Sessions

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Changing patterns of migratory trajectories and recruitment of migrant workers

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #170 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Lisa Berntsen

Tilburg University

Chair: Lisa Berntsen Discussant: Nahikari Irastorza PAPER #1 Geographical mobility/immobility in times of economic crisis: transformations in the migratory trajectories of Argentinians AUTHOR(S) Daniela Herrera Rubalcaba ABSTRACT The study of geographic mobility-immobility is not something new, rather the interest increases in times of economic crisis. This is due to usually job search has a central importance when options are limited. The main objective of this paper is to study the recent mobility and immobility of return, onward migration and non-return between Spain and Argentina, taking into account the diversity of migratory trajectories that, at different times of their development (migration / migration / return- onward migration-non-return) were traversed by contexts of economic crisis and influenced by the acquisition or loss of various types of capital (social, economic, cultural). Through a multi-sited and qualitative research methodology, it was carried out 47 semi-structured interviews to Argentinians mobilized (returned, re-emigrated) and not mobilized (not returned) in the recent years. The results allow us to see (1) the multi-causality of geographical mobility and immobility; (2) how the different acquired capitals have been operating; (3) how the variables have been intervening: social origin, gender and age in the different mobilities and (4) a new possible pattern of circularity between Spain and Argentina. The conclusions recapitulate the main findings of this work and provide an enrichment of the study of contemporary international migrations. PAPER #2 Transformations of recruitment mechanisms of agricultural migrant labor force in Trentino, Italy AUTHOR(S) Francesco Della Puppa Serena Piovesan ABSTRACT The paper investigates the transformations of the agricultural labor market in Trentino (Italy) and, specifically, the changes in the forms of recruitment and organization of the migrant workforce and its composition. Fruit cultivation, especially apples, is one of the most important economic activities in Trentino, responsible for 25% of Italian apple production and 4% of European one. Such production is structurally based on migrant work, especially from EU countries (Romania, Poland, Bulgaria), even in the face of the progressive unavailability of native workforce. The recruitment of workers was based on a consolidated model that mainly involves the use of informal channels – the relationship of trust between employers and seasonal workers, “circular” migrants – and reliance on trade associations. This model begun to jam due to the redesign of the trajectories of EU migrant workers, who remain in their country of origin or are moving towards central European countries (such as Germany), where they find better wage conditions, and the inadequacy of national migration policies, which make it difficult for employers to recruit TCN migrant workers. Thus, employers started to recruit refugees and asylum seekers, mainly from sub-Saharan and Indian subcontinent countries, who have arrived in Trentino in recent years. Therefore, this paper analyses these transformations and the slow, but progressive, process of “refugeeization” of the agricultural workforce (Dines and Rigo, 2015) and the partial replacement of the seasonal workers, in Trentino. Subsequently, it focuses on the impact of the pandemic on international recruitment mechanisms and the organization of the migrant workforce." PAPER #3 What kind of gap is between EU labour market demand and potential of foreign labour force? An example of Ukrainian labour migration to the European Union (and mainly to Czechia) AUTHOR(S) Eva Janska ABSTRACT The main goal of this paper is via qualitative research to describe and explain a demand on the Czech labour market versus the potential of an Ukrainian labour force. The main research tool is an interview with: Czech and Ukrainian migration experts, and Czech employers. Our research question is: Is possible to „cover“ demand of the employers by the Ukrainian labour force? And if yes, what institutional barriers limit the approach to the EU/Czech labour market? Our knowledge is based on the interview with 20 Ukrainian and 12 Czech migratory experts, 42 representatives of Czech companies. This unique qualitative survey was carried out in Ukraine and Czechia during the Spring-Autumn 2019. Results of qualitative research with experts are juxtaposed to results springing from semistructured interviews with representatives of Czech companies. We focus on a supply-side of Ukrainian would-be migrants´ human capital which is represented by various characteristics (educational level, language abilities, employment status, profession, economic branch and migratory experience) and ways, how they could reach the Czech labour market. In the same time, we ascertain what sort of labour activity do employers prefer in a destination country, what are their professional expectations, „ideal“ skills and education (especially in the manufacturing industry). The presentation contributes to basic research (an attempt to get to know more about conditionalities and regularities of the current Ukrainian migration related to the labour market demands in the EU countries, including Czechia) and an applied research (shedding lights on various forms and mechanisms of migratory movements, recruitment practices and labour migrants´ integration experience).

discussant

Nahikari Irastorza

author

Daniela Herrera Rubalcaba

author

Francesco Della Puppa

author

Eva Janska

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Migration regimes and labour market integration

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #171 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Stefania Marino

Manchester Business School

Chair: Stefania Marino Discussant: Anders Neergaard PAPER #1 Social consequences of irregular spells. Immigration policies and immigrant labour market incorporation in Italy AUTHOR(S) Rocco Molinari ABSTRACT This paper studies labour market consequences of irregular spells experienced by international immigrants after their entrance into Italy, addressing, more generally, the role of migration policies in shaping immigrant labour market outcomes. Since the second half of the 1980s Italian-style migration policies have been characterised by a cyclical scheme: the large accumulation of undocumented immigrants and the implementation of ex-post regularisation programs. However, social consequences of this model of incorporation remain under-investigated. By exploiting retrospective information on a representative sample of currently legal third-country immigrants, obtained from the Social Condition and Integration of Foreign Citizens survey (Istat – 2011/12), the study explores the linkage between legalisation patterns and labour market outcomes. Firstly, immigrants who have experienced irregular spells before the first residency permit achievement are identified and classified according to their exposure in terms of duration into the undocumented status. Secondly, labour market outcomes (employment status and occupational qualification) are studied, taking into account the endogeneity underneath the undocumented experience, i.e. the fact that immigrants following different patterns of legalisation are differently selected. To this purpose, joint estimation models of two simultaneous equations, on either legalisation patterns and occupational outcomes, are designed. Results show that immigrants who experienced an illegal spell after arrival are less likely inactive and unemployed than immigrants who have always enjoyed a legal condition. Furthermore, undocumented immigrants on entry are less likely to access high-level positions in the occupational ladder, even many years after the entrance. The entrapment risk in lower quality occupational segments is higher as far as exposure into irregular spells increases. PAPER #2 Immigrants who stayed in Italy irregularly and immigrants who stayed regularly: which characteristics of integration? AUTHOR(S) Angela Paparusso ABSTRACT Our research question is: Are there differences in the integration characteristics of immigrants who entered Italy through regular migration channels and of those who entered the country irregularly or stayed irregularly for a period? This question has significant policy implications, such as the importance of implementing forms of regularisation for immigrants irregularly residing and working in Italy, a country belonging to the “Southern European model of immigration and integration”. We intend to identify any differences in the integration characteristics of first-generation immigrants currently residing in Italy who entered or stayed in Italy irregularly and of those who entered the country regularly. To this end, we distinguish between immigrants who have benefitted from a regularisation and those who entered the country for family (family reunification), study and work reasons (specifically through the quota system). As characteristics of integration, we consider: a) the legal status at the time of the survey, b) the participation to the labour market and c) the housing characteristics, by analysing different typologies of integration. Data stem from the survey on “Social Condition and Integration of Foreign Citizens” (SCIF) carried out by ISTAT in 2011–2012. We will make separate analyses for EU e non-EU immigrants, for men and women, and for immigrants who have been living in Italy for less than 10 years and immigrants who arrived in Italy 10 years or more before the interview. PAPER #3 Navigating a hostile environment: Ukrainian irregular immigrants in the UK AUTHOR(S) Iryna Lapshyna ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the impact of increasingly tight legislation and robust enforcement measures on irregular immigrants in the UK. It discusses pathways into irregularity; experiences, perception of and responses to immigration enforcement. It looks at how Ukrainian irregular migrants navigate a ‘hostile environment’ in the UK, and reveals the impact of enforcement on irregular migrants’ access to fundamental rights. Drawing on 41 qualitative interviews with irregular Ukrainian immigrants five main findings were identified. Firstly, Ukrainian irregular immigrants were generally highly educated. Secondly, the vast majority arrived on fake identities. Thirdly, whilst just over half did fear immigration enforcement almost none was actually deterred by tightened immigration controls or the ‘hostile environment’ approach. Still, over half of the interviewees disclosed anxiety and stress. Most subsequently developed some resilience to life under conditions of irregularity. Fourthly, many Ukrainian irregular migrants believe that as white Europeans they are at lower risk in terms of checks/raids compared to ‘dark skin’ immigrants. Lastly, Ukrainians, after arriving in the UK were often paid low wages though after some months managed to find better paid jobs. This study thus demonstrates vividly the limits of internal immigration controls. PAPER #4 Structural integration of ethnic minorities in Europe AUTHOR(S) Silke L Schneider ABSTRACT The integration of immigrant minorities is a major concern for diverse societies – with major implications for the well-being of those affected, social cohesion and group relations, and economic and social progress. In this paper, we aim to give a comprehensive description of the state of long-term immigrant minority integration in Europe. We focus on structural integration, including education, income, precarious work situation, and reliance on benefits. We use two measures of immigrant background: generational status, distinguishing first and second generation migrants from the third and higher up ‘natives’, and self-reported ancestry, separating those with autochthonous only ancestry from those with various kinds of allochthonous ancestry. Using the pooled samples of European Social Survey (ESS) rounds 7, 8 and 9, we first compare patterns of structural integration of broad ancestry groups across different European countries of destination. In a second step, we explore how destination countries’ integration policies (MIPEX) and symbolic boundaries (based on attitudes to different immigrant groups) are related to the integration of Muslim, Black and other non-European origin groups.

discussant

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

author

Rocco Molinari

author

Angela Paparusso

author

Iryna Lapshyna

author

Silke L. Schneider

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Migrant Children in child-centred perspective: Theoretical and empirical considerations

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #172 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Zorana Medaric

Science and Research Centre Koper

Over the last few decades, there has been a growing recognition of the need for in-depth knowledge of child migration research. The panel focuses on research on migrant children`s experiences of integration by adopting a child-centred perspective. Within this perspective children are perceived as relevant social actors, (co)creators of their own and social lives as well as agentic individuals whose perceptions should be integral to research and interpretations that concern them. Child-centred methodologies are often multi-method and recognise children`s perspectives and knowledge. Additionally, common characteristics of child-centred methodologies include a focus on children’s lived experiences, the participatory nature of the process where children are valued and recognised as experts in their own lives, and the reflexive, relational, and dialogical nature of the research. The presentations derive from the research project Migrant Children and Communities in a Transforming Europe (MiCREATE) funded by the EU Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, running from 2019-2021. The aim of the project is to study how adopting a child-centred approach can stimulate inclusion and integration of migrant children at an educational and policy level. In the symposium the focus will be on discussing experiences and challenges of child-centred approach in researching migrant children. We will reflect on the use of child-centred methodologies as a tool for gaining knowledge about migrant children, various aspects of “ethics in practice, researcher positioning, power relations, challenging situations and research dilemmas. Additionally, theoretical considerations of child-centred perspective and empirical data in theoretical perspective will be discussed. The discussion will draw upon the presentation of case studies from Austria, Denmark, Greece, Slovenia, Spain, and UK. PAPER #1 Child-centred approaches, racialization and researcher positioning AUTHOR(S) Gro Hellesdatter Jacobsen (Department for the Study of Culture, The University of Southern Denmark) ABSTRACT According to a child-centred perspective in line with the Article 12 in the Convention of the Rights of the Child, children are seen as active and competent participants in their own lives. This presentation will discuss some challenges in using such a perspective when doing research with migrant children in order to study their experiences of well-being, participation, etc. Drawing on fieldwork with migrant children (newly arrived as well as with a longer experience) in Denmark, main findings from the fieldwork will be presented. Furthermore, it will be discussed how the empirical data can be seen in a theoretical perspective inspired by approaches critical to processes of rationalisation and whiteness. Hence, the presentation will aim to further reflections on how to relate researcher positioning in fieldwork to researcher positioning in the research field with a special focus on methodological considerations which appeared during the fieldwork and analysis phases in the Danish context. Firstly, how to prevent that the understanding of children as active and competent leads to problematizing of child informants who do not come across as ‘active participants’ in the research project regarding willingness and ability to communicate, etc. This leads to the second question on whether and how children’s narratives become means in ‘happy stories of diversity’ (Ahmed, 2007) when we do research on integration, and whether such considerations can contribute to qualify the child-centred perspective in research on migrant children. PAPER #2 Who is the Other in the child-centred approach? AUTHOR(S) Juana M Sancho Gil (University of Barcelona) Fernando Hernandez-Hernandez (University of Barcelona) ABSTRACT The influence of logical empiricism in the social sciences (St. Pierre, 2016) and the constitution of students as 'incomplete' beings without capacity for action (agency) (Cannella & Viruru, 2004; Smyth & McInerney, 2012), have led to a tangential consideration of children and young people experiences and knowledge in educational research. As argued by Smyth & McInerney (2012, p. 1), "young people in schools are treated with pathological and forensic detachment in diagnosing what is allegedly wrong with them and how they got to be that way". However, they are not "inert materials to be prodded, poked and pontificated upon-they are active, live agents that have viewpoints, aspirations and designs for their futures, which they are not at all reticent in speaking vociferously into existence" (Smyth & McInerney, 2012, p. 1). Because of these shortcomings, the proposal of the MiCREATE project, on which this paper is connected, was planned from a 'child-centred approach'. Within this framework, three case studies we have carried out in three primary schools in Barcelona. In these studies, the notion of 'voice' and 'giving voice' has been problematised as epistemic and ethical references, to consider the knowledge, experiences, and visions of immigrant students from decolonising positions. From the research carried out with 75 children from 10-11, three school's life dimensions which are especially significant for them emerged: socialisation and care, relationship with teachers and to play. These contributions reinforce the need for research that focuses on children's and young people's knowledge from perspectives that avoid imposing views on research and schooling. PAPER #3 “I have a dream”: Refugee children’s aspirations from a child-centred perspective AUTHOR(S) Nektaria Palaiologou (School of Humanities, Hellenic Open University) Marina Sounoglou (School of Humanities, Hellenic Open University) Eirini Kyriazi (School of Humanities, Hellenic Open University) ABSTRACT A child-centred perspective starts from basic children rights. A child-centred approach is a participatory approach that recognises children as active participants within the social interactions to act as autonomous individuals, able to communicate information about their own lives. This paper describes the first mapping of the intercultural trip of refugee students who arrive in Greece. We present some of the findings of an ethnographic research study focusing on 21 (N) refugee children. In the frame of this research, we conducted interviews (semi-structure type of protocol). The sample consists of 4 boys and 17 girls between the ages of 10 and 17 years old, conducted in an urban camp in Athens, Greece. The axes of the interview protocol explore refugee children’s reactions and feelings towards their “journey” from home country to Greece as well as their socio-educational experiences. The research presents a structural framework for implementing thematic and critical discourse analysis in order to understand how refugee children subjectively perceive their transition to a new linguistic-cultural environment, in order to give meaning to their social reality and adaptation process. Refugee children’s aspirations predominantly focus on their personal lives, on their attitudes to-wards education. Refugee children desire to have the protagonist role in their lives. Also, their wishes for quality, safe and proper education are prevalent; consequently, it is important to support refugee children to reach their full potential and pursue their dreams. PAPER #4 The long wait for asylum: Conditions and experiences of waiting for asylum-seeking children in Austria AUTHOR(S) Stella Wolter (Department of Political Science, University of Vienna) Mira Liepold (Department of Political Science, University of Vienna) Alev Cakir (Department of Political Science, University of Vienna) Birgit Sauer (Department of Political Science, University of Vienna) ABSTRACT Even though the number of asylum applications has decreased after 2015 and the new Austrian government program envisages a "reduction of the duration of the asylum procedure to an average of six months" (Government Program 2020-2024), the asylum procedure in Austria is still rather slow. A report by the Children's Rights Network (2019) mentions a decision time for asylum procedures in Austria of currently 15 months. It can be assumed that waiting for an asylum decision in any case involves a lot of uncertainty – and this uncertainty grows the longer the waiting time takes. This paper aims to explore the waiting conditions and experiences of asylum-seeking children while waiting for asylum in Austria. Based on a secondary analysis of legal and policy measures as well as on ethnographic fieldwork with asylum-seeking children, this paper analyses how waiting conditions and experiences are shaped by various factors such as the conditions of housing and schooling and the interaction with Austrian authorities. We argue that it is important to listen to children, to include them, to recognise them as "competent meaning-makers" (Clark 2006), and to see them as active participants in the construction of knowledge – that is to use a centred approach – both in policy and in research. Austria is an interesting case, as the country has adopted the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, but at the same time is progressively limiting the right to asylum. Our data analysis shows that legal and policy measures lack a centred approach and thus fail to address the needs of asylum-seeking children. PAPER #5 Challenges of child-centred approach to the understanding of migrant children`s integration AUTHOR(S) Zorana Medarić Science and Research Centre Koper Mateja Sedmak Science and Research Centre Koper Barbara Gornik Science and Research Centre Koper ABSTRACT The paper is based on fieldwork research with migrant and local children attending primary and secondary schools in Slovenia; it analyses migrant children`s integration processes and interethnic dynamics in the school environment by applying child-centred methodologies. Special focus is put on subjective views and perceptions of migrant children with the aim to explore the meanings they attribute to the process of integration, how they perceive successful integration, how interethnic relations and tensions influence this process etc. In using child-centred theoretical and methodological approach we aim to explore the children`s views and perceptions that often differ and contrast to the perceptions of adults involved in their integration process, such as teaching staff, parents, mediators, translators and others. Within child-centred research process children have the opportunities to share their views, create meanings and produce knowledge regarding the matters that concern them. Drawing upon the fieldwork, the paper reflects on the use of child-centred methodologies as a tool for better understanding of children`s experiences and views on integration. In particular, challenges of reflexivity as one of the crucial elements of child-centred research will be reflected upon. The process of reflexive inquiry requires researchers to constantly question their own views, personal filters and preconceptions that influence the construction of knowledge. Since reflexivity is a relational and dual process, both are important, awareness of how researchers affect children as research participants as well as how they in turn influence researchers. PAPER#6 Mediating role of gender in integration processes of migrant children in Britain AUTHOR(S) Farwa Batool | Manchester Metropolitan University Aleksandra Szymczyk | Manchester Metropolitan University Shoba Arun | Manchester Metropolitan University Hafsah Musamod | Manchester Metropolitan University ABSTRACT This paper explores migrant children's experiences of integration into the British society. Researchers have argued that migration is a socio-cultural process that is mediated by gendered ideologies. Although, it is extensively researched and documented in literature on migrant adults it is largely overlooked in research on migrant children. Gender is an important concept to study in relation to integration experiences amongst children as it can shed light on differing experiences and needs of the two groups. Exploring the role of gender may also help to highlight the intersecting inequalities within this marginalised group. This paper will therefore also explore the role of gender in children's experiences of integration in British society. Experiences of Integration were examined through child centred methods of research including 51 unstructured interviews and 6 focus groups with children aged 10-13 and 14-17. Data was gathered from newely arrived, long term migrants and local children. Interviews and focus groups were of a participatory nature wherein children were treated as experts in their own experiences of migration and were encouraged to take the lead. Themes related to living conditions, inclusion in peer groups, involvement in leisure activities, family, friends, social networks and perception of possible changes were explored. Results of this paper will provide valuable insights into factors influencing integration and if and how these may vary according to gender.

discussant

Mateja Sedmak

author

Barbara Gornik

author

Gro Hellesdatter Jacobsen

University of South Denmark

author

Juana M. Sancho-Gil

University of Barcelona

author

Fernando Hernandez-Hernandez

University of Barcelona

author

Nektaria Palaiologou

author

Marina Sounoglou

School of Humanities, Hellenic Open University

author

Eirini Kyriazi

author

Stella Louise Wolter

University Vienna

author

Mira Liepold

Department of Political Science, University of Vienna

author

Alev Cakir

Department of Political Science, University of Vienna

author

Birgit Sauer

Department of Political Science, University of Vienna

author

Aleksandra Szymczyk

Manchester Metropolitan University

author

Farwa Batool

Manchester Metropolitan University

author

Hafsah Musamod

Manchester Metropolitan University

author

SHOBA ARUN

Manchester Metropolitan University

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The Reception of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe: the Civil Society Turn

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #173 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Maurizio Ambrosini

university of Milan

chair

Iraklis Dimitriadis

University of Milan

Over the last years, refugees have turned into an increasingly relevant issue in most European countries, as numerous people arrived to Europe in need of humanitarian protection. Gaps and failures of political institutions in addressing asylum seekers’ needs triggered the reaction of different civil society actors such as NGOs, social movements, Churches and religious associations, trade unions, citizens not belonging to any structured organization and refugees themselves. These actors have supported refugees, asylum seekers and those rejected by providing shelter, food, clothes, medical services, legal advocacy and language lessons, and promoting their social and labour market integration. Rather than being always confined in national territories or local contexts, civil society actions may extend across borders and/or in support of mobility or transit practices, or in relation to what happens in border areas. In addition, the management of asylum at the local level has often taken place among actors who confront each other upon a ‘battleground’, that goes beyond a ‘negotiation order’. In other words, asylum governance may be considered as the output of conflict and cooperation, of alternative views and political actions, of official policies and practical help, of formal statements and informal practices between those in favour of and those against immigrants. The panel proposal aims to gather scholars who have explored, through different methods and disciplinary perspectives, civil society initiatives concerning the reception of refugees and asylum seekers across Europe. How do civil society actors mobilize in relation to reception of refugees and asylum seekers? How does mobilization ‘from below’ reconfigure immigration governance? What are the characteristics of these civil society organizations and what are the challenges for those dealing with refugee reception? What challenges has COVID-19 posed to the actions of civil society in relation to immigration? PAPER #1 From cooperation to conflict: the role of NGOs in asylum seekers reception in Spain AUTHOR(S) Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas (CIDOB, Barcelona) Olatz Ribera (CIDOB, Barcelona) ABSTRACT In Spain the number of asylum applications increased from 14,887 in 2015 to over 118,000 in 2019. Following this increase in applications, the number of reception places went from 930 in September 2015 to 9.129 in December 2019. While there has been a significant expansion of the state reception system and a reconfiguration of its multilevel governance model with NGOs as key actors, the state-led reception system has proved incapable of providing an effective response to the exponential growth in arrivals. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic has limited even further Spain’s reception capacity, overstretching a system that was already overwhelmed before the pandemic. Based on 50 interviews conducted between 2018 and 2020 in Madrid and Barcelona, the paper will examine the current double role of NGOs as practical executors of the state reception system, on the one hand, and as last safety-net providers, on the other. We will argue that while in Madrid the pitfalls of the state reception system led to an open confrontation between the Ministry, the municipality and NGOs providing last shelter, in Barcelona this tension has been kept to a much lower degree. As a result, while in Madrid the politicisation of asylum has come from civil society movements and is fundamentally linked to situations of homelessness among asylum seekers, in Barcelona it is related to general discussions on the right to asylum and is led by the municipality together with NGOs and civil society movements. PAPER #2 The concept of „receptivity“ as a means to investigate civil society responses in asylum seekers’ reception on the local level AUTHOR(S) Birgit Glorius (TU Chemnitz) Miriam Bürer (TU Chemnitz) Hanne Schneider (TU Chemnitz) ABSTRACT During the “Refugee Reception Crisis” of 2015, civil society in Germany has been mobilized at an extraordinary level. Established NGOs, but also ad-hoc groups and individuals have demonstrated collective power in filling the gaps of state reception systems, notably in terms of orientation, consultation, but also manifold practical issues such as language learning, school support, labour market positioning and much more. Yet not all members of the resident population have joined into this “wave of warm welcome”. Besides individuals showing critical positions and questioning the deservingness of asylum-seekers to profit from society’s solidarity, there were also NGO’s and ad-hoc groups organising local protest against asylum seeker reception, highlighting the existence of a “dark side of civil society”. Furthermore, there were considerable variations in local civil society responses, nourished by strongly varying collective attitudes regarding asylum politics and immigration of foreigners. This brings us to the question, how “civil society” can adequately be defined and how the activities of civil society are embedded in the societal context of a locality. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on the “civil society turn” by presenting a “receptivity model” as a tool for the theoretical framing and empirical exploration of local reception conditions and the structure of civil society, and thus answer the research questions raised above. Using data from expert interviews and a population survey on attitudes and reception conditions in small towns in Germany, we will demonstrate the explanatory value of our “receptivity” model. PAPER #3 „Navigating the ambivalences of Volunteering“ AUTHOR(S) Serhat Karakayali (Humboldt University) ABSTRACT Based on the findings of several studies conducted among volunteers who support refugees in different places in Germany, encompassing both individual volunteers and representatives of organisations, the paper will explore the role of the volunteer movement in challenging the European migration regime and the framing of migration politics in these movements. The data was collected between 2014 and 2016. The surveys provide insights to the transformation and composition of the field and the blurry boundaries between political activism and volunteering. PAPER #4 Back to the poorhouse continued. Social protection and social control of irregular migrants in the shadow of the welfare state AUTHOR(S) Arjen Leerkes (Erasmus University Rotterdam) ABSTRACT Sociologists have speculated that heightened global interconnectedness, and the resulting increased potential for international migration, would lead to transnational social policies. In this view, states of richer countries would increasingly have an interest in financing social policies in poorer countries in an effort to reduce the need for the distant poor to migrate. By and large, such transnational social policies have not materialised - possibly with the exception of certain policies that aim to reduce unwanted onward irregular migration. Focusing on the Dutch case, I argue that international migration, and the desire by states to selectively limit it, is nonetheless leading to new forms of poor relief and poverty control, not in countries of origin but in countries of destination. In various Western welfare states, we now find elementary and, in many cases, rather archaic practices of poor relief and anti-pauperism measures for certain categories of irregular migrants. Civil society actors, especially churches (mosques considerably less so) have a significant involvement in such ‘secondary poor relief’, but in the Netherlands there also is a clear trend towards formalisation and collectivisation: in 2011, the national government opened various bed, bad and bread centres for irregular families (with access to schools for children) and in 2019 it begun to finance five centres for irregular adults. Migrants without children have to collaborate on finding a ‘sustainable solution’ in order to be allowed into the centres, but return rates have been very limited and few migrants have been regularized. PAPER #5 Of contradiction and messiness: Civil society borderwork in migrant reception AUTHOR(S) Giulia Sinatti, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam ABSTRACT A growing body of scholarly work addresses the increasing involvement, in migration governance, of civil society actors. Much of this literature highlights – within the bottom-up initiatives of NGOs, charities, volunteers and activists – the central role of solidarity and their push toward inclusion and egalitarianism. In this literature, civil society initiatives are often contrasted to “evil” and restrictive state policies. In this article, I argue that they are portrayed as “good” and favoring democratic integration, often too simplistically. Reality, in fact, is rarely black and white and tends instead to be messy. In civil society initiatives, bordering is as much the doing of institutions as it is of citizens who, through borderwork, are “involved in constructing and contesting borders throughout Europe” (Rumford 2008: 3). Through an analysis of everyday practices in civil society initiatives of migrant reception in Italy between 2014 and 2017, I uncover the messiness of such borderwork. Ethnographic research methods allow looking beyond clarity and precision (Law 2004), to highlight the contradictions in which seemingly opposed forces are present. In this article, I show that the space between such opposites is faithful to the intricacy of everyday life. My data adds complexity to the interpretation of civil-society initiatives as “good”, and suggests that ordinary citizens engaging in them perform borderwork that may enable mobility for some and hinder it for others.

discussant

Paola Bonizzoni

University of Milan

discussant

Sophie Hinger

IMIS

author

Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas

CIDOB

author

Olatz Ribera

CIDOB, Barcelona

author

Birgit Glorius

TU Chemnitz

author

Miriam Bürer

TU Chemnitz

author

Hanne Schneider

TU Chemnitz

author

Arjen Leerkes

Erasmus University Rotterdam

author

Serhat Karakayali

Humboldt Universität zu Berlin

participant

Giulia Sinatti

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Access to the session WebEx link and uploaded papers is available for attendees only. Did you register? Check your conference status.

Migrants and the local population

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #174 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Jörg Plöger

ILS-Research Institut for Regional and Urban Development

chair

Agnes Kriszan

HAWK University of Applied Sciences Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen

This panel addresses the relationships between local population(s) and migrants in the destination context. In these arrival settings the conditions for integration of migrants have changed, most recently with the measures taken to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Examples include the interruption of access to critical services and infrastructures, the redirection of resources away from integration/migration tasks, the narrowing down of opportunities for social encounters or the attitudes towards migrants in general. We are interested in understanding how the arrival of migrants is negotiated in different local contexts under the given circumstances. How do new migrants experience their arrival when the local population may lack the will or capacity for interaction or solidarity or when institutions providing important support for migrants have switched to crisis mode and when key mechanisms for integration are interrupted? The papers gathered for this panel bring together first insights from 4 EU-funded projects in the field of migration studies (MIMY, Matilde, Welcoming Spaces, EYERASPS). They address one or more of the following topics: - the perspective, attitudes and behaviours of the local population in receiving contexts towards migrants - the role of social unrest or the rise of right-wing and anti-immigration populism - particular groups of migrants, for example young, vulnerable migrants. - focus on more “difficult” reception contexts; for example older-industrial cities or rural/peripheral regions struggling with demographic, economic and social challenges. - use of comparative research designs to understand variations between places. - identification of bottom-up/community initiatives bridging migrants and local populations. PAPER #1 The role of places of interactions to bridge refugees and the resident populations. Findings from rural Germany AUTHOR(S) Stefan Kordel (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg) Tobias Weidinger (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg) David Spenger (FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg) ABSTRACT Due to dispersal policies applied in many European countries such as Germany, rural regions are important arrival regions for forced migrants. Such contexts of arrival differ from urban ones, e.g. in terms of structural challenges related to demographic change, labour markets under transformation or limited experiences with immigration. From a perspective of rural development, it is crucial that forced migrants continue to stay in rural regions. Social bridging is widely acknowledged as a key for the development of social well-being and, thus, local embeddedness. This presentation addresses the role of places of interactions as a prerequisite for social contact between refugees and the resident population. Drawing from 139 qualitative interviews with 192 refugees that were conducted in eight rural districts in four Federal States, we examine expectations, perceptions and experiences of everyday encounters and social relationships in neighbourhoods in rural small towns and villages from the perspective of refugees, applying a place-related perspective. Our results show that the interviewees display a high level of reflexivity regarding their new neighbourhood and how they might be seen by residents. Their experiences encompass various forms of social relationships, while social bridges are crucial, ranging from serendipitous encounters and functional interactions to connections based on mutual interest around family issues or cultural aspects. Places of interactions vary from newly established, institutionalised ones, such as asylum cafés, to already existing ones, where interaction occurs as either a necessity or a side-effect. Local mediators, such as volunteers, play an important role for getting access to established places. PAPER #2 ´Welcoming initiatives´ in shrinking small towns. Migrants´ pathways of emplacement and the cooperation of local population, actors of social work and government AUTHOR(S) Sabine Meier (University Siegen) ABSTRACT This paper deals with the characteristics of welcoming initiatives which aim to foster the emplacement of (non-EU) migrants in shrinking small towns, in particular in Thuringia, Germany. Discussing the theory of emplacement and mode of operation of welcoming initiatives, the following research questions are answered. Firstly, what characterizes welcoming initiatives that have been developed in particular since 2015? Secondly, how do the different actors cooperate within these initiatives? Third, how do (non-EU) migrants develop opportunities for themselves and (parts of) the local population to get ahead in small towns and fourth, which barriers do they experience? The aim of the paper is to analyse the interplay between welcoming initiatives – consisting of (parts of the) local population, actors of social work, municipalities or others - and (non-EU) migrants´ pathways of emplacement. The concept of emplacement refers to the process of social and socio-economic positioning in and within places on different ´scales´. Here, it is important to realize, that emplacement is the bright side of the dark side of displacement. Both developments are caused by the restructuring of towns. This restructuring process is framed by labour market structures, certain socio-cultural characteristics and local traditions (i.e. its systems of local actors) and by supra-local conditions, like integration laws. It is a process which effects newcomers and the established local population in shrinking regions. This exploration of welcoming initiatives in Germany is part of the international research project: ´Investing in “Welcoming Spaces” in Europe´ that is funded by the EU (Horizion2020). PAPER #3 Friendship (networks) in the process of “doing arrival”: Young refugees and asylum seekers’ negotiations of social relationships in urban spaces of arrival AUTHOR(S) Elisabeth Kirndörfer (Leibniz Institute for Regional Geography, Leipzig) Kathrin Hörschelmann (University of Bonn) ABSTRACT Meeus, van Heur, and Arnaut (2019, 1) define arrival infrastructures as “those parts of the urban fabric within which newcomers become entangled on arrival, and where their future local or translocal social mobilities are produced as much as negotiated.” Based on qualitative interviews conducted within the HERA-funded research project “The everyday experiences of young refugees and asylum seekers in public spaces” (2019-2021), we will investigate the role of friendships, friendship networks and social relationships within the process of “doing arrival”: How do young refugees and asylum seekers reflect on their experiences of ‘getting in touch’ in their new living environment? How do they negotiate friendship and social relation with longer-term residents in the city? And how do these experiences affect their practices of placemaking and negotiations of place-attachment? The time-range of our data collection will allow us to investigate more closely how the pandemic affected the role of friendship (networks) in processes of “doing arrival”. Our contribution will be inspired by works on friendship/social relation in the context of migration (Robertson 2018, Wessendorf 2017, Walsh 2009, Conradson & Latham 2005) and theoretical perspectives that allow us to approach the “politics of friendships” (Ghandi 2006) with a power-sensitive lens, one that considers difference and the micro-politics of resistance (Lugones 2010). PAPER #4 Who is responsible for integration? Stakeholders’ perspectives and their attitudes at the local level AUTHOR(S) Zeynep Aydar (ILS- Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development) Swantje Penke (HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Art) ABSTRACT Debates on migrant integration are becoming more disputed every day. At the same time, focusing on the characteristics of the arrival structures and the role of stakeholders on integration processes evolved into a trend. In this paper, we argue that the stakeholders’ approaches and the path dependencies (Rodríguez-Pose & Berlepsch, 2020) of the locality determine the integration experience and how the meaning of the concept itself is understood. Accordingly, we are particularly interested in the perspectives of integration stakeholders regarding who is/are liable for and in charge of integration, from supplying to actualizing. Based on H2020 project MIMY, this paper aims at illustrating insights from two contrasting places in Germany with different characteristics, such as urban and rural, and with dense or less immigration history. Therefore, we explore the approach and position of the core integration stakeholders through 20-30 planned interviews in the city of Dortmund and the town of Holzminden. We try to highlight the diverse concepts of integration and the perceived related responsibilities, showing how the differences stemming from path dependencies may reflect on attitudes and eventually on services that are provided by these stakeholders.

author

Stefan Kordel

FAU Erlangen-Nurnberg

author

Tobias Weidinger

FAU Erlangen-Nurnberg

author

David Spenger

FAU Erlangen-Nuremberg

author

Sabine Meier

University Siegen

author

Elisabeth Kirndörfer

Geographical Institute, University of Bonn

author

Kathrin Hörschelmann

University of Bonn

author

zeynep aydar

Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development

author

Swantje Penke

HAWK Holzminden

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Crossing disciplinary boundaries in migration studies: Are interdisciplinary terminologies and concepts a sensible aspiration... or utopia?

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #175 workshop | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Kerstin Martel

CBS - Copenhagen Business School

organizer

Friederike Mathey

VU Amsterdam, Netherlands

Migration studies federate scholars from increasingly diverse disciplines: political scientists, economists and geographers address macro levels, meso- and micro-levels are, for example, explored by psychologists, sociologists or anthropologists. Management and organization scholars contributed more recently with findings related to diversity and migrant inclusion at the workplace. When conducting empirical research or conceptual debates across disciplines, we observe that distinct paradigmatic positions, inconsistent or seemingly discriminatory terminologies can be discouraging, closing the door for deeper collaboration. Taxonomies and jargons and their underlying theoretical assumptions increase the difficulty for “outsiders” to join a discussion. The workshop participants are from multiple disciplines and all have experienced the limitations and benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration in migration studies. They can thereby contribute to a constructive discussion. We suggest focussing on the phenomenon of “work” / “labour” / “occupation” of migrants and internationally mobile individuals. This phenomenon is often interpreted on the basis of underlying disciplinary assumptions and cultural norms of receiving societies, which mostly remain implicit though. Moreover, designations such as “irregular worker” and “global talent” or concepts such as “international career” or “labour market integration” may point to specific ideological lenses or paradigmatic stances. By confronting the participants’ distinct interpretations of a few concepts and terminologies related to migration and “work” in an iterative manner, this workshop attempts to make underlying assumptions explicit. It contributes to an ongoing political and historical deconstruction of terminologies, which might catalyze, as suggested by Favell (2007), a theoretical renewal and nurture inter- / postdisciplinary collaboration.

participant

Almina Besic

Johannes Kepler University Linz

participant

Jana Finke

Utrecht University

participant

Jacopo Bassetto

University of Trento, Italy

participant

Petra Aigner

Johannes Kepler Universität

participant

Judith Judith Kohlenberger

Vienna University of Economics and Business

participant

Aldina Camenisch

University of Neuchâtel

participant

Elena Glauninger

University of Graz, Department of HUman Resource Management

participant

Sarah Ganty

Yale / UL Bruxelles

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Cultural Ritualized city Events and the Inclusion of Newcomers

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #176 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Marco F Martiniello

CEDEM

This session is co-organized by DIVCULT and by UNIC, a Belgian-Swiss research project whose main objective is to analyze the self-organization of migrant associations, independent civil society initiatives and established ritualized practices of inclusion in the city that occur outside formal migration and integration policies and that improve the dynamics of belonging, exchange, cooperation and interactions between the established and newcomers. One of the objectives of the research is to assess how cities’ ritualized urban events, memory and values contribute to the inclusion of newcomers. In this session, we propose more specifically to examine to what extent ritualized urban cultural, artistic and sport events offer opportunities of inclusion to newcomers or alternatively to what extent those events produce or reproduce their exclusion from the city social fabric. We welcome empirical and theoretical papers examining how cities deal with that question. The events we are interested in are city parades, carnivals, annual historical celebrations, music festivals, football derbies, etc. PAPER #1 Intercultural urban walks guided by immigrant people AUTHOR(S) Alice Clarebout (CEDEM) ABSTRACT Today, large cities have become real melting pots, where natives and immigrants, newcomers and children of migrants, live side by side. As a inclusion machines, cities are daily witnessing activities aimed to include newcomers and connect them to the city, its public space and memory. One of this kind of activities is what is called “intercultural urban walks” guided by immigrants. The origin of it comes from the Italian "Migrantour" project (Turin, 2010), a local touristic initiative that has become a European network providing a new instrument for integration that promotes the cultural heritage brought by migrant citizens, asylum seekers and refugees. Through intercultural urban walks in four countries and ten cities, citizens of old and new generations, tourists, newcomers, students and the just plain curious may discover or rediscover their cities through the eyes and words of migrant citizens. The Migrantour project works in official collaboration with local associations or has inspired other associations that use their concept of intercultural urban walks. Based on a research among Belgian associations that organize urban walks guided by migrants, this paper presents a reflection on the inclusive impact of these urban activities on the guides as well as on the visitors and inhabitants of the visited neighborhoods. Urban walks work as a bridge between newcomers and the city by their own active social and cultural participation in the city life as well as by sharing their own representation of the city they live in. PAPER #2 From “urban ethnic rituals” to “rituals as agents of social cohesion”. Convivialities in urban and rural Migrantours. AUTHOR(S) Pietro Cingolani (Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna; FIERI) Francesco Vietti (FIERI and University of Milano-Bicoca) ABSTRACT In this paper we discuss if ritualized events of newcomers in the cultural, artistic and recreational sphere, in both urban and rural contexts, can help to strengthen social cohesion and to foster conviviality at the local level. We do not only consider the impact on the social sphere but also on the material one; we ask ourselves how and under what conditions these initiatives can produce economic benefits for the people involved. To answer these questions we take into consideration the European project Migrantour (http://www.mygrantour.org/en/). Starting from migrants’ cultural skills and from the urban rituals in which they take part, newcomers are trained as tourist guides in their neighbourhoods. The Migrantour approach is now applied also to European rural and internal areas, in localities far from the big cities. In our paper, in addition to providing ethnographic data on these experiences, we aim to contribute to the methodological and theoretical debate on the migration/culture nexus as a means of inclusion, in the following ways: - Overcoming the limits of methodological ethnicism. We propose not to study the "cultures of immigrants" versus "autochthonous cultures" but to consider various manifestations of diversity in public and common spaces; - Problematizing the same concepts of intangible cultural heritage and of cultural transmission in contexts of high diversity; - Problematizing the distinction between what is economic and what is cultural. The economic aspect is never completely distinguishable from the social and cultural aspect, as the concept of “moral economy” highlights; - Overcoming the urban/rural divide in migration studies. Many researches consider cities as a place par excellence for immigrants’ rituals. This preference has led scholars to neglect, from a theoretical and empirical point of view, contexts more peripheral but equally important for the processes of social inclusion. PAPER #3 A momentary lack of rituals: effects and challenges of rituals cancellation during the COVID-19 lockdown AUTHOR(S) Sandro Cattacin (University of Geneva) Fiorenza Gamba (University of Geneva) Nerea (Viana Alzola) ABSTRACT Rituals as established practices of inclusion in the city, outside formal migration and integration policies, improving the dynamics of belonging and coexistence between the established and newcomers, is one of the three analysis axes of our project “UNIC – Unexpected inclusion". But what happens when because of a special situation, like the COVID-19 pandemic, rituals are cancelled and they can't take place? It is an unexpected situation involving both researchers and the participants (Gamba et al. 2020), that we had to cope with. Obliged by the circumstances, we decided for an ab absentia analysis: recorded documents, memories with a particular focus on what the participants’ lack of rituals. In this perspective we present the case study of the Escalade of Geneva in pandemic time. The Escalade represents Geneva's history of independence, and today is a celebration of openness of the city where the official narration of the history of Geneva is decoded by the participants according to their own multiple personal narratives. The visible effects produced by the absence of this event remind us that "social nothingness" matters even if it is often a sociologically neglected domain (Scott, 2019). However, it is precisely from this social nothingness that strong elements of inclusion of newcomers had emerged in our analysis PAPER #4 Staging experimental Arabic music: Imaginaries of belonging, integration and musical citizenship in Mannheim’s public space AUTHOR(S) Jasmin Irscheid (King's College London) ABSTRACT In 2018, three cultural institutions: the Irtijal festival in Lebanon, the Al-Balad theatre in Jordan, and the Alte Feuerwache in Germany, created a public platform for artists to showcase experimental and electroacoustic music and sound art. As part of the resulting project entitled Planet Ears, Mannheim’s established venue Alte Feuerwache held a music festival inviting not only researchers and musicians, but members of the community to attend open air festivals, workshops and electronic dance music events featuring artists from the Arab world and its diasporic communities in Germany. The festival aimed for unconventional ways of staging performances and created a more immersive and participatory environment for members of the audience. My research is looking at the socio-cultural significance of the festival and the changes in the city’s cultural policy regarding the staging of intercultural music projects; in particular, at the way Arab artist are able to reclaim public places to perform, network and showcase experimental music projects. It focuses specifically on the ways in which the reclaiming of public spaces in the urban environment can subvert postcolonial power structures and creatively challenge the idea of a citizenship based on nationality at the same time. Looking at the performativity of language throughout all organisational stages of the musical festival, I aim to find out how the language and communicative strategies of cultural institutions, record labels and the musicians themselves shape the discourse on “Arabic music” and how such language creates new imaginations of musical citizenship, belonging and inclusion.

discussant

Shannon Damery

CEDEM

author

Pietro Cingolani

FIERI

author

Alice Clarebout

CEDEM, Uliège

author

Francesco Vietti

FIERI and University of Milano-Bicoca

author

Sandro Cattacin

Université de Genève

author

Fiorenza Gamba

author

Nerea Viana Alzola

Geneva University

author

Jasmin Irscheid

King's College London

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Newcomers' labour market inclusion in the EU: legal, social and policy barriers and enablers.

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #177 workshop | SC Immigration, Immigrants and the labour market in Europe

organizer

Simone Baglioni

Department of Economics and Management, University of Parma

organizer

Maria Mexi

Albert Hirschman Centre - Graduate Institute Geneva

The workshop builds on results obtained in the 3-year EU H2020 funded SIRIUS research. It discusses comparatively the key socio-economic, legal and political barriers and enablers that recent (post-2015) migrants, refugees and asylum seekers have experienced in a range of European countries (Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). The workshop offers the opportunity to disentangle labour-migration issues from a multi-disciplinary perspective including speakers from economics, legal studies, sociology, social policy and political science. We approach labour migration by discussing simultaneously factors located at micro (individual), meso (societal) and macro (institutional-policy) levels. The workshop is organised as a roundtable which allows exchange and interaction with the audience/participants.

participant

Nathan Lillie

participant

Veronica Federico

Università degli Studi di Firenze

participant

Panayotis Michaelidis

Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Athens, Greece

participant

Karel Cada

Insitute of Sociology, Charles University Prague, the Czech Republic

participant

Irina Isaakyan

Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada

participant

Konstantinos N. Konstantakis

Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Athens, Greece

participant

Anna Triandafyllidou

EUI

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Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 11

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #178 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Adham Aly

Superdiversity and the digital engagement of religious youth Katharina Limacher Research Centre "Religion and Transformation in Contemporary Society" (RaT) Christoph Novak Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) Our paper presents preliminary findings from research with diverse religious youth living in Vienna. In the project, we investigate how the religiosity of young believers plays out in on- and offline spaces. We gathered data through interviews with religious Instagram users to highlight the connections between the city, religious diversity and the digital world. Based on this research, the paper asks how the online behavior of diverse religious youth in migration society might question established notions of superdiversity. While superdiversity has been an important concept to navigate the complexities of contemporary society, particularly ""offline"" urban spaces, it has not yet been systematically applied to the analysis of online behavior of religious youth. Our initial findings suggest that online engagement of religious youth in migration society can be categorized in terms of its social (interactive vs. individual) and discursive orientations (specifically religious vs. general-humanistic orientation). We take this general-humanistic orientation of online identification practices of religious youth as a starting point to revisit the concept of superdiversity and its significance for research at the intersection of on- and offline spaces. More specifically, we ask what different discursive orientations entail for conceptualising superdiversity in digital spaces. We argue that the explanatory ability of superdiversity to denote an increase in diversity within contemporary society should be complemented with attention to practices of (self-)identification that, especially in online spaces, seem to become ever more homogenous. === ‘I’m not Swedish Swedish’: self-appraised national and ethnic identification among migrant-descendants in Sweden Caroline Adolfsson Malmö University " The present study aims to explore the tension between ethnic and national identification as well as feelings of belongingness in descendants of migrants in Sweden. Survey data was collected from 889 Swedes whose parents were born in the following six countries; Somalia, Iraq, Poland, Vietnam, Pakistan, and Turkey. Sweden presents an interesting case as the population is divided into hierarchies of ‘Swedishness’ (Behtoui, 2018), with those immigrant groups ascribed as ‘Swedish’ having the most integrated identities. This article mirrors these findings. However, most individuals surveyed had high feelings of belongingness to Swedishness and showed a positive correlation between the centrality of national and ethnic identification. Liebkind (2001) and others have articulated a two-dimensional model of acculturation which stems from the work of Berry (1990, 1997). In this model, acculturation features adaptions of the individual to the host society while also sustaining heritage culture (Liebkind, 2001). The negotiation between these two aspects happens when the individual weighs the importance of each and takes the form of what Phinney et al. (2001) has called the ‘four acculturation strategies: integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization’ (p. 495). Using this framework, the six ethnic sub-groups are examined through an interactional perspective, which includes ascribed identity, centrality of ethnic and national (Swedish) identity, and belongingness. The ability to inhabit multiple forms of identity as a member of different groups is the choice of an individual within a pluralistic society. Multiple centralities need not be contradictory but rather an expression of different spheres of inhabitance. === Three grammars of migrants’ claim-making for belonging through arts and culture Ivana Rapoš Božič Masaryk University Recent years have seen a rise in artistic and cultural initiatives that aim to foster intercultural dialogue in ethnically diversifying societies and help migrants publicly articulate their claims for belonging. In many such initiatives, arts and culture have been turned into tools that are used to communicate specific social and political messages. The prevalent model of minorities’ claim-making in democratic societies––the minority advocacy––has been traditionally based on argumentation that takes place in the language of human rights and requires detachment from personal concerns. On the other hand, the novel art- and culture-based forms of claim-making are also welcoming to other forms of communication that do not require argumentative format and are open to the expression of migrants’ personal interests or familiarity. My contribution aims to fill the gap in the knowledge of the models of migrants’ claim-making, which, together with their social and political implications, still remain largely unexplored. Based on ethnographic research of civically-engaged cultural festivals concerned with the issue of ethnic diversity in Central Europe, I identify three grammars of claim-making that are commonly used to communicate migrants’ belonging through artistic and cultural initiatives. Drawing on the theoretical perspective of the French pragmatic sociology––and particularly the concept the grammar of commonality in the plural––I will also discuss political implications of each of the grammars. The results of my research will have an impact on the understanding of the role of arts and culture in fostering more inclusive urban environments.

author

Ivana Rapos Bozic

Masaryk University

author

Christoph Novak

Austrian Academy of Sciences

author

Katharina Limacher

University of Vienna

author

Caroline Adolfsson

Malmö University

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Older migrants in times of COVID-19

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #179 panel | SC Older Migrants

chair

Oana Ruxandra Ciobanu

University of Geneva

chair

Tineke Fokkema

NIDI

This is one of the guaranteed sessions of the Standing Committee ‘Older migrants’. The pandemic due to Covid-19 has impacted everyone’s livelihoods. Yet, some populations are more vulnerable than others. One of these groups are older migrants. Being an elderly population, they have a higher mortality risk. Further, being migrants, they might have less contacts in the country of destination, and therefore less persons on whom they can rely to help them with grocery shopping, buying medicines and so on. If before the pandemic, some older migrants were travelling back and forth between the home and host country to make ends meet due to small pensions, during the pandemic such travelling arrangements are no longer possible. Apart from reflections on how older migrants’ lives have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, the subjective well-being and feelings of loneliness of these groups has also been impacted. On the one hand, subjective well-being and loneliness feelings could be impacted by factors at the individual level like social ties, interactions with others and engaging in social or individual activities. On the other hand, transnational ties and the epidemiologic situation in older migrants’ home countries could have also impacted their subjective experience during the pandemic. Finally, a hugely topical question that is important to discuss regards the possibilities to repatriate older migrants’ bodies, and how and if they can experience a ‘good death’. This session brings together researchers from Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland, who have conducted original research during the past months on these different aspects and on different populations of older migrants. PAPER #1 COVID-19 consequences and coping strategies among older adults with a migration background in the Netherlands AUTHOR(S) Nina Conkova (Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing) Tineke Fokkema (Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI-KNAW), University of Groningen; Erasmus University Rotterdam) Samya Harroui (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Corona affects us all. Anyone can get and spread the virus, regardless of age and origin. However, the consequences of the virus and the measures taken by the government (e.g. social distancing) are more profound for some than for others. More specifically, people with low income, low education and ill health are likely to be more severely affected than those with high socio-economic status and good health. Older migrants form a particularly vulnerable group in this regard as many experience an accumulation of health and social disadvantages paired with diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Recent explorative studies in the Netherlands suggest that (older) migrants pass away indeed relatively more often from the coronavirus and experience a number of negative social consequences as a result of the imposed social distancing. The latter holds particularly true for migrants with non-western origin. Expanding on prior research, in this study we acknowledge the existence of large differences between migrants in terms of their social and human capital and set out to scrutinize and compare the social consequences of the corona measures among older migrants from the biggest migrant groups in the Netherlands, namely seniors born in (1) Suriname, (2) Turkey, (3) Morocco, (4) current Indonesia, and (5) other European countries (than the Netherlands) and North-America. Furthermore, we expand upon prior studies by examining and comparing the coping strategies these older adults employ to deal with uncertainties and changes in their daily life. The data consist of 25 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with men and women aged 50 years or more. PAPER #2 How events there shape feelings here: Comparing the subjective well-being of Italian international migrants, internal migrants and non-migrants during the COVID-19 pandemic AUTHOR(S) Sarah Ludwig-Dehm (University of Geneva) Oana Ciobanu (University of Geneva) ABSTRACT Italy was one of the first countries in Europe that was hit by covid-19. It was also one of the hardest hit countries in Europe in the first wave of the pandemic at the beginning of 2020. Persons aged 65 and older are one of the risk groups of the pandemic. In this paper, we examine the relationship between the development of the covid-19 pandemic in Italy and the subjective well-being and worry about the pandemic among older (65+) international migrants from Italy living in Switzerland, internal migrants within Italy, and non-migrants in Italy. We will examine how this relationship differs between these groups and whether social networks and transnational ties influence this effect. We make use of a unique dataset, for which data of 2400 respondents was collected between June and November 2020 in Italy and Switzerland, including Italian non-migrants living in Southern Italy, Italian internal migrants from Southern Italy living in Northern Italy, and Italian international migrants from Southern Italy living in Switzerland. Using these three different populations, we will answer several research questions: First, how does the country and region of residence influence the relationship between the covid- 19 outbreak and subjective well-being? Second, do stronger social networks mitigate the effects of the outbreak on subjective well-being? Third, do transnational ties to the home country influence this relationship for Italian migrants living in Switzerland? PAPER #3 A right for body repatriation? Comparing Senegalese and Tunisian migrants and states’ transnational engagement around death during the pandemic AUTHOR(S) Félicien de Heusch (University of Liège) Carole Wenger (University of Liège) ABSTRACT The covid-19 has greatly affected elderly people and in particular people in precarious situation and from lower economic background. Among them, older migrants have been doubly-impacted due to old age, their status and their living conditions. While the repatriation of the living during covid-19 ‘crisis’ has been a priority for diaspora policies, the repatriation of the dead received less attention. However, body repatriation and transnational funerary practices -both core concerns for many migrants and their families- have been jeopardized. As borders closure and fear for contamination prevented body repatriation, sending states’ authorities have been confronted to emigrants’ associations’ pressure for ensuring their “right for repatriation”. Moreover, the ‘crisis’ became a catalyst for the debate around burials such as the lack of Muslim plots in Europe therefore questioning receiving states responsibility in ensuring access to a dignified death. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, this paper will first compare how Senegalese and Tunisian states’ framing of the “right for body repatriation” has contrastively evolved over time. Secondly, we address how Senegalese and Tunisian migrants’ associative networks and diaspora policies engaged differently around death during covid-19’s state of exception. We however argue that, while the ‘crisis’ has triggered original forms of mobilizations, the volatility of diaspora policies engagement and disengagement around death is not a new matter. In a nutshell, we argue that covid-19 ‘crisis’ appears as a time-space that crystallized the already questioned sending states (dis)engagement around death while also interrogating receiving states responsibility to ensure the right to a dignified death. PAPER #4 Older Chinese migrants in coronavirus pandemic: Exploring risk and protective factors to increased loneliness AUTHOR(S) Honghui Pan (Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)) Tineke Fokkema (Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI-KNAW), University of Groningen, The Hague, the Netherlands and Department of Public Administration and Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam) Lise Switsers (Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)) Sarah Dury & Liesbeth De Donder (Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)) ABSTRACT Older migrants are among the most vulnerable populations during the coronavirus pandemic, yet the degree of impact remains largely unknown. This study explores 1) the consequences of the coronavirus pandemic for older Chinese migrants in Belgium and the Netherlands in terms of increased loneliness and its risk factors (reduced in-person contact, decreased social participation, feelings of existential threat) and protective factors (increased non-in-person contact, more individual activities), and 2) which risk and protective factors have contributed to the incidence and prevention of higher loneliness levels. Using quantitative data of a survey among 98 Chinese migrants aged 50 years and older in Belgium (n = 84) and the Netherlands (n = 14), the findings indicate that the coronavirus pandemic has a significant impact on older Chinese migrants’ lives. First, one in five experienced more loneliness. Second, reduced social participation (measured as less frequent participation in outdoor group activities) and financial insecurity (measured as experiencing financial difficulties) leads to higher than pre-pandemic loneliness levels. Problem- focused coping strategies (measured as increased non-in-person contact, via telephone or social media) and emotion-focused coping (measured as finding distraction through increased participation in individual activities) were not found to protect against increased loneliness in the pandemic. Two practical implications for loneliness interventions for older Chinese migrants are put forward. Organizing COVID-19-safe social participation activities and paying more attention to older Chinese migrants’ financial situation can be beneficial when addressing higher levels of loneliness due to the coronavirus pandemic. PAPER #5 Sense of belonging, social embeddedness and perceived loneliness of older Luxembourgers and non-Luxembourgers in pandemic times AUTHOR(S) Isabelle Albert (University of Luxembourg) Nadia Bemtgen (RBS Center fir Altersfroen) Martine Hoffmann (RBS Center fir Altersfroen) Petra Vandenbosch (RBS Center fir Altersfroen) Catherine Richard (University of Luxembourg) ABSTRACT Luxembourg has witnessed a sharp increase in cultural diversity due to high levels of immigration in the past years, and the question of how inhabitants from different cultural origin establish a sense of belonging to their country of residence has become essential for social cohesion and inclusion. The COVID-19 pandemic has, however, shaken patterns of belonging dramatically. The place of residence has gained new meaning due to confinement measures, closed borders and local contact restrictions. Physical distancing could have particularly adverse effects on older migrants with smaller social networks in the receiving country, increasing the risk for loneliness and social isolation. The present study is part of the PAN-VAL project on active ageing funded by the Luxembourgish Family Ministry. We aim to analyze the impact of sense of belonging and social embeddedness on perceived loneliness before and since the COVID-19 crisis of older Luxembourgers and non- Luxembourgers living in the Grand-Duchy. A representative sample of N=1000 residents 50+ participated in a survey via telephone and online in December 2020. The standardized questionnaire included questions regarding national and transnational family and friendship networks, contact frequencies, sense of belonging to place and country of residence and of origin as well as perceived loneliness before and since the COVID-19 pandemic. Preliminary findings indicate that sense of belonging predicted loneliness before and since the corona crisis, whereas a larger social network in Luxembourg was protective against loneliness only before but not since the crisis. Interestingly, a higher contact frequency with friends in Luxembourg reduced loneliness before the crisis, whereas higher contact frequency with friends abroad reduced loneliness since crisis. Results will be discussed considering resources as well as risk factors for loneliness in the context of migration and ageing in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

author

Isabelle A. Albert

University of Luxembourg

author

Nina Conkova

Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing

author

Samya Harroui

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

author

Sarah Ludwig-Dehm

University of Geneva

author

Félicien de Heusch

University of Liège

author

carole wenger

Liège university

author

Honghui Pan

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)

author

Lise Switsers

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)

author

Sarah Dury

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)

author

Liesbeth De Donder

Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB)

author

Nadia Bemtgen

RBS Center fir Altersfroen

author

Martine Hoffmann

RBS Center fir Altersfroen

author

Petra Vandenbosch

RBS Center fir Altersfroen

author

Catherine Richard

University of Luxembourg

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Discrimination and racism in cross-national perspective 4: New Evidence

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #180 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Fran McGinnity

Economic and social Research Institute

Chair: Fran Mc Ginnity, ESRI Discussant: Patrick Simon, INED For a long time, racism has been studied without references to discrimination and was mainly conceived as a specific expression of prejudice. The retreat from blatant forms of racism that are no longer tolerated today to more subtle and systemic forms of racism has paved the way for studies on ethnic and racial discrimination and inequalities. In response to the IMISCOE statement on structural racism and racial justice in the context of Black Lives Matter, this panel unites papers that provide new evidence of discrimination and racism in a cross-national perspective. Drawing on state-of-the art correspondence tests, an updated meta-analysis, and cutting-edge survey experiments, this panel provides empirical evidence of ongoing discrimination and racism across and beyond Europe. The panel brings together researchers on discrimination, racism, and inequalities, tackling these issues from various disciplines, theoretical backgrounds and methods and will open a discussion how different forms of evidence can be used to tackle discrimination and racism. PAPER #1 Ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring decisions – A new meta-analysis of correspondence tests AUTHOR(S) Eva Zschirnt (Bergische Universität Wuppertal & European University Institute) Didier Ruedin (University of Neuchâtel & Witwatersrand) ABSTRACT Written correspondence tests have become a widespread method to study ethnic or racial discrimination in hiring procedures in the labour market. Since our first meta-analysis of correspondence tests in OECD countries between 1990 and 2015, the number of studies that have been published since 2015 has increased steadily. We have updated our database of studies on ethnic or racial discrimination in the labour market and now cover approximately 100 studies, including more countries, minority groups, and research designs. Our analysis shows that labour market discrimination is still a pervasive phenomenon. PAPER #2 How bright a boundary? Muslim hierarchies in employers' hiring decisions AUTHOR(S) Valentina Di Stasio (Utrecht University) Anne De Vries (Utrecht University) ABSTRACT Using data from a cross-nationally harmonized correspondence test, we examine how employers in Britain, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, and Spain respond to applications received from Muslim job seekers. Assuming that employers are, at least in part, driven by Islamo-prejudice, we test whether being a Muslim is a stigmatized identity that penalize all applicants similarly (‘a bright’ boundary) or whether employers differentiate between Muslim applicants depending on characteristics of their origin countries. We focus on indicators that may signal to employers value incompatibility with secular societies of Christian traditions (a symbolic threat), the presence of authoritarian regimes or weak democratic institutions (a political threat) or the diffusion of radical Islamist terrorism (a security threat). We find that Muslims originating from countries with authoritarian regimes or very unequal gender relations receive lower callback rates than Muslims originating from countries with stronger democratic institutions and more equality between genders. We also leverage a subset of the data consisting of applications sent by Christians from the same 13 origin countries. We find that employers do not distinguish between Christian applicants in the same way as they do with Muslims, a sign that these symbolic, political and security threats are Muslim-specific. PAPER #3 Ethnic discrimination on the housing market in Belgium and the Netherlands: the role of local and national contexts AUTHOR(S) Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) ABSTRACT Ethnic discrimination is a persistent problem on the rental housing market. While many studies have measured rental discrimination in different countries, still little is known about the local and national factors that drive levels of rental discrimination. This study examines, therefore, the impact of local contextual factors on the prevalence of rental discrimination in Belgium and (as the first national study) in the Netherlands. Following several theories on discrimination and attitudes towards migrants, we investigate the impact of local factors, such as the ethnic and socio-economic composition of the population, the level of urbanization, the structure of the local housing market and the share of right-wing voters. Moreover, we compare patterns of discrimination in both countries to look for cross-national differences. We use data from 5782 paired correspondence tests in Belgium and 773 paired correspondence tests in the Netherlands. We find significant patterns of discrimination in both Belgium and the Netherlands, with much more discrimination in Belgium than in the Netherlands. Further preliminary analyses suggest that there is more ethnic discrimination in less urban, mid-sized and more wealthy municipalities. Moreover, more tight local housing markets appear to result in more discrimination. The local share of right-wing voters has, only, limited effects on discrimination. PAPER #4 Evidence for Equality: experiences of racism and discrimination among ethnic and religious minorities in Britain during the coronavirus pandemic AUTHOR(S) Nissa Finney (Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity and University of St Andrews) James Nazroo Natalie Shlomo Dharmi Kapadia Dan Ellingworth Harry Taylor Neema Begun (University of Manchester) Laia Becares ((University of Sussex) ABSTRACT Stark evidence now exists that ethnic minorities have been disproportionately affected by the Coronavirus pandemic, with higher rates of death among Black and Asian people in Britain. Commentators have pointed to structural inequalities as underlying causes, including deprivation, occupational segregation and racism (e.g. Nazroo and Becares, 2020). However, a severe lack of data has hindered investigation of the experiences and causes of ethnic inequalities during the pandemic. This presentation will report on the new Evidence for Equality National Survey (EVENS) which will provide unrivalled data for 16,000 ethnic and religious minorities across Britain. Data collection will run from February to April 2021 in a project lead by the ESRC Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity (CoDE). The presentation will give methodological reflection on the innovative non-probability survey design; and early results of survey analysis. Patterns of discrimination in institutional contexts including education, employment, policing and public spaces will be presented, enabling conclusions to be drawn about whether experiences of discrimination and unfair treatment have increased from the beginning of the pandemic and in relation to the Black Lives Matter movements and lockdown restrictions.

discussant

Patrick Simon

INED

author

Eva Zschirnt

European University Institute

author

Didier Ruedin

SFM

author

Valentina Di Stasio

Utrecht University

author

Anne De Vries

Utrecht University

author

Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe

University of Ghent

author

Nissa Finney

University of St Andrews

author

James Nazroo

University of Manchester

author

Laia Becares

(University of Sussex

author

Natalie Shlomo

author

Dharmi Kapadia

author

Dan Ellingworth

author

Harry Taylor

author

Neema Begun

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Migration Politics & Governance 3

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #181 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Elina Jonitz

Migration Aspirations and the Pandemic: Researching Syrian Refugees in Turkey Aysen Ustubici Koç University Ezgi Elçi Koç University Eda Kirişçioğlu University of Amsterdam / Koç University Are future migration aspirations in forced displacement contexts volatile or stable? To what extent are they subject to exogenous shocks such as openings at the border and a global pandemic? Research on migration aspirations, dealing with why some refugees would move on to new destinations as others stay put, has taken into account many factors. We deal with this question by focusing on the impact of sudden and unexpected events. Turkey hosting over 3.5 million Syrian refugees enables us to test this intriguing question on onward migration in forced displacement contexts. In a broader H2020 project (ADMIGOV), we have conducted mixed-method research on migrant aspirations and decision-making processes. The data collection process includes a series of online surveys conducted in February, April, and June 2020 with 2027 Syrians in Turkey, followed by in-depth interviews. We aim to shed light on the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak, of experiences of migration journey, of migrants’ access to protection, and their risk attitudes on future migration aspiration. Conducted around critical events, our survey method provided a natural experiment setting that allows room for a grounded analysis of migrant decision-making during unprecedented times. Preliminary survey results suggest that COVID-19 measures sharply influenced migration aspirations. Qualitative data also shows that pandemic conditions altered the decision-making as the outcomes become riskier and unforeseeable than before. === Forced migration, institutional encounters and trust/distrust in the local welfare state Liselott Sundbäck Åbo Akademi Aim of paper: In the Nordic welfare states trust is seen as the glue of society and trust, when measured, is usually high towards the welfare system. However, new inequality regimes have emerged in the Nordic welfare states due to global mobility and we know little about how forced migrants themselves make sense of and enact trust and distrust in institutional encounters. How is trust/distrust built, lost and restored in institutional encounters? In the light of trust/distrust, what are the factors and reasons for either strengthening trust or weakening trust towards the system, from the migrants point of view? The aim of this paper is to examine sense making of institutional encounters in Finland between young forced migrants and welfare state professionals, analyzing administrative bordering and institutional (dist)trust from a bottom- up perspective. Method and data: The paper builds on individual semi-structured interviews with 12 forced migrants about lived experiences of navigating in the welfare state institution system in Finland. Data is coded through Nvivo and analyzed in a theoretical framework combining social and institutional trust with administrative bordering. Preliminary results: From a theoretical perspective, the paper offers new thoughts on the intertwined relationship between social and institutional trust at the welfare state system access point encounters. Further, the paper brings new data on how young migrants themselves perceive trust from the perspective of administrative bordering. According to the preliminary analysis, young migrants build trust as a discursively process based on the expectations towards the institution and the actions of the access point. Consequently, the paper emphasizes the need to move from trust as a static, linear phenomena to dynamics of the trust building process including trust, distrust and restoration of trust. === Italy’s Health Divide: Securitised Migration Policies and the Health of Migrants during COVID-19 Sebastian Carlotti University of Pisa The implementation of restrictive migration policies produced a major impact on migrant’s health protection and their ability to access healthcare services. During the COVID-19 pandemic, securitised policies exacerbated the already acute health status of many migrant communities. This paper examines Italy’s migration policy and how it created a health divide between migrants and Italian citizens during the countries’ lockdown against COVID-19 in 2020. Italy’s anti-immigration parties fostered the portrayal of migrants as vectors for diseases and led, in 2018, to the approval of the Security Decree which reformed the services provided to migrants and asylum seekers. This work argues that four aspects characterised the impact of securitised migration policies on the health of migrants during the Italian lockdown: 1) Vulnerability; 2) Precarity; 3) Inequality; 4) Hostility. The Security Decree reduced the available health services and worsened medical assistance in the already overcrowded reception and detention centres. Similarly, undocumented migrants are often not able to self-isolate and must live in unhealthy spaces. The threat of deportation accentuated their invisibility making them reluctant to contact healthcare services and caused a problem in the communication of prevention strategies. This paper will begin with an examination of the policy instruments contained in the Security Decree and their repercussion during the pandemic. Successively, it will be outlined how the condition of migrants in Italy is connected with the hostile environment which increased their exposure to COVID-19. Finally, the institutional response aimed at containing the virus will be analysed in relation to the health precarity of migrants. The findings of this research suggest that, because of these restrictive policies, migrants in Italy became part of the most vulnerable subjects to COVID-19. === Autocracies or Democracies - Who is cooperating more with the EU on the forcible return of migrants? Philipp Stutz Institute for European Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussels Florian Trauner Institute for European Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussels The return of third country nationals has become a core objective of the EU’s migration policy. In order to return persons who are not eligible for international protection, the EU and its member states need to cooperate with third countries. There is a broad scholarly debate on the EU’s cooperation with democracies and autocracies but rarely with a focus on EU return issues. Because of the principle of non-refoulement, we may assume that EU member states are not cooperating with countries where the migrants’ lives are in danger once returned. However, what about countries that are not full autocracies? And how is the cooperation with the EU altered if a (formally) democratic state becomes more authoritarian? In this article, we juxtapose democratic indices with the return rate – the measurement between the people who have to leave EU territory and those who are actually returned – and other statistics. We take a comparative look on the whole world over a period of eleven years (the total for which EU return data is available). By doing so, we create a unique data set on EU return cooperation. Our results show that the EU tends to cooperate more with democratic than authoritarian countries, albeit not exclusively. Furthermore, changes in the level of democracy only rarely have a direct impact on the return rate (and only in some regions). Other factors like voluntary return confound the return rate with autocratic countries, making it a flawed measurement to assess EU return cooperation with fully autocratic countries.

author

Ayşen Üstübici

Koç University

author

Florian Trauner

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Eda Kiriscioglu

University of Amsterdam/Koc University

author

Ezgi Elçi

Koç University

author

Liselott Sundbäck

Åbo Akademi

author

Sebastian Carlotti

University of Pisa

author

Philipp Stutz

Institute for European Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Visiting Migrants 2

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #182 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Aija Lulle

Loughborough University

For migrants the world over, visits ‘home’ and being visited by relatives and friends are an essential part of the migrant experience. Such visits are eagerly anticipated and vital to transnational family connection. Yet, surprisingly little attention has been given by migration scholars to these visits. Twenty years ago, anthropologist Baldassar published her pioneering book Visits Home, on visits between Australia and Italy. This remains virtually the only in-depth study, although a scattered literature of journal articles has evolved from scholars in transnational migration, diaspora studies, mobilities, and tourism. The title of the workshop is deliberately ambiguous, with the word ‘visiting’ being used both in its verbal and adjectival sense. Adjectivally, visiting migrants are migrants engaged in visiting home. Verbally, we refer to the non-migrant relatives and friends who are visiting their migrant co-nationals abroad. Either way, visits are social and cultural encounters circumscribed by expectations, performativity and rituality (e.g. gift-giving, hospitality) in which transnational familyhood is reasserted and affective bonds renewed. There are several ways that visits can be conceptualised. As short-term mobilities, visits are temporally enfolded within the longer time-frames of migration and diaspora formation. Visits are often an element of transnational ties; and for longer-established diasporas, visits to the ancestral homeland are an essential part of diasporic identity. Regular visits to the homeland can be a preparation for a subsequent return migration; or they can be a substitute for permanent return. The three panels bring together scholars of different career stages, including several PhD students. Collectively, they explore the cultural landscape of visiting migrants in many differing parts of the world and from interdisciplinary perspectives. The panel organisers have already made plans for either an edited OA book or journal special issue. PAPER #1 ‘It’s just a natural human thing to do, to go and visit your family… but it’s not easy for us’: Gender and generation in Bangladeshis’ transnational visits between London and Sylhet AUTHOR(S) Md Farid Miah (University of Sussex) Russell King (University of Sussex) ABSTRACT In the title to this paper Maya, a British-Bangladeshi woman, expresses her frustration at the refusal of the Home Office to grant her father in Sylhet a visa to come and fulfil his role as family head at the wedding of his son, Maya’s brother, in London. Alongside the inhumanity of the UK’s ‘hostile environment’ towards immigrants and visitors, denying them the right to celebrate an important event of familyhood, the case illustrates well the intersection of gender and generation which fundamentally shapes the pattern of visits, in both directions, across this long-distance transnational social and family space. Bangladesh is a patriarchal society, with marked gender divisions layered across generations, which are largely reproduced among the migrant community in London. Patriarchal structures, behaviours and expectations are manifested, in various ways, in the phenomenon of transnational visiting; for example, some older British-Bangladeshi men make long solo visits to Sylhet, against the wishes of their families, to escape the British winter. Based on 60 in-depth interviews in London and Sylhet, supplemented by participant observation, we delineate the gendered and generational structures framing the visits, both of migrants to the homeland, and of non-migrants to their relatives in London; and we explore the expectations, behaviours, choreography and performativity of both the visitors and the visited. Age, gender, generation, class, citizenship, and material wealth (or lack of it) are the key intersecting variables which emerge in the participants’ narratives and through participant observation of the visits. PAPER #2 Reunions and disunions: short-lived joy, divergent expectations and lost intimacies in Asian migrant care workers’ visits home AUTHOR(S) Megha Amrith (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity) ABSTRACT For Asian migrant domestic and care workers in Singapore, visits home are highly anticipated and longed for, but only as long as they remain brief. Drawing on ethnographic research with migrant women of different nationalities in Singapore, this paper examines such visits as emotionally complex events that give rise to both reunions and disunions. Visits bring intense joy as migrants reunite with dispersed family members, including seafarer husbands, cousins working in other countries, and with children and ageing parents who stayed put. Homesickness is eased through activities such as eating together, karaoke parties and holidaying. However, such visits also involve performative acts such as gift-giving and hosting family and village gatherings, all of which require significant expense by migrants. Families imagine them to be ‘rich’ in spite of their precarious working conditions abroad, while entrenched gendered expectations demand that migrant women behave in particular ways. This leads to a simmering of tensions, and sometimes boredom, as migrant women miss their sense of freedom and cosmopolitanism abroad. Intimate dissonances also emerge as migrants struggle to bond with their children after years abroad; while marital betrayals, moral judgements and sibling conflicts come to the fore. This strenuous relational work on visits is important in re-orienting migrant subjectivities and aspirations, and often leads to prolongations of migrants’ absences and a deepening sense of estrangement. The paper further examines how migrants, many of whom are on temporary work contracts in Singapore, fear and anticipate the moment when short visits ultimately become permanent returns. PAPER #3 Intersections of death and visitations among Thai-American retirees AUTHOR(S) Tassya Putho (University of Surrey) Scott Cohen (University of Surrey) Allan Williams (University of Surrey) ABSTRACT Visits, particularly returns, can happen throughout the migrant’s life cycle and even after death. As much as visits are a part of migrants’ lives, they also intersect with their experiences and imaginations of death. This study on the later-life mobilities of retired Thai-Americans explores different patterns of visitations among three prominent groups of retirees: those who had opted to stay in the United States, return to settle in Thailand, or travel back and forth in between. Findings from 52 semi-structured interviews with retired Thai-Americans and their family members brought many death-visitation experiences and scenarios to light. These were comprised of visits connected to the place where the retirees envision their future trajectories, visits that brought them full circle back to their migrant origins, as well as visits undertaken to care for elderly relatives that eventually lead to arranging and attending their funerals. In this paper, death is interwoven with various patterns, practices and rituals of visitations in an original comparison between three groups of Thai-American retirees with different residential strategies and imaginations of death. For most of the interviewees, there is a distinct connection between the nature of these visits and how they perceive their end of life, while for others, death is embedded in a strong sentiment for the homeland. This paper contributes an understanding of the nexus of death and visits that demonstrates the increasingly complex ways in which these events have become intermingled with later-life mobilities in transnational lives. PAPER #4 A transnational practice between fractured homes: second-generation Turkish-German migrants’ experiences of visiting and being visited AUTHOR(S) Nilay Kılınç (University of Helsinki) ABSTRACT This paper explores the multiple ways in which visits affect the understanding of home on the part of second-generation Turkish-Germans who have relocated to Turkey. Three types of visit are identified: (i) family visits to Turkey when the second generation was growing up in Germany; (ii) after the second generation has relocated to Turkey, visits to Germany, the country of their upbringing; (iii) visits to Turkey on the part of the second generation’s relatives and friends who still reside in Germany. Each type has different meanings for the visitors and the visited, creating fluid reflections on the meaning of home, which, especially for the second-generation ‘returnees’, tends to become fractured. Constantly comparing their two home(lands) since childhood, they often simultaneously feel both ‘here’ and ‘there’ as a result of changing attachments and a mix of positive and negative experiences in both locales. Childhood visits to Turkey are remembered as fun- and sun-filled holiday times. On the other hand, many adult second-generation returnees experience disillusionment about their previously idealised life in the ancestral homeland. Yet when their Germany-residing friends and relatives visit them in Turkey they tend to exaggerate that life in Turkey is good. Meanwhile, visiting parents make disparaging remarks about the ‘backwardness’ of Turkey compared to the efficiency of Germany. The second generation’s visits to Germany are often uneasy experiences, when they feel like ‘guests’ and soon get impatient to return to Turkey. Evidence comes from 80 interviews with second-generation ‘returnees’ in different parts of Turkey.

author

Russell King

University of Sussex

author

Tassya Putho

University of Surrey

author

Megha Amrith

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

author

Md Farid Miah

University of Sussex

discussant

Loretta Baldassar

The University of Western Australia

author

Scott Cohen

University of Surrey

author

Allan Williams

University of Surrey

author

Nilay Kılınç

University of Helsinki

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[Deleted session]

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #183 panel |

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Migration Politics & Governance 5

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #184 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Gabriela Petre

National School for Political and Administrative Studies

A crisis from the bottom up. Terror, migration, and self-defense in the case of Ahmed H. in Hungary Rashed Daher Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest Hungary, the first among many European countries affected by the mass migration in 2015, quickly developed a resistance policy against the migrants and closed its green borders from the south. Since then, the Hungarian government denies any illegal (undocumented) entry to the country and refers to the sovereign right of the Hungarian nation to decide on the question of migration. As the discourse on mi-gration regulation in the European Union evolved in the following years, the leading political party of Hungary, Fidesz, capitalized on the issue and refused the entry of the so-called economic migrants to Hungary. Lately, one of the most controversial cases ended as a Syrian citizen called Ahmed H. filed a lawsuit against the Hungarian government that referred to him as a ter-rorist. Ahmed H. came to Hungary in 2015 and allegedly incited a violent mass pro-test of migrants at the Hungarian border checkpoint in September 2015. As an Ara-bic-Hungarian interpreter, I had the chance to carefully follow the case and gain knowledge on the anti-immigration and the pro-migration networks and agencies as they clashed in the courtroom, using this case as a symbol of their interpretation on the matter. My presentation relies on my experience with Ahmed H. as he tried to represent himself and the case of migrants and also served the purpose of liberal policymakers and pro-migration NGOs. I intend to show the narrative differences between the opposing sides as they spared no effort to support their claims and gave the case of Ahmed H. international publicity. === The Multi-Level Governance of rejected asylum seekers Jeroen Doomernik IMES The European Union’s member states pursue a Common European Asylum policy (System: CEAS). And so in theory the outcomes of asylum requests in a European country can have two distinct outcomes: recognition of the applicant’s protection needs or its dismissal because such needs are not in evidence. The first outcome should result in integration, the second one in (forced) return to the country of origin. In its practical execution, the latter outcome time and again proves hard to achieve. The policy response towards the resulting presence of rejected asylum seekers on the national territory (still) varies considerably throughout the EU: when comparing national responses and also between lower levels of governance. States may opt to pursue policies of attrition (leaving persons no choice but to depart), may decide to tolerate their presence without attaching many if any rights, or may open alternative doors towards integration, usually through labour market access. By the example of Germany and the Netherlands this paper analysis when and why these policy options are pursued and to which intended and unintended results these lead === Policies on marginalised migrant communities during Covid-19: A cross-country comparison with international guidance Louise Dalingwater Sorbonne University Elisabeth Mangrio Malmö University Michael Strange Malmö University Slobodan Zdravkovic Malmö University The impact of Covid-19 on vulnerable communities is recognised at various supranational levels, including the WHO within its published guidance on preparedness, promotion and control of the coronavirus disease for refugees and migrants (Organization, 2020). This article seeks to determine the extent to which there is multi-level coherence with respect to acknowledging the situation of migrants living on the margins of host societies during the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis will focus on three European countries with significantly high levels of contagion and deaths: France, Sweden and the UK. At the time of writing, these countries are among the ten countries with the highest number of reported deaths per million (Statista, 2020). The article presents a cross-national comparison of policy approaches towards marginalised migrant during the pandemic, taking international guidance from the Inter-Agency Standing Committee of the IFRC, WHO, IOM, and UNHCR as a benchline for ’good governance’ in this area. The data consists of policy comparisons, supplemented by interviews with civil society organisations working with migrants to understand the limits of these policies. === The Reception Industry, or the Commodification of the Reception of Asylum Seekers Lorenzo Vianelli Université du Luxembourg The paper contributes to recent debates on the migration industry by exploring the increasing commodification of the reception of asylum seekers. This process of commodification is premised upon the growing relevance of economic interests in the management of asylum seekers, which is well encapsulated by the involvement of profit-seeking actors in the running of reception facilities. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with reception actors, which were collected in multiple contexts in Italy and in Sweden between 2015 and 2016, the paper shows how the commodification of reception paves the way to the creation of a reception industry in which profits prevail over humanitarian assistance. Two key dimensions of the reception industry are discussed. The first and core dimension of the industry concerns the management of reception facilities. The second dimension relates to reception’s linked activities and all the network of suppliers that are needed to ensure the functioning and maintenance of reception systems. The analysis of these two dimensions of the reception industry is used to make two arguments. The first concerns the gradual advancement of a market logic in the management of asylum seekers, according to which the final purpose of reception measures becomes profit instead of the support to the guests of accommodation centres. The second argument concerns the influence that private profit-making actors may exert on the design and implementation of reception measures, and the effects this has on the rights and treatment of asylum seekers. === Structure and agency the migration decision-making of refugee youth Chiara Galli Cornell We tend to think about migration decisions in dichotomous terms, categorizing individuals on the move unproblematically as either voluntary (economic) migrants or involuntary (political) refugees. Much has been theorized about the migration decisions of the former group. Conversely, there has been surprising little theorization on the migration decisions of the latter. Scholars have limited themselves to labeling some migratory flows from particular countries, in specific historical moments, as forced, listing macro-level societal push factors to justify those decisions. Yet the fact that structural forces compel individuals to leave their homes does not imply they exercise no agency in this process, and we should pay attention to how individuals make migration decisions while managing the risks associated with violence in their home countries. Examining the experiences of unaccompanied minors from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras who migrate alone to join parents and relatives to the U.S., this paper develops a micro-level theory of migration decision-making in a context of violence. I first demonstrate how violence in Central America is rooted in historical and structural forces and patterned along the dimensions of gender and age. As a result of the high rates of criminal victimization of youths, the forcible gang recruitment of teenage boys, and gendered violence within the home, youths are exposed to different types and degrees of risk in their home countries. I next explain how micro-level migration decisions take place in this context by showing how Central American youths and their families assess and manage the risks associated with violence and mobilize information and resources flowing through migrant networks to strategize migration decisions, while also attempting to overcome the significant constraints imposed by restrictive U.S. immigration policy.

author

Jeroen Doomernik

IMES Amsterdam

author

Lorenzo Vianelli

University of Luxembourg

author

Chiara Galli

Cornell

author

Rashed Daher

Eotvos Lorand University

author

Louise Dalingwater

Sorbonne Université

author

Elisabeth Mangrio

Malmö University

author

Michael Strange

Malmö University

author

Slobodan Zdravkovic

Malmö University

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Reflexivities in Migration Studies. Pitfalls and Alternatives (Session 1)

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #185 workshop | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Anna-Lisa Müller

University of Osnabrück

chair

Janine Dahinden

University of Neuchatel

Sessions: “Reflexivities in Migration Studies. Pitfalls and Alternatives” (1) Session convenor: Standing Committee “Reflexivities in Migration Studies” IMISCOE Annual Conference 2021 The framework for the session is provided by a joint book project on the reflexive approaches and knowledge production in migration studies. The starting point for this book project is twofold: First, we start from the observation that in Europe migration has become an object of intensive study. Migration studies have begun to take on quasi-disciplinary features which draw from a variety of disciplines and cross-disciplinary collaborations. In addition, migration scholars and knowledge on migration have gained significant attention outside academia. Second, since roughly thirty years migration scholars are struggling with some particular challenges concerning the epistemological, ethical and theoretical underpinnings of migration studies. Primarily, it has been criticised that migration research contributes to reproducing post-colonial legacies and the ‘national order of things’ and that it could not create alternative narratives beyond ‘the migrant’ as a racialised and problematic figure of ‘the other’. A particular strand of research has emerged which pushes forward a reflexive and (self)critical orientation towards the coming of age of migration studies and problematic aspects of migration-related knowledge production. The book project is embedded in this line of research. In the two sessions authors will shortly present their contributions to this volume. Each author will present one particular problematic aspect and formulate alternatives which ideally should lead to new or altered forms of knowledge production. 1. Apostolos Andrikopoulos (University of Amsterdam): Kinship theory and migration studies: overcoming ethnocentrism and statism in family migration research 2. Inken Bartels/Philipp Schäfer/Laura Stielike (Osnabrück University): Practicing Double Reflexivity: Producing Knowledge on the Production of Knowledge on Migration 3. Tanja Bastia (University ofManchester), Eleonore Kofman (Middlesex University): Unequal knowledge production and circulation in migration studies: feminist perspectives 4. Maurice Crul/Frans Lelie (Free University Amsterdam): The absence of the concept of power in Migration Studies. A reflexive theoretical contribution on the most powerful group: White people without migration background 5. Parvati Raghuram/Gunjan Sondhi (Open University): Decolonising this, decolonising that: beyond rhetorical decolonisation in migration studies 6. Manuel Dieterich/Boris Nieswand (University of Tübingen): The reflexive turn and the crisis of representation in migration studies

participant

Jens Schneider

IMIS

participant

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

participant

Carolin Fischer

participant

Eleