ implementation while they advocate concepts such as interculturality or cultural democracy. To do so, I will mobilize a diversity of qualitative methodological tools also with the aim of shedding light on how these inequalities can be challenged by the concerned people/artists. PAPER #3 “Quality” and Selectivity: The Role of Stage-Schools for Diversity on Stage in Public Theatres in Germany. AUTHOR(S) Jens Schneider (Universität Osnabrück) ABSTRACT Public theatres represent the most prestigious field of acting in Germany, and they generally apply a rigorous demand of “quality” in the recruitment of new actors. One of the effects of the concept of “quality” is that most public stages in Germany are still quite homogeneously ‘white” and middle-class in their cast, thus far from reflecting the actual diversity of the German population. This is conceived increasingly as a problem, but theatres have also claimed a supposed lack of supply in highly talented young actors of diverse backgrounds – which directs the attention to the stage-schools. Public stage-schools are considered to offer the highest quality education for acting on theatre stages and the admission procedure is very selective, and again the student body is mostly not very diverse – despite efforts of these schools to look out for more diversity. At the same time, there are private stage-schools that seem to have a much better access to students from most diverse background, although courses are much more expensive and offering less promising job prospects. The paper reports findings from a research project with three stage-schools in Hamburg, one public and two private ones. The project included interviews with directors and former students, and focus groups with acting students in the three schools. PAPER #4 Syrian Refugees’ Artistic participation in Belgium AUTHOR(S) Basel Adoum (University of Liège) ABSTRACT The amount of research concerning the nexus between arts and immigration is surprisingly low, especially when considering the richness of the artistic expressions in immigrant communities, and their subsequent impact on the host culture. The majority of the approaches of cultural studies promote simplistic views about minority arts in post-migration cities. The aim of this paper is to study some issues related to the artistic activities of Syrian artists in Belgium. To do this, I will analyse the response of arts institutions, for example, BOZAR (The Centre for Fine Arts in Brussels), the Moussem Nomadic Art Centre and the Goethe Institute in Belgium, regarding Syrian artists in Belgium and Europe. These centers have organized and hosted several festivals and events in which a substantial number of Syrian artists in diaspora, between 2011 until now, have participated. Furthermore, I will present three artistic initiatives in progress. They are organized by or in collaboration with Syrian artists. Let’s Laugh Together, a collective of immigrants in Brussels doing stand-up comedy; A day from her Diary, a theatre play by a group of immigrants about a Syrian family in Belgium; Je m’entends (I hear me), a theatre play organized by a group of Syrian refugees. The main outcome of this contribution is twofold. First, it aims to analyze the access of Syrian artists to cultural institutes; the label of ‘artist’ and ‘refugee artist’ and the representation of Syrian art; the participation of Syrian woman artists. Second, it aims to showcase certain bottom-up artistic self-organized initiatives attempting to challenge the exclusion and labeling processes put in place by mainstream cultural centers. PAPER #5 Composing a home away from home: Stress, music and place, asexperienced by Afghan refugees in the Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Bastiaan van Manen (Erasmus University Rotterdam) Pauwke Berkers (Erasmus University Rotterdam) ABSTRACT Despite various efforts, there are no standardized, European-widepolicies concerning an equal spread of refugees, resulting inimbalanced migratory flows throughout the continent. Consequentprolonged asylum procedures faced by individuals amplify thesocial stress that a loss or mismatch of (cultural) identity can cause, which – besides post-traumatic stress and economicinstability – is a major stress-source experienced by refugees. Onecoping mechanism utilized by many involves listening to music,and while its relation to stress has been well-documented, furtherimplications for identity and place have been scarcely studied. Thisresearch, then, aims to understand how Afghan refugees in theNetherlands use music to cope with the stress of seeking asylum,studying the role of music in the formation of an identity displacedfrom individuals’ home countries, and whether this may differ overthe course of the asylum procedure. Research is conductedthrough a series of 15 unstructured interviews with AfghanRefugees – between the ages of 18 and 25 – based in Arnhem,the Netherlands. Through the consideration of four different levels– the social; the cultural; the political, and; the purely musical –this research paints a picture of the process of identity formationthat the studied group may go through as a result of theirmigration. The focus on individuals’ musical tastes andaccompanied perceptions not only allow for a non-invasive studyof the topic, but provide contextualized insights into the variousfactors involved in a complex and reflexive process that bringstogether social phenomena which have remained largely unrelatedin previous research.

discussant

Wiebke Sievers

ISR

author

Vinod Sartape

Central European University

author

Axel Mudahemuka Gossiaux

University of Liège (CEDEM)

author

Jens Schneider

IMIS

author

Basel Adoum

University of Liège

author

Pauwke Berkers

Erasmus University Rotterdam

author

Bastiaan van Manen

Erasmus University Rotterdam

Local impacts, belonging, and citizenship 1

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #135 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

Drivers of brain drain: Systematic Review Eda Ozdek VUB Interface Demography Tuba Bircan VUB Interface Demography To have an effective and sustainable policy response to brain drain both from the sending and receiving country perspectives, understanding the drivers of brain drain is important. There are many studies about the causes of brain drain and different theories scrutinize the drivers of brain drain (brain gain) from different theoretical perspectives and methods. In the last decades, the combination of different factors such as conflict, political instability, economic insecurity, the cultural disparity is being considered instead of economic determinist theories. However, the changing world and circumstances, as well as the intersectionality, is making it hard to keep up with the state of art and to have forefront research on the topic. This paper aims at understanding the knowledge production on brain drain drivers (push and pull factors) by conducting a quality literature review that can integrate findings and perspectives from many empirical findings. Moreover, such review can provide information on which the research is disparate and interdisciplinary. This evidence can be used to have evidence on meta-level where we can identify the gaps and if more research is needed. To fulfil this aim, as a methodology systematic review is needed to bring thoroughness. === THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON VULNERABLE COMMUNITIES AND INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES: LESSONS FROM INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN NIGERIA Eyene Okpanachi University of South Wales Sani Murtala University of Manitoba This paper explores the impact of Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic on Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Nigeria and the responses of government and humanitarian organizations towards this vulnerable group. It adopts a phenomenological method of inquiry and semi-structured interview instrument in gathering and analyzing IDPs’ perceptions and experience of COVID-19 and the responses of the government and humanitarian organizations to the pandemic within selected IDP camps in Abuja and Nasarawa state that emerged as a result of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria’s northeast region. The study examines whether and how the vulnerabilities of the IDPs were further compounded by COVID-19 and deficits in institutional responses to it using the following criteria: access to information about COVID-19, access to emergency assistance and COVID-19 relief or palliatives, access to basic sanitary care; and opportunities for humanitarian organizations advocacy efforts for the protection of IDPs. By analysing these issues using the empirical case example of IDP governance in Nigeria, the paper adds to the emerging literature on the ways COVID-19 could reinforce inequities and vulnerability in a group that was already living under extraordinary difficult situation before the advent of the pandemic, as well as the coping strategies the IDPs themselves, have adopted to deal with the increasing risk they face. === Migration flows within a fragmented global north: (re)placing the nexus between migration and development Maria Teresa Santos Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, IGOT Maria Lucinda Fonseca Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, IGOT Jorge Macaísta Fonseca Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, IGOT The debate on migration and development has accompanied a conception of the world based on the duality between “developed” and “not developed” areas. From a geographical point of view, this perspective entails a notion of a “developed global north” (the “destination space”) and an “underdeveloped global south” (“origin spaces”). This oversimplified division of the world seems to ignore the impressive flows of labor migrants within the European Union that are accompanied by variegated forms of capitalism within the EU which appear embedded in spaces with distinct development levels. As such, it obliterates any discussion of the significance of labor migration and specially of the migration-development nexus within the European Union. In this paper we argue that understanding the different processes of reterritorialization and economic restructuring taking place in the global north seen as a site where accumulation by dispossession also occurs makes it possible to deconstruct the idea of the global north as a homogenized area of development. These theoretical insights make possible to place the migration development debate also in the global north, where regional development levels are different, convergence far from achieved and the intensity, composition and balance of migration diverse, therefore exposing the contradictions within global capitalism. The discussion will essentially assume a quantitative approach based in statistical data and will take the European Union countries and regions as a didactical example. === Refugee Inclusion -- for whom? A Case Study of the Influence of Aid Politics on Refugee Inclusion Strategies in the Jordan Compact Shaddin Almasri Danube University Krems In a setting of protracted refugee crises, donor responses have increasingly taken on experimental development approaches to address refugee needs. One such aid experiment was that of the Jordan Compact, drafted in February 2016, theorized as part of a global 'grand compromise' by donor states to support host states in alleviating the financial burden of refugee hosting. This aimed to turn the Syrian refugee crisis in Jordan into a development opportunity, by fostering job creation and harvesting skills of displaced populations. This brought with it attention from donors in the form of political interest and, more importantly, funding, to stimulate local economy and labour markets. However, the implementation of this plan was problematic: it focused only on stimulating jobs for Syrians and Jordanians, with little attention given to existing labour market dynamics and other employed nationality segments. Using a qualitative approach informed by both desk research and key informant interviews, this paper shows that the policies undertaken have formed a nationality-based prioritisation strategy that sought to improve Syrian labour market access over that of other nonJordanians and refugees from countries other than Syria. The Compact did little to address genuine job creation or social protection, focusing on boosting work permit numbers, a key performance indicator for the Jordan Compact, while simultaneously worsening non-Syrian migrant and refugee access to protection in formal work.

author

Tuba Bircan

Interface Demography (DEMO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Eda Ozdek

VUB Interface Demography

author

Eyene Okpanachi

author

Sani Murtala

University of Manitoba

author

Maria Teresa Santos

Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, IGOT

author

Maria Lucinda Fonseca

Instituto de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território, IGOT

author

Shaddin Almasri

Danube University Krems

Migration Politics & Governance 17

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #136 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

Immigrants’ access to public services: a political quagmire Sebastian Rinken Institute for Advanced Social Studies, Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC) Álvaro Mariscal de Gante Institute for Advanced Social Studies, Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC) Julia Ranchal Institute for Advanced Social Studies, Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC) Smooth access to public services such as health care, education, and social benefits programs contributes substantially to immigrants’ successful integration into host societies. However, such integration policies entail political risks whenever natives perceive governments to unfairly favor immigrants – a common situation across Europe, as data from the European Social Survey suggest. Such perceptions may contribute decisively to anti-immigration attitudes and are prone to be seized upon by immigrant-bashing populists. Thus, this policy domain exemplifies the close interrelation of immigration governance and immigration politics. This paper aims to explore the dilemmas and contradictions of immigrants’ access to social rights by focusing on the Spanish immigration regime, which bears a remarkable degree of allegiance to Universalist principles. The paper draws on survey data and focus group results that were generated in the framework of an ongoing research project on immigration attitudes (ref. CSO2017-87364-R, financed by the European Fund for Regional Cohesion and the Spanish Ministry of Science). In a first step, we illustrate the extent and nature of natives’ perceptions of being treated unfairly by comparison to immigrants. Secondly, we explore the role of such perceptions as predictor of unwelcoming immigration attitudes, or indeed anti-immigrant sentiment. Finally, we formulate some evidence-based suggestions for policy-makers. === Waiting spaces, waiting experiences and social navigation in light of the European deportation regime Lukas Mellinger University of Luxembourg Waiting can be considered an integral element of migration experiences and the everyday life of people on the move. However, complex power dynamics impact how, where, and for what affected people wait, for instance depending on their legal status. Recently, waiting as a conceptual framework to analyze migrant experiences and questions of temporality in general gained more prominence in migration scholarship. Building upon this literature and within the frame of my ongoing doctoral research, this paper discusses a conceptualization of waiting spaces and waiting experiences in the context of potentially being detained and/or deported. On the one hand, the discussion focuses on socio-legal and spatial production(s) of different waiting spaces within the European “deportation regime” (Peutz & De Genova 2010). The construction of waiting spaces in this light is understood as a legal and social “vernacularization of borders” (Cooper, Perkins & Rumford 2014) with an immediate impact on everyday lived experiences. On the other hand, opposed to conceiving affected people as being exclusively subjected to the existing regime, questions of migrant agency and “social navigation” (Vigh 2009) while facing conditions of “deportability” and “detainabiltiy” (De Genova 2002; 2020) are being raised. Understanding waiting spaces not solely as (spatially and temporally) immobilizing structures, they are conceptualized as potential platforms to act upon by drawing from the concept of “tactics” (De Certeau 1988) – as practices to navigate shifting environments. Engaging with scholarly debates, in a second step, a methodology is proposed to critically zoom in on this topic. === The Rohingya camp jurisdiction puzzle: How fractured jurisdiction impacts humanitarian aid and influences anti-refugee xenophobia Yasmin Ali Khan University of Toronto In three years, a makeshift metropolis of 1 million people has grown in Bangladesh. Responding to the mass arrival of 700,000 Rohingya refugees in 2017, hundreds of U.N. agencies, NGOs, and the Bangladeshi government have responded with an extraordinary effort to build a city in a once dense coastal forest. However, Bangladesh struggles with the social and environmental impacts associated with hosting the world’s largest refugee camp. Blame for negative impacts to citizens often falls on refugees, fueling anti-Rohingya xenophobia. There is little critical analysis of the impacts of uneven aid practices implemented by aid providers, each with jurisdiction over their own camp territory. Jurisdiction is asserted, formally and informally, in a variety of ways by national, local, and international actors. But these efforts are far from seamless, resulting in uneven access to infrastructure, services and labor for both refugees and citizens. I argue this fractured jurisdiction of the Rohingya refugee camps impacts humanitarian aid delivery and ultimately affects Bangladeshi people living near the camps, yet how refugee aid affects non-refugees is overlooked by aid agencies. I show how fractured jurisdiction plays out in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) aid sector, impacting labor forces, coastal ecology, and access to natural resources for Bangladeshi citizens. As political conflict and extreme weather push more people to flee their homes, questions around the responsibility to protect, jurisdiction over the international humanitarian order, and anti-refugee xenophobia are on the rise. The root of impacts to affected host communities needs investigating to lift the burden of blame from refugees. === Turkish migration policy from the 1960s until today: What National Development Plans tell us Hakan KILIC Department for Migration and Globalization, Danube University Krems Gudrun BIFFL Department for Migration and Globalization, Danube University Krems One strand of high skilled migration research is concerned with the role of immigration policies of nation states in the promotion of migration dynamics of this group. We focus in our paper on Turkey by analysing the National Development Plans from the 1960s until today. The research results are complemented by expert interviews. The analysis illustrates the changing character of migration and migration policy of Turkey over time, the development of which is substantiated by migration transition theory. We identify three distinct periods. The first period of the 1960s is characterized by an explicit support of outmigration. The second period from the 1970s to 2000 is focusing on the Turkish diaspora, promoting Turkish identity among Turkish émigrés, while offering return options to skilled Turkish migrants. Since 2000s, Turkish migration policy takes a turn by promoting immigration of intellectual elites while continuing to promote return migration of high skilled Turkish diaspora.

author

Sebastian Rinken

Institute for Advanced Social Studies (IESA-CSIC)

author

Álvaro Mariscal de Gante

Institute for Advanced Social Studies-Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC)

author

Lukas Mellinger

Department of Geography and Spatial Planning/ University of Luxembourg

author

Julia Ranchal

Institute for Advanced Social Studies, Spanish Research Council (IESA-CSIC)

author

Yasmin Ali Khan

University of Toronto

author

Hakan KILIC

Danube University Krems

author

Gudrun Biffl

Department for Migration and Globalization, Danube University Krems

Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 10

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #137 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

Mechanisms of formation of migrant residential concentration areas in the context of post-Socialist city: evidance from 15 Russian cities Evgeny Varshaver RANEPA Anna Rocheva RANEPA Nataliya Ivanova RANEPA Migrant concentration areas constitute an important topic for scholars as well as policy-makers. Mainly considered as a hindrance for successful migrant integration, they serve as targets for ‘distribution policies’ or wider integration-related agenda-setting documents. The effects of areas with high migrant residential concentration however have attracted much more attention than the formation of such areas. Even less is known about migrant residential concentration in the context of post-socialist cities where according to some papers, ‘ethnic neighborhoods’ are absent and even impossible due to the urban characteristics of these cities while according to others, such areas exist in some cities. This paper aims at describing the mechanisms behind the formation of migrants’ main residential concentration places in Russian cities. It is based on a qualitative study undertaken in in 2018-2020 in 15 cities with population exceeding one million dwellers. The overall number of interviews was 915. We argue that there is a common pattern behind formation of such areas. They appear around large bazaars under a set of the following factors: (1) a large number of migrants in a city; (2) a large bazaar (3) operating on the same place for a long time; (4) medium to small residential area around the bazaar that is detached from other residential areas; (5) the residential area around the bazaar is cheap for renting or purchase; (6) the residential area is within a walkable distance from the bazaar; (7) the residential area includes a large share of dormitories and cheap newly constructed apartment blocks. The presentation includes the description of the migrant concentration areas as they appear in Russia, the in-detail explanation of the pattern behind their emergence, and the case-study of the Temernik neighborhood in Rostov-on-Don, the vernacular capital of the Russian South. === The role of social media in experiences with everyday discrimination: narratives of young people with a migration background Jasmien Bougrine Vrije Universiteit Brussel As a consequence of the thematization of migration, media-effect and frame-analysis studies show major insights in its the (re-)presentation and framing. Studies on the presence of different narratives and frames are important in comprehending migration as a complex and mediated phenomenon. On the other hand, simply measuring and explaining media-frames is inadequate to understand people’s reading or interpretation of specific narratives. Research on public attitudes has already shown the influence these frames have on the broader public and have served as explanations for social events and arguments for political choices. At the same time, more focus is needed on the role of social media and also on the way young people with a migration background, people who are often subject of these narratives, read and interpret them. Therefore, a study with young people with a migration-background (2nd and 3rd generation) has been enrolled in the most super-divers and also most problematised city in Belgium: Brussels. To explore these young people’s subjective experiences with ethnic-related discourses, a one-year trajectory has been set up in which young people between 15 and 20 year’s old took part. Different methodologies like focus-groups, story-completion and self-portraits have been used to explore the conscience and unconscious mediation of ethnicity-related language and images through (social) media. How do young people with a migration background read, imagine and even identify with ethnic-related narratives? And what is the role of social media in these processes? During the panel, some of the first results will be presented and discussed. === What drives global migration patterns? A fuzzy set analysis of complex configurations of multiple drivers Mathias Czaika Department for Migration and Globalisation, Danube University Krems, Austria Zina Weisner Department for Migration and Globalisation, Danube University Krems, Austria The influence of broader globalization processes on the volume, diversity, geographical scope, and overall complexity of migration have been subjected to systematic empirical assessment. For example, Czaika and de Haas (2014) analysed the shifts in global migration patterns between 1960 and 2000 using indices that simultaneously capture changes in the spread, distance, and intensity of migration. Moreover, a large number of empirical (large N) regression analyses investigate drivers and determinants for migration and mobility, identifying i.e. violence and conflict (Czaika/Kis-Katos 2009), institutional factors (Bergh et al. 2015), migration policies (Czaika/de Haas 2017), economic development (Clemens 2014) or environmental changes (Bettin/Nicolli 2012) as possible determinants at the macro-level. While most theoretical and qualitative studies do conceptualize migration drivers as a configuration of different factors, the state of empirical evidence is still based upon the assumption that migration drivers operate independently from each other, ignoring complex interactions between i.e. economic, social and political-institutional factors. In this paper, we investigate complex causal configurations of factors driving migration patterns at global and regional levels. In particular, we identify both necessary as well as more complex sufficient conditions that explain the initiation of large-scale emigration, and the persistence of certain migration corridors. Using longitudinal data for about 120 countries to operationalise intertemporal migration outcomes and a larger set of interacting migration drivers, we conduct a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to identify relevant causal configurations of interacting migration drivers. === Migrants' self-reflection of own identity and their social networks in destination society (an analysis on Interview data with Koreans living in Germany) Sunyoung Park University of Bamberg The goal of my PhD research is to understand migrants' transnational identity and belongingness to contribute to their social inclusion in the destination society. I have been particularly focusing on the migrants' narratives on the online social media, seen as a blueprint of how migrants shape and manifest their own identity with others. I would like to share my second part of research currently working on via interview analysis. Previous research, soon to be published in CMS journal, was based on the qualitative data analysis on an online social movement emerged by Koreans living in Germany in spring 2019. The major findings show that migrants' online social networks have a reciprocal relation with the type of migrants' identity that has constantly developed as more transnational as time goes by. That means, the latter type of online social networks reflect the more transnational identities of migrants, and that of the earlier type shows the more national identities. The second project that I would like to introduce in this conference is the intermediate analysis on the semi-structured interviews with 22 Koreans living in Germany. It aims to scrutinise the deeper mechanism of migrants' choice of the specific type of online social networks in light of their desire to share their own identity with specific audiences.

author

Mathias Czaika

author

Anna Rocheva

RANEPA; Group for migration and ethnicity research

author

Evgeni Varshaver

University of Moscow

author

Nataliya Ivanova

Group for Migration and Ethnicity Research; RANEPA

author

Jasmien Bougrine

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Zina Weisner

Danube-University Krems

author

Sunyoung Park

University of Bamberg

Migrant Transnationalism 1

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #138 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

The border experiences of the transnational families of London’s onward Colombian migrants during Brexit and COVID-19 Domiziana Turcatti COMPAS, University of Oxford This paper examines how Brexit is shaping the border experiences of the transnational families of Colombian migrants who onward migrated from Spain to London after the 2008 financial crisis with Spanish passports. Research on Brexit has neglected third-country nationals naturalised in Europe who migrated to the UK. To understand how their transnational families are coping with Brexit in the COVID-19 context, this paper relies on ethnographic data collected between July and November 2020, including 30 semi-structured interviews with staff members of London-based Latin American NGOs and life history interviews with 31 onward Colombian parents (19 mothers, 12 fathers), and 12 youth aged 16-24 raised in Spain and then London by Colombian parents. Though more fieldwork will be conducted between January and May 2021, preliminary findings show that (1) Brexit created a renewed sense of instability and new hierarchies of privilege within transnational families divided between the UK, Spain, and Colombia; (2) the COVID-19 pandemic endangered current and future family reunification plans; and (3) NGOs are playing a crucial mediating role in translating and interpreting (mis)information on Brexit and COVID-19, while finding family reunification solutions pre and post Brexit, despite COVID-19. While demonstrating the need to move beyond the ethnonationalism underpinning research on Brexit and also to appreciate the role of NGOs as cultural mediators, this paper emphasises that the understanding of migrant families’ border experiences require a reconceptualisation of transnational families that appreciates the multiple localities in which these are situated and the multiple mobilities of their members. === Reflections on (crossborder) mobility during displacement Sarah Vancluysen University of Antwerp Following the sedentary logic that characterises the international refugee regime, the movement of refugees is still too much taken as a fait accompli (Lubkemann 2010) or considered as ‘inappropriate’. This paper aims to respond to this gap, by exploring the ‘everyday mobilities’ of South Sudanese refugees after their initial displacement to northern Uganda. Based on six months of fieldwork, including life stories and in-depth interviews with refugees, two main forms of ‘everyday mobility’ are identified: first, refugees commute between the rural settlements and neighbouring town centres; and secondly, they engage in forms of transnational mobility to and from South Sudan. Over time, transnational networks are deepened as family members find themselves dispersed across multiple locations, including Ugandan and South Sudanese villages, settlements and towns, as well as in third countries in Africa and elsewhere. While these mobilities are empowering, at the same time they are also forms of ‘forced transnationalism’ and have important consequences. For example, the splitting up of family members can have repercussions on the well-being of and dynamics between family members. As such, the paper reflects on how refugees can be supported in their mobilities? Doing so, I aim to respond to the following questions: (a) How are the forms of mobility experienced by the refugees? (b) How can these mobility practices be facilitated?; And how to make sure that non-desired forms of mobility are no longer needed; (c) to what extent is there undesired immobility, and how can immobile refugees be supported? Following the sedentary logic that characterises the international refugee regime, the movement of refugees is still too much taken as a fait accompli (Lubkemann 2010) or considered as ‘inappropriate’. This paper aims to respond to this gap, by exploring the ‘everyday mobilities’ of South Sudanese refugees after their initial displacement to northern Uganda. Based on six months of fieldwork, including life stories and in-depth interviews with refugees, two main forms of ‘everyday mobility’ are identified: first, refugees commute between the rural settlements and neighbouring town centres; and secondly, they engage in forms of transnational mobility to and from South Sudan. Over time, transnational networks are deepened as family members find themselves dispersed across multiple locations, including Ugandan and South Sudanese villages, settlements and towns, as well as in third countries in Africa and elsewhere. While these mobilities are empowering, at the same time they are also forms of ‘forced transnationalism’ and have important consequences. For example, the splitting up of family members can have repercussions on the well-being of and dynamics between family members. As such, the paper reflects on how refugees can be supported in their mobilities? Doing so, I aim to respond to the following questions: (a) How are the forms of mobility experienced by the refugees? (b) How can these mobility practices be facilitated?; And how to make sure that non-desired forms of mobility are no longer needed; (c) to what extent is there undesired immobility, and how can immobile refugees be supported? === Transnationalism vs. translocalism: Comparing international and internal migrants Oana Ciobanu University of Geneva Sarah Ludwig-Dehm University of Geneva Iuna Dones University of Geneva Transnationalism and translocalism are studied solely among international migrants. This, in spite of the fact that internal migrants maintain contact to home communities similar to international migrants. Yet, such transnational or translocal practices are rarely compared among international and internal migrants. In this paper, we draw on an original survey conducted in Switzerland and Italy among 1600 respondents. The two study populations we compare in this paper are: international migrants from southern Italy to Switzerland and internal migrants from southern to northern Italy. The sample is stratified by age (65 to 74 and 75+) and gender. The two groups of migrants are highly comparable as both migration flows occurred at almost the same time – following the Second World War – motivated by the search for labour opportunities, and both international and internal migrants experienced discrimination. This innovative survey allows us to compare trans-national and trans-local practices. The questions we set out to answer are: i. Which common trans-national/ -local practices can be identified among international and internal migrants? ii. Which factors shape trans-national/ -local practices? iii. Is the ‘trans-nationalism’ of international migrants focused on the region of origin or on the country of origin? === Somali women's deselection of the Danish welfare state: Racialization and Transnational migration Ayan Yasin Roskilde University While successive Danish governments have placed restrictions on Somali asylum seekers, an understudied yet significant number of this community - particularly women – are opting out of Danish society, seeking out new communities in the Middle East. A disenfranchised socio-economic reality and narratives of being a ‘burden’ on the welfare state have framed this community as a powerless one with a limited mobility/motility. This paper investigates the individual agencies, power relations and contingent factors at play when Danish-Somalis ‘opt out’ of the welfare state and ‘opt into’ countries like Turkey. The paper examines the motives for Somali women's options and deselection with a special focus on the following research questions: how does transnational migration change diaspora-Somali women's perceptions of themselves, their ability to act and their social position? What significance and consequences do experiences of “othering”, discrimination, racialization have for diaspora-Somali women's perception of and interaction with Danish and Turkish authorities? What opportunities and limitations do diaspora-Somali women experience in Denmark and Turkey, respectively? To answer these questions, the paper draws on theoretical perspectives from on practice theory, transnationalism, and postcolonial feminist theories, it aims to generate new knowledge about Somalis in Denmark, their transnational migration trajectories and their experience of the welfare state's institutions. The study is based on a qualitative autoethnographic research strategy including a total of 3 months participant observation in Turkey and Denmark, 10-20 semistructured interviews with Somali women who are either still living in Denmark or have chosen to migrate to Turkey. Throughout the qualitative ethnographic fieldwork and interviews, I ask about their transnational engagement between Denmark and Turkey and about their civic role in those respective countries.

author

Domiziana Turcatti

University of Oxford

author

Oana Ruxandra Ciobanu

University of Geneva

author

Sarah Ludwig-Dehm

University of Geneva

author

Iuna Dones

University of Geneva

author

Sarah Vancluysen

author

Ayan Yasin

Roskilde University

Migration, citizenship and political participation 7

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #139 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

Ethnic Friendship Homophily among non-Western immigrants in Denmark Christian Albrekt Larsen Department for Politics and Society, Aalborg University It is often an implicit assumption that the level of integration (the dominant European term) or assimilation (the dominant American term) is dependent on the relative sizes of the group of natives and non-natives. This number-issue, however, has been puzzling absent from at least European empirical studies of the integration of non-Western immigrants. In contrast, the most dominant themes have been how the level of integration is influenced by time, labour market structures, public integration policies/philosophies, the level of discrimination and the specific. The paper addresses the number-issue by analyzing whether non-Western immigrants’ level of friendship formation with natives are influenced by the stock of immigrants from the same country of origin. The theoretical point of departure is Blau’s opportunity pool argument. The paper is based on representative samples of non-Western immigrants collected by Statistics Denmark in the period from 2012 to 2020 (n=10,000) linked to register data at the individual level. The paper covers friendship formations among the 20 largest groups of non-Western immigrants living in Denmark. The paper report the first results from the MNcontact project financed by the Independent Research Fund Denmark. ==== The external voting of Moldovan migrants Mariana Rosca Deusto University The study examines the Moldovan diaspora participation and voting preference during the last presidential elections in 2020. The paper aims to determine which political and socio-economic circumstances in the home country have the biggest impact on determining the participation and voting preferences of the Moldovan migrants. The current mobilization of Moldovan migrants registered a considerable increase comparing with the previous elections. Additionally, there are some differences in voting preferences. While the Western migrant’s voting choice and their domestic counterparts narrowed slightly, the differences between Moldovan migrants’ voting preferences in Eastern countries and the migrants in the West deepen. Therefore, the voting preferences of West-voters of the right and centrist wing parties are affected by the political and socio-economic realities of their home country and East-voters are not affected by those factors. === “IMMIGRATION” IN ITALIAN ONLINE PRESS THROUGH THE LENS OF THE SOCIAL REPRESENTATION THEORY Annamaria Silvana de Rosa European/International Joint Ph.D , in Social Representations and Communication , Sapienza University of Rome (ITALY) Elena Bocci Sapienza University of Rome (ITALY) Sara Proietti Sapienza University of Rome (ITALY) This contribution analyzes the communication made through four online Italian newspapers (for a total of 917 titles published during the period 2017-2019) about “immigration” in light of the Social Representations Theory (Moscovici, 1961/1976). The study is part of a broader research program which - in addition to two ‘field studies’ conducted on different targets of migrant populations in Italy (Balbutin, de Rosa & Bocci, 2019a,b) and Germany (Bocci, de Rosa & Silvestri, 2018; de Rosa, Silvestri & Bocci, 2018; Silvestri, de Rosa & Bocci, 2019) - includes various media studies (de Rosa, 2019; de Rosa, Bocci, Latini, Balbutin & Silvestri, 2019; de Rosa et Al., 2020). These latter are aimed at detecting social representations and attitudes towards migrants in relation to the factors of social inclusion/exclusion, identity affiliations and ideological positions in the ""multi-voices"" and “multi-agents"" discourse. The research material of the multi-media studies includes 9931 sources. The data collection and the multidimensional analysis follow the general research plan already applied for reconstructing the social discourse about “immigration” through broadcast and social media. Thematic and statistical analyses have been supported by multiple softwares: IRAMUTEQ for Descending Hierarchical Classification and Specificities and Correspondence Analysis, SPAD for Correspondence Analysis, GraphColl for Network Analysis, Analysis of images and Videos, Sentiment Analysis, etc. The results of this contribution explore how migration is experienced, connected to culture and language as mediated in Italian online press through the lens of the Social Representations Theory. Cross-results concerning the analysis of the different media will be also presented. Keywords: online newspapers, multi-agent’s discourse, immigration, social representations, communication, ideological and political positioning." === Covid-19 impact on perceptions and experiences of migration through biosecurity, collective action and livelihood mechanisms Dominique Jolivet Maastricht University Migrant populations have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic through direct effects of the pandemic, and through reduced economic and mobility opportunities. But the relative importance of these two pathways and the specific vulnerability of migrant populations is largely unknown. Hence this paper examines the effects of the economic and public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic on the perceptions of migrants as a threat to biosecurity; on community building and social participation; and on migrants’ livelihoods and aspirations. The study uses new primary qualitative data from individuals with diverse migration profiles in six cities globally: Accra, Amsterdam, Brussels, Dhaka, Maputo and Worcester (US). The cities were selected as places with a wide range of COVID-19 impacts and of implemented restrictions. The participants were sampled to include internal, international and non-migrant men and women (n=49). Data were collected before the pandemic outbreak (in-depth interviews, 2019-20) and during the crisis (June-September 2020 remotely). The results show, contrary to expectations, that migrants did not perceive ostracization in destination cities as harbingers of the Covid-19 virus. Biosecurity measures had divergent impacts on livelihoods and on the ability to maintain community, migrate or stay put. The paper demonstrates how migration and mobility are experienced individually and collectively in times of forced immobility.

author

Christian Albrekt Larsen

Centre for Comparative Welfare Studies

author

Mariana Rosca

Academy of Science from Moldova, II

author

Annamaria Silvana de Rosa

Sapienza University of Rome

author

Elena Bocci

Sapienza University of Rome (ITALY)

author

Sara Proietti

Sapienza University of Rome (ITALY)

author

Dominique Jolivet

Maastricht University

Return Migration 1

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #140 panel | RI Revisiting Return Migration in Shifting Geopolitics

Returnees and Migration Intentions Daniel Auer University of Mannheim & WZB - Berlin Max Schaub WZB - Berlin Social Science Center For the formation of emigration intentions, information and networks have long been hypothesized to be crucial elements. A prime source of information about life as a migrant are returnees. In this study, we contribute to an emerging literature on the influence of returnees on future migration formation using unique representative data on 5,000 respondents from Senegal and The Gambia, two countries with high emigration rates in the past, albeit structurally different diasporas. Importantly, we also collected data on approximately 40,000 members of the respondents' families and relatives. This allows us to address the inherent endogeneity issue when assessing the role of returnees on subsequent migration intentions within households, as their presence is likely correlated with migration promoting factors, such as economic resources. Therefore, we propose an instrumental variables approach using plausibly exogenous variation of returnees within the respondent's geographical vicinity to capture exposure to return migrants. Our findings show that individual emigration intentions are substantially lower when returnees are present in the area. This effect is particularly pronounced for higher numbers of return migrants from OECD countries, where the route is especially arduous and expectations potentially higher. The assumption that (OECD) return migrants convey negative experiences is supported by the positive correlation between the number of returnees in an area and respondents being less optimistic about life abroad and more critical about returnees who are more often seen as a failure. === Youth repatriation, belonging and reintegration: Challenges, constrains and options for second-generation Albanians Domna Michail University of Western Macedonia Since the first years of the economic and social crisis in Greece, and throughout a whole decade (2008-2018), thousands of Albanian immigrant families repatriated to Albania. Repatriation has not been easy especially for the second generation individuals who were born and grown up in Greece and forced to repatriate to a country that they learned to envisage as their homeland mostly through their parents’ ethnocultural imaginaries. For the elder second generation representatives, who were already adults by the time of the on-set of the crisis, the decision for either repatriating or remaining in the host country, has been a much more difficult decision for many reasons. As our previous research has revealed, before the economic crisis, repatriation had hardly been an option for the vast majority of the second generation Albanian immigrants. Grown up in Greece, educated in the Greek institutions, accustomed to the Greek culture and mentality but mostly having fulfilled their parents’ wish for successful integration within the Greek society, have been among the factors that made this decision difficult to take. This paper explores various dimensions of ‘belonging’ and ‘agency’ among second generation Albanian returnees (18-37 years old) as re-migration sets new challenges for youth ‘mobility’. Through in-depth interviews with 158 participants, all second-generation Albanian returnees, 42 born in the host country (Greece) and the rest in the country of origin (Albania), the paper addresses youth agency, belonging and reintegration reflecting the emotional challenges, constrains and options of the Albanian youth. === How does Gender Shape Reintegration Processes on the Individual and Policy Level? (working title) Dr Odermatt, Eveline University of Fribourg, Switzerland Prof Jurt Luzia University of Northwestern Switzerland Whilst gendered analysis has become increasingly mainstream in studies on migrant integration, the incorporation of gender analysis in the study of return migration and reintegration is less frequently applied (c.f. Anghel/Fauser/Boccagni 2019). So far, the research focus on return migration is predominantly put on economic or labour reintegration, and on remittances. Thereby, post-migrant integration processes are often perceived to be restorative and reinstating the “natural order of things (Yeoh 2020), whereas male and female return migration patterns have generally been overlooked (Martinez-Bujàn 2019). One reason for this is the fact that studies on gender aspects inherent to migration has predominantly been dealt within the integration literature, whereas return migration has been predominantly situated in the theoretical framework of transnationalism, such as in the broader migration-development literature, and often been kept apart. We argue that bridging these two bodies of literature; gender-integration and gender-reintegration, can deepen our understanding of the interplay between gender and reintegration and to elicit the ways in which gender plays out in the return and reintegration process. The data is based on preliminary results from our research project “Gender, Return Migration and Reintegration in the Gambia, Guinea and Senegal”, funded by the Swiss Network for International Research, in which we investigate two research groups; assisted returnees by IOs and NGOS, and non-assisted migrants, the so-called “silent returnees” (cf. Parella/Petroff 2014). Thus, the paper aims to contribute to a more nuanced approach to the diverse ways of how gender affects experiences of reintegration in the literature on social aspects of reintegration, often neglected in broader migration and development policies (Glick-Schiller 2012). Key words: gender, integration, return migration, reintegration, West Africa

author

Daniel Auer

University of Lausanne

author

Max Schaub

WZB - Berlin Social Science Center

author

Domna Michail

author

Eveline Manuela Odermatt

University of Fribourg, CH

author

Luzia Jurt

Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit FHNW

Migrant Transnationalism 13

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #141 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

Emigration of healthcare and ICT professionals from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Drivers, policy responses and the COVID-19 crisis as opportunity Aida Ibričević Center for Diaspora Studies - Sarajevo School of Science and Technology/Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) - Global Fellowship Program Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has traditionally been an emigration country, with countries of Western Europe consistently receiving high shares of its highly skilled labour force. Although labour emigration from Bosnia and Herzegovina is widespread, affecting various segments of the economy, the rapid and intensifying loss of ICT and medical staff due to emigration has resulted in visible domestic labour market shortages and a substantial decrease in standards of healthcare provision throughout the country. However, a systematic investigation into this phenomenon is lacking. I propose to fill this gap by presenting the results of a mixed-methods research project looking at the drivers of this emigration type and proposing policy responses to mitigate its negative effects. The results of my research project are based on quantitative data from surveys and official statistics and qualitative data collected through 86 interviews with relevant stakeholders: government representatives, private and public healthcare and ICT employers, doctors, nurses and iCT professionals currently employed in public and private healthcare/ICT facilities/companies in BiH, healthcare and ICT experts, individuals who have recently emigrated, and recent medical school/ICT graduates. My paper will attempt to answer three related research questions: 1. What push and pull factors drive the emigration of ICT/healthcare personnel from BiH? 2. What are available policy responses to mitigate the negative effects of this emigration? 3. How can the current crisis be turned into an opportunity with an increase in transnational connectivity through the use of ICT and simultaneous decrease in transnational mobility due to COVID-19 restrictions? === Looking beyond the diaspora advantage: A qualitative analysis of enablers and inhibitors of knowledge transfer and capacity development in a diaspora return programme Charlotte Mueller Maastricht University Over the last decades, international organizations have used diaspora return programmes to channel the potential attributed to diaspora members to increase local expertise and contribute to capacity development in developing countries. Due to attributes such as language skills, cultural familiarity and altruism, diaspora members are often regarded as ideal actors for development. While different scholars have demonstrated the economic, social and intellectual contributions diaspora members can make to development in their country of origin, others have taken a more critical stance towards diaspora-focused development interventions, questioning some of the underlying assumptions. This paper contributes to the existing literature in the fields of diaspora engagement and transnationalism by shedding light on diaspora member’s contributions to knowledge transfer and capacity development in the case of a diaspora return programme. Through an in-depth analysis of 33 placements of a diaspora return programme in Ethiopia, Sierra Leone and Somaliland, this paper demonstrates how diaspora experts make contributions to knowledge transfer and capacity development as part of their placements. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with diaspora experts (N= 29) and staff at the host institutions (N = 75). This paper identifies the type of knowledge transfer method, time, learning intent and the diaspora-expert colleague relationship as key factors that enable and inhibit diaspora experts’ successful contributions. It reaffirms findings from earlier studies on temporary return programmes that showed that diaspora members can make valuable contributions to organizations in their country of origin within the context of a temporary return programme. It also shows that even though the programme is designed to provide – to the extent possible – ‘ideal’ conditions for knowledge transfer and capacity development, contributions are not guaranteed. === Digital agency in forced migration contexts: The case of the refugees in Switzerland Ibrahim Soysüren University of Neuchâtel Mihaela Nedelcu University of Neuchâtel The importance of digital technologies in migration processes is increasingly emphasised by the social science literature, especially as they can be simultaneously used as means of control and empowerment. While biometric technologies are incorporated in migration and border control, scholarship in the field of digital migration studies explains how information and communications technology (ICT) have enhanced the capacity of “connected” migrants, “co-present” family members, or “smart refugees” to mobilize resources and overcome restrictive border/migration control measures in new ways. Yet, little is known about how digital agency (i.e. the ICT-mediated capacity to “make a difference”) emerge and become a valuable alternative for forced migrants. In order to address this gap to some extent, we will first stress the growing importance that ICTs play in forced migration contexts based on an extensive literature review. Then, we will define digital agency as an analytical perspective and show its relevance for understanding forced migration processes. Moreover, from a migration-mobility nexus perspective, we will argue these technologies are useful for forced migrants not only for moving toward the destination country, but also to maintain themselves in this state. In our paper, will use interview-based data collected in Switzerland within an ongoing research project entitled “Digital empowerment? Unpacking ICTs-mediated practices of asylum seekers in Turkey and refugees in Switzerland to cope with (im)mobility conditions”. This project is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) as a part of the nccr-on the move. === Contrasting pre-migration imaginaries and post-migration realities of Filipino migrants in New York and London Rizza Kaye Cases University of the Philippines Diliman Images of good life tied to going abroad are central to every narrative of departure. But even before embarking on these journeys and reaching their destinations, prospective migrants can mentally ‘inhabit’ places they have never been to and imagine a possible future of themselves in a particular place of destination in what Koikkalainen and Kyle (2016) refer to as cognitive migration. In this sense, would-be migrants do not only form expectations of what overseas employment could bring but such expectations are also tied to how places of destination are imagined. Upon reaching their destinations, such imaginaries connected to places and spaces would be subjected to their actual experiences and realities. Utilising interview data based on a larger study on mobility projects and support networks of 134 Filipino nurses, domestics, and care workers in New York and London, this paper explores emerging themes from juxtaposing the imagined and experienced that the interviewees shared by retrospectively narrating their stories as would-be and newly-arrived migrants. How different (or similar) were their idealised images of the US or the UK compared to the realities that they immediately encountered upon arrival? The gaps between what they were expecting and what they experienced are considered as one of their first challenges in adjusting to their new environment. In this way, migrants did not only have to adjust their immediate plans and strategies to survive but also their future goals and imaginaries, which include re-imagining the Philippines, the country they left behind, in a more favourable light.

author

Charlotte Mueller

Maastricht University

author

Ibrahim Soysüren

University of Neuchatel

author

Aida Ibričević

author

Mihaela Nedelcu

author

Rizza Kaye Cases

University of the Philippines Diliman

Return Migration 3

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #142 panel | RI Revisiting Return Migration in Shifting Geopolitics

Transfer of Political Values, Attitudes and Patterns of Behaviour by (Re)migrants to Country of Origin: Case of Lithuania Ingrida Geciene Vilnius University After the Collapse of Communism Lithuania experienced large migration of citizens to West European countries with deep-rooted democracies. A possible assumption is that migrants adopt civic norms, values and practices prevailing in those countries and transfer them to those that stayed in their countries of origin. Such transfer can be both remote and direct after returning home. This presentation aims to reveal civic and political remittances made by (re)migrants in Lithuania. Presentation is based on in-depth interviews with 56 (re)migrants made in 2019-2021. By following theoretical insights on migrants’ political influence on their country of origin (Keck and Sikking 1998, Piper 2009, Tabar 2014, Kessler and Rother 2016, Ahmadov and Sasse 2016, Krawatzek and Muller-Funk 2019, etc.) presentation explores forms of political remittances, factors that influence the motivation to remit and process of transfer. Also it discusses interaction between ethnic and civic identity of (re)migrants and its links with the intensity of remittances, as well as acceptivity of these remittances by people in countries of origin. Besides results of data analysis reveal the mobilizing function of diaspora communities for facilitation of civic and political participation of (re)migrants in in life of countries of origin. === Mobility and Food Culture: Continuity and Change in Dietary Habits among Korean Returnees from Latin America Jin Suk Bae Academy of Mobility Humanities, Konkuk Univ. In the era of international migration, food is an important symbol for the diaspora. The food practices of a diaspora often reflect the unique historical and cultural conditions and contexts of home and host countries. This paper will address the dietary habits of ethnic Koreans who have returned from Latin America to their homeland. Methodologically, this study utilizes data from 20 in-depth interviews with Korean returnees from Latin America, as well as other sources regarding Korean migration to Latin America, Latin American foods, and the recent growing popularity of ethnic cuisines in South Korea. The main research inquiries include the following: (1) whether and how Korean returnees continue or change their dietary lifestyles after their return to Korea; (2) how the recent increase in the number of Latin American restaurants in Seoul has impacted Korean returnees’ dietary habits; (3) how the consumption of Latin American foods is related to returnees’ (trans)formations and expressions of hybrid cultural and ethnic identities; and (4) how returnees react to localized or fusion Latin American foods in Seoul restaurants. This study will contribute to an enhanced understanding of the experiences of the Korean diaspora’s return and the hybridity and varieties in food culture and cultural identities among members of the Korean diaspora. === Vectors of change? Returnee MPs and democratic diffusion in Turkey and Romania Vladimir Bortun Autonomous University of Barcelona Deniz Pelek Autonomous University of Barcelona Eva Østergaard-Nielsen Autonomous University of Barcelona There is a growing literature on the political impact of migration on the country of origin. However, research on the nexus between migration and political elites is still limited. The existing literature on migration and political elites mostly deals with the impact of foreign educated heads of state on their countries’ democratisation and methodologically is overwhelmingly quantitative. Hence, there is a gap with regards to the processes of (re)socialisation and diffusion that may lie behind the political activities of a broader segment of the political elite such as returnee members of parliament (RMPs). Importantly, we also need to further understand the extent to which the particular context in the country of origin mediates any attempt of democratic diffusion. Drawing on documentary research of legislative and non-legislative activities and qualitative interviews, we compare the democratic diffusion performed by RMPs from two countries with mass emigration to Western democracies but with different political systems and migration patterns, Turkey and Romania. More specifically, we contrast RMPs to non-RMPs in terms of the shares and content of their parliamentary activities on democracy-related themes, such as elections, rule of law, and equal rights. The paper argues that RMPs are more concerned with and supportive of aspects related to democracy. This is the case for RMPs in both Turkey and Romania, despite the differences between the two countries’ political systems.

author

Ingrida Geciene

Lithuanian Social Research Centre

author

Deniz Pelek

Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

author

Eva Østergaard-Nielsen

Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona

author

Jin Suk Bae

Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea

author

Vladimir UAB VAT nr: ESQ0818002H Bortun

Autonomous University of Barcelona

Spatial and residential aspects of belonging and mobility

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #143 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

Does the neighborhood of the dwelling and the real estate agency matter? Geographical differences in ethnic discrimination on the rental housing market. Billie Martiniello Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe Vrije Universiteit Brussel Discriminatory behavior is context-dependent and thus varies according to the geographical area. However, research covering those geographical differences regarding discrimination on the rental housing market is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this research is to fill this gap by investigating which contextual factors influence discrimination on the rental housing market and how this relates to theories of ethnic composition. Hereby we divide the context into two types: (1) the neighborhood of the dwelling and (2) the neighborhood of the real estate agency. In both cases we take different variables into account regarding the ethnic composition (percentage people with an ethnic minority background) as well as the socio-economic composition (deprivation index, percentage social housing, fiscal revenue,..) of the neighborhood. The analysis consists of multilevel analysis, using data of 3841 academic correspondence tests conducted among realtors in the city of Antwerp (Belgium) between October 2019 and 2020. Regarding the neighborhood of the dwelling, a higher percentage of ethnic minorities decreases discrimination. This result is in line with customer-based prejudice and the perceived preference hypothesis. Discrimination increases in neighborhoods with a higher fiscal revenue. Since the latter can be an indicator of a wealthy neighborhood, this finding can be explained by statistical discrimination. Regarding the neighborhood of the real estate agency, the percentage people of North-African origin significantly leads to less discrimination, confirming the intergroup contact theory: realtors that encounter ethnic minorities on a daily basis are less likely to discriminate. Both the fiscal revenue and the percentage non-working job seeking people with an EU origin are significant, but do not interact with ethnicity. Therefore we conclude that the socio-economic composition of the neighborhood of the real estate agency has no impact on discriminatory behavior. === Is living in an area with a concentration of co-nationals deterring secondary migration? An exploratory study of short-term migration intentions among migrants in northern Italy Livia Elisa Ortensi Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna Elisa Barbiano di Belgiojoso University of Milan - Bicocca There is rising attention to secondary migration movements of migrants in Europe, such as onward and return migration. While many factors have been taken so far into consideration, the role of location-specific capital has been seldom taken into account to explain migrants’ secondary migration intentions of migrants in Europe. To fill this gap, in this study, we will consider the geographical patterns of settlement among the main communities settled in the Northern Italian Region of Lombardy. We will analyse patterns of residence at the municipality level and locate hot-spots and cold-spots for each community. After taking into account other key aspects of location-specific capital - such as homeownership, naturalisation and time since arrival, we will analyse the relationship between patterns of residence and short-term migration intentions (i.e. in the following 12 months) of return and onward migration. To carry out the analysis, we build on a unique pooled dataset that includes 10 cross-sectional surveys carried out between 2010 and 2019. For each survey, the information on short-term migration intentions was collected. Results will be available by the time of the conference. === Ethnic discrimination on the housing market in Belgium and the Netherlands: the role of local and national contexts Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe Vrije Universiteit Brussel Ethnic discrimination is a persistent problem on the rental housing market. While many studies have measured rental discrimination in different countries, still little is known about the local and national factors that drive levels of rental discrimination. This study examines, therefore, the impact of local contextual factors on the prevalence of rental discrimination in Belgium and (as the first national study) in the Netherlands. Following several theories on discrimination and attitudes towards migrants, we investigate the impact of local factors, such as the ethnic and socioeconomic composition of the population, the level of urbanization, the structure of the local housing market and the share of right-wing voters. Moreover, we compare patterns of discrimination in both countries to look for cross-national differences. We use data from 5782 paired correspondence tests in Belgium and 773 paired correspondence tests in the Netherlands. We find significant patterns of discrimination in both Belgium and the Netherlands, with much more discrimination in Belgium than in the Netherlands. Further preliminary analyses suggest that there is more ethnic discrimination in less urban, mid-sized and more wealthy municipalities. Moreover, more tight local housing markets appear to result in more discrimination. The local share of right-wing voters has, only, limited effects on discrimination.

author

Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe

University of Ghent

author

Livia Elisa Ortensi

Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna

author

Billie Martiniello

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Elisa Barbiano di Belgiojoso

University of Milan-Bicocca

Reflexive Migration Studies 2

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #144 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

Doing Fieldwork in Turbulent Times: Pandemic, tensions between Turkey and Greece and the violence against refugees in Lesbos Muge Dalkiran Middle East Technical University (Ankara) When planned my fieldwork including semi-structured interviews with various actors working in refugee protection in Lesvos and Athens within the frame of my doctoral thesis on the Greek asylum regime, I was aware of the possible challenges that a Turkish Ph.D. researcher with a limited knowledge of Greek might face. Nevertheless, when I started my fieldwork in January 2020, the language became the least problem and yet, I had to deal with many other difficulties that emerged due to external factors. Almost simultaneously with the implementation of restrictive measures against the spread of Covid-19, on 28 February 2020, Turkey opened its western borders for migrants allowing to cross to Greece and Bulgaria which soared even further tensions between Turkey and Greece. Alongside the rising tensions between Turkey and Greece, migrants faced violent response from the Greek authorities and far right-wing groups. Not only the newcomers but also the asylum seekers and refugees already living in Lesvos, as well as civil society actors were confronted with physical harassment and threat. While conducting my fieldwork despite of these complexions made me reflect further on identity, practical issues, and ethical concerns that have direct impact on my interlocutors in these extra-ordinary times. In this paper, I aim to explore issues emerging in a sensitive area in turbulent times based upon how I experienced and adjusted my research in this changing and threatening environment. === The Politics of (Un)Counting International Migration in West Africa Inken Bartels Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies, Osnabrueck University Since the ‘migration crisis’ in 2015, various actors from politics, media and science have called for more and better data as a basis to efficiently manage migration. This includes a rising demand for global comparative statistics on the international movement of people, especially on the African continent. International Organizations (IOs) have responded to this demand by offering their member states a wide range of data practices. The paper looks at their statistical knowledge production in West Africa exploring how migration in the region became subject to a “global statistical gaze” (Speich Chassé 2016). It examines how IOs practices of (un)counting enacted West Africa as a region of international migration and how this enactment affects the emerging migration governance (Scheel, Ruppert and Ustek-Spilda 2019). West Africa is a particularly interesting case because, until recently, most post-colonial states did not generate census or survey data on questions of citizenship and ethnicity (Rallu, Piché and Simon 2006). In the name of nation building, they abandoned colonial classification practices and were reluctant to produce statistical data that could be used to claim rights or political power along ethnic lines. Fostering regional integration, citizenship and national belonging were of minor interest in many West African states. Looking at IOs’ statistical data practices in these states, the paper offers insights into the post-colonial interactions between international and national politics of (un)counting migration. It also contributes to a better understanding of the co-production of statistics and migration governance beyond Europe and the state. === Coloniality, racial capitalism and post-colonial migration. Struggles and blindness Natali Jesus Instituto de Migraciones (University of Granada) The exploitation of migrant labor has an increasingly central place in the political economy of neoliberal capitalism. The broad demands of migrant organizations and the denounces of seasonal and care workers in Spain in recent years have shown how state racism and capitalist exploitation are closely linked. However, we observe to this day, a strong absence of analysis that includes the category of social race in the migration research in the context of the Spanish state and in relation to capital-race and coloniality. How is it possible to understand the character, functionality, and operability of the exploitation of migrant labor without addressing the question of the social construction of race, when the racial division of labor is a fundamental element of global and neoliberal capitalism? What place does immigration hold within a set of colonial logics, laborization practices, and in the racial hierarchy specific to Spain's colonial history? Why do “abstract” understandings by sectors of the left ignore or downplay the issue of race, state racism, and coloniality in migration struggles? We seek to establish a dialogue from the academia and the decolonial militancy that aims to contribute conceptions to the current rising anti-racist political articulation of the migration struggle. === Georges Tapinos' life and writings : Migrations and Migration in Population Matters. In Memory of Georges Tapinos 1(940-2000) RICHARD Jean-Luc University of Rennes 1, France Alexandra Tragaki By dedicating a paper to the memory of the Great demographer and Population economist Georges Tapinos (1940-2020), former students of Georges Tapinos, we are demonstrating our loyalty to his teachings, the legacy of which is expressed here. Georges Tapinos, for whom migrations were an intrinsic part of economic dynamics and the consequence of individual freedoms, has been a prominent specialist of migration studies. Among his last works, he analyzed the repercussions of questions resulting from the data on irregular migrations in a Eurostat report on the measurement of irregular migration in Europe (3/1998/E/N° 7). There is no doubt that he wanted, together with Daniel Delaunay, to direct independent, academic, methodologically-oriented, clearly-focused research, insofar as this was possible, into the alarmist rhetoric in favor of closing borders. If migrations are often still explained by economic factors, Georges Tapinos was really aware that conflicts, which also have economic consequences, are the other main reason often simultaneously associated with migratory movements, And they are the movements of individuals, movements which may or may not take place within a family context (family migrations, groups of displaced persons, et.) or a context of constrant (forced migrations, for example). === “Non-linear, shifting and risky trajectories: religious temporality in understanding Moroccan migrant mothers’ navigations and experiences of migration” Amal Miri Ghent University This article aims to contribute to an analytical shift within current West-European social scientific scholarship on so called ‘low-skilled’, third-country marriage migrant women. It does so by moving these women from the periphery, where they are largely invisible, marginalised or stigmatised to be mere appendages of men and passive followers of patriarchal or religious ideologies, to the center of analysis. It starts from the hypothesis that these women are agents in the way they imagine and navigate their migration process. It will be argued that as immigrants these women (often cognitively) negotiate gender relations in confronting or navigating uncertainties and difficulties of which motherhood and a precarious residency status - due to restrictive migration regulations - are the most challenging and stigmatising. In doing so this paper positions itself within the emerging area of research on mobility and temporality. More specific, this paper will question how Moroccan migrant mothers’ embodied religious temporality - that is, their specific understanding and valorisation of time – offers a unique reference point to deal with their precarious residency, with motherhood, and as such challenge a political or bureaucratic temporality in migration. Presenting two ethnographic vignettes I will empirically analyse Moroccan marriage migrant women’s nonlinear, risky and often undocumented trajectories and heterogeneous migration experiences from different social locations as multiple scaled, intersecting, and mutually constituting hierarchies of gender, class, race/ethnicity, religion and residency status. In doing so this article hopes to make visible a set of voices and perspectives that are generally absent from societal debates and migration policies, which is indispensable for dealing appropriately, both on a theoretical level and in policy terms, with challenges of marriage migration, motherhood and belonging.

author

Muge Dalkiran

Middle East Technical University (Ankara)

author

Inken Bartels

Insitute of Migration Research and Intercultural Studies (IMIS), University of Osnabrueck

author

Natali Jesus

Instituto de Migraciones (University of Granada)

author

Jean-Luc RICHARD

ARENES - Centre de recherches sur l'action politique en Europe

author

Amal Miri

University of Antwerp

author

Alexandra Tragaki

Harokopio University

Co-construction and reification of narratives during asylum determination procedures (Panel II)

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #145 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Zoe Nikolaidou

Södertörn University

chair

Hanna Sofia Rehnberg

Södertörn University

In this double panel, we investigate the different practices, techniques, ideas, discourses, and ceremonies that contribute in transforming the situated oral accounts of asylum seekers – told on repeated occasions – into reified and stable objects which are evaluated according to the established legal-administrative methods of assessing credibility in asylum determination procedures. It is well-known in narrative and linguistic research that oral stories are the result of human interactions, physical surroundings, as well as the interactionists’ past experiences, future expectations, and situated identity work. However, within asylum determination procedures, asylum narratives are approached as tangible objects assessed according to coherence, details and consistency. The asylum applicants are also perceived to be solely responsible for the creation of the narrative. Thereby, the co-constructed and situated story-telling that have taken place during various encounters between asylum applicants, interpreters, lawyers, and state officers are effectively obscured. The papers in the second session of this double panel lay bare the obscured and mundane work taking place at the backstage of decision-making in order to transform co-constructed and situated asylum narratives into decontextualized assessable objects. The papers investigate how judicial symbols are involved in this work and which administrative routines and expert knowledge about country of origin information that is required to assess asylum narratives. Moreover, the particular language ideologies and the machinery of language communication that are at play in this process are linguistically and ethnographically investigated. PAPER #1 Asylum decisions as legal communication of time-space AUTHOR(S) Daniel Hedlund (Department of Law, Uppsala University) ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to explore how the machinery of language communication contributes to transforming law into concepts such as (unaccompanied) children, asylum status or rejected outcomes, as well as the interconnectedness between them. Theoretically, the paper draws on the work of literary theorist Mikhail Bachtin (1981) and criminologist Mariana Valverde (2015). In particular, Bachtin’s notions of intertextuality, dialogism/heteroglossia and the ‘chronotope’ (configurations of time and space) are used. In doing so, asylum decisions are analysed as literary texts with several components and layers operating to form asylum procedure concepts as both ‘grounded in’ and ‘products of’ international and domestic law. This is achieved via in-depth text analysis of legal concepts in asylum decisions concerning unaccompanied children in dialogue with the Bachtinian theoretical framework. The main focus of the analysis is how the chronotope is represented in decision narratives by illustrating how different genres contribute to configure time (e.g. age, historical persecution, assessment of the asylum report on the decision date and a forward looking assessment) and space (e.g. situation in Sweden, country-specific information about the country of origin, and the appropriateness of a return/deportation) in specific ways. Via these relatively stable ways of communicating, particular ideologies about the world can be upheld. References Bachtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: four essays. Austin: University of Texas Press. Valverde, M. (2015). Chronotopes of law: jurisdiction, scale, and governance. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. PAPER #2 Incorporating sociolinguistic perspectives in Australian refugee credibility assessments: The case of CRL18 AUTHOR(S) Dr Laura Smith-Khan ( Faculty of Law, University of Technology Sydney) ABSTRACT The design and implementation of credibility assessments in Australian asylum decision-making rely on problematic language ideologies and result in inconsistent and often unfair outcomes. This paper builds on the findings of my doctoral research to critically examine a successful appeal in the Federal Court of Australia (FCA) which overturned a decision involving one such problematic credibility assessment. The paper first provides some background on Australian asylum policy and procedures. Building on a larger critical discourse analytical study of credibility assessments, it then explores the FCA decision, CRL18 v Minister for Immigration [2020] FCA 917. The case study demonstrates that where decision-makers have an appreciation of the sociolinguistic factors involved in constructing and assessing credibility, fairer outcomes may be possible. However, the paper also explores how power is largely retained within the executive branch of government, meaning that judicial review is restricted by (intentionally) tight legal frameworks that make credibility-based decisions particularly hard to challenge. This means that it is not sufficient to have a judge who is receptive to sociolinguistic concepts. Sophisticated legal arguments via high quality legal assistance are also crucial. Finally, even when appeals succeed, they are sent back to the initial reviewing body, meaning that power returns to the same body that originally applied the problematic assessment. The paper thus concludes that while credibility assessments serve as powerful gatekeeping tools, judicial receptiveness of sociolinguistic perspectives can provide an avenue for successful appeals. PAPER #3 The Ceremonial Life of Courts: How symbols of justice legitimize the refugee/migrant dichotomy in policy and practice AUTHOR(S) Livia Johannesson (Stockholm center for organizational research, Stockholm University ) ABSTRACT It is an established assumption that asylum narratives can be used as evidence when determining whether an applicant has a genuine need of protection or not. However, it is also established in forensic psychology and linguistics that the criteria according to which asylum narratives are assessed rely on inaccurate and simplistic assumptions about human behavior, memory and use of language in communication. In this paper, I ask how migration authorities gain legitimacy in the eyes of the public as reliable experts on asylum determinations despite that there are such an overwhelming body of knowledge which directly challenges these authorities’ methods of assessing credibility in asylum applications. To answer this question, I draw on interpretive research that analyzes how legitimizing policy messages can be tacitly communicated through the use of symbolic actions, language and objects (Yanow 1993; 1995). Empirically, this paper relies on an ethnographic study of the Swedish migration courts, which determine asylum appeals. The analysis demonstrates that oral hearings contain important ceremonial aspects which communicate respect, openness and fairness towards asylum applicants and that the declarative language of court rulings is filled with metaphors which transform the situated identities constructed through asylum narratives into stable categories. Moreover, the dossier containing all the written evidence pertaining to an individual asylum appeal functions as a symbolic artifact which confirms to the public that the courts make decisions based on stable and undisputable facts, and not on situated and co-constructed narratives. The broader implications of these tacitly communicated messages from the migration courts are that they uphold legitimacy for the idea that it is possible to separate economic migrants from refugees with (legally acceptable) protection needs. PAPER #4 Rendering asylum technical: country expertise in the bureaucratization of refugee status determination AUTHOR(S) Damian Rosset (University of Neuchâtel) Christin Achermann (University of Neuchâtel) ABSTRACT In the context of the bureaucratization of asylum procedures, European asylum administrations have increasingly relied on the mobilization of expert knowledge to perform and foster the professionalism, objectivity and fairness of their decision-making processes. This paper analyses how the development and reification of “country of origin information” (COI) as a type of expert knowledge contributed to the de-politicization of refugee status determination (RSD) while deepening the asymmetries between asylum seekers and the state in the asylum procedure. In this article we look at how asylum procedures are “rendered technical” (Rose 1999) by the institutionalization, standardization and sophistication of expertise. Our analysis draws mainly on a range of bureaucratic written artefacts produced by European COI units and other stakeholders of the COI field, including institutional websites, COI reports, methodological and normative guidelines, institutional communication, and archival material. Recognizing the deeply Europeanized nature of both the asylum and (especially) the COI bureaucratic fields, our analysis looks at the transnational level of COI practices in Europe, while zooming in into the French, Norwegian, and Swiss cases for specific examples. The conclusions reflect on the depoliticizing effects of technicization and how it affects the politics of asylum and the micro-politics of asylum procedures, by essentializing the dichotomy between “deserving” and “bogus” refugees and by silencing the voices of asylum seekers in the asylum procedure. The performance of objectivity contributes to the depoliticization not only of knowledge production, but also of asylum procedures, by circumventing potential areas of contestation to technical issues.

author

Livia Johannesson

Stockholm University

author

Christin Achermann

University of Neuchatel

discussant

Nick Gill

University of Exeter

discussant

Katrijn Maryns

Ghent University

author

Laura Smith-Khan

Faculty of Law, University of Technology Sydney

author

Damian Rosset

University of Neuchatel

Migration politics and governance: understanding the relationships 3 - Governance and politics in diverse local and national settings

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #146 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Ilke Adam

VUB

chair

Tiziana Caponio

University of Turin

Studies on the politics and governance of migration have rarely spoken to each other. Research on migration politics has emphasised the contentious side of the migration issue, e.g. party ideologies and (populist) discourses, native citizens unfavourable attitudes, pro- and anti-immigrant social movements mobilisation and the like. On the contrary, research on governance and public policy has primarily focused on the consensual side, e.g. policy networks managing migration issues at different levels of government, implementation accommodative practices, processes of policy learning and experts’ knowledge etc. Yet, in a context of increasing politicisation of migration, governance and politics need to be thematised as the two facets of the same coin. In this panel promoted by the IMISCOE MigPOG Standing Committee, crossing-edge empirical and theoretical papers addressing the link between migration politics and governance will be presented. Contributions will bring together reflections from different perspectives. The Third Sessions will explore the link between governance and politics in specific institutional settings at a local and national territorial scale. PAPER #1 Between cooperation and co-optation: Interactions between immigrant representatives and immigrant affairs officers in Germany AUTHOR(S) Maria Schiller (Erasmus University Rotterdam) ABSTRACT While scholars focusing on immigrant policy-making increasingly draw on literatures of urban governance and public-private partnerships, there is to date a lack of conceptualization of the role of power and conflict in the interrelationships between state and non-state actors in the urban immigrant policy field. This article analyses patterns of cooperation and cooptation in the interactions of immigrant populations and integration officials, focusing on “immigrant councils” in German cities. Based on an in-depth study of relationships within an elected and an appointed immigrant council in two large German cities, the study compares the institutional set-up of immigrant councils and their impact on the degree and quality of cooperation within these bodies. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with immigrant affairs officials and immigrants represented in the local immigrant council as well as participant observation in immigrant council meetings, it finds cooperation in both cases, but significant differences in its degree and quality. It shows that an elected council tends towards a more limited cooperation yet also towards fostering a more independent role of immigrants vis-à-vis the municipality. By contrast, an appointed immigrant council invites a stronger coaching role of the municipality and extensive cooperation, which however easily turns into co-optation. Based on these findings the article argues that we need to take into account power imbalances and dependencies in relationships between municipalities and immigrant populations in the immigrant policy field, contributing a conceptualization of 4 types of state and non-state actor relationships to the emergent literature on the urban governance of migration and diversity. PAPER #2 Nodal cities and their role in the circulation of policy models AUTHOR(S) Amandine Desille (Université de Bordeaux) Thomas Lacroix (Maison Française d’Oxford) ABSTRACT The primary role of city networks is to facilitate the circulation of experiences and “good practices”. But local authorities active in several intercity organisations may also disseminate these policy models beyond the confine of one single city network, at the national, regional and international levels. In this regard, “nodal cities” play an understudied role in the globalisation of local modes of engagement, and conversely, in the vernacularisation of global debates. In doing so, the paper investigates jointly both sides of the migration politics and governance coin: through the search of a “glocal” governance of migration linking cities, their networks and international organisations, local authorities inform a new politics of migration management. Drawing on a quantitative mapping and network analysis of city migration-related networks around world, this paper aims at identifying and characterising these nodal cities. It will be shown that they are not necessarily the state capital nor the largest cities, but also include smaller ones with an active international engagement. This will be illustrated by the case of the Portuguese city of Amadora, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, and leading Urbact “Arrival cities” and “Rumourless cities” since 2015. Beside its engagement in city networks, initiatives with other regions and localities have multiplied to address the challenges inherent to a dense, diverse and peripheral municipality. PAPER #3 Immigration through a side door? The impact of trade commitments on national immigration systems in Switzerland and Germany AUTHOR(S) Paula Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik (University of Geneva) ABSTRACT Globalisation has increased the pressure on states to open up their economies, including for immigration. In this context, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and preferential trade agreements (PTAs) include binding commitments on the immigration of service providers and employees of multinational companies. The implementation of these commitments, however, rests on national immigration policies, often shaped through hostile immigration politics dominated by concerns for national security and calls to restrict immigration. In this paper, I study the impact of the GATS and PTAs in immigration systems and ask whether trade commitments can provide for a side door entry channel in restrictive immigration regimes. I conduct a comparative case study of Switzerland and Germany, two countries with similarly high demand for skilled labour immigration and similar levels of migration commitments in trade agreements, yet with highly different immigration regimes for non-EU nationals. Drawing from a global dataset of migration commitments in trade agreements as well as from a detailed analysis of immigration laws and their development over time, I find that the set-up of the immigration regime does matter for the impact of PTAs: in Germany, the general liberalisation of immigration rules for skilled employees render trade agreements less relevant as an immigration channel. In Switzerland, trade agreements and deployments through multinational companies do provide an important exception in an otherwise restrictive immigration system. The findings imply that in restrictive immigration systems, special interests, e.g. of multinational companies, play a disproportionate role in national immigration regimes both in policy and practice. PAPER #4 Bottom-up participation in the local governance of diversity: civil society organisations’ involvement in German and French cities AUTHOR(S) Christine Lang (MPI MMG Göttingen) ABSTRACT Public policies increasingly emphasize the involvement of civil society organisations in governance structures. Particularly in urban integration and diversity policies, the participation of civil society actors representing the interests of the immigrant and minority population has become a commonly stated objective. This trend seems to be beneficial for the opportunities of civil society actors to articulate their claims in the political sphere and influence the ways in which cities deal with migration-related diversity. Connecting perspectives on diversity governance and politics, this paper investigates the participation of civil society organisations in political negotiations of migration-related diversity in German and French cities. What are factors shaping their opportunities to participate in governance structures and to effectively bring in their claims and ideas for the living together in an increasingly diverse city? Drawing on case studies in two cities in eac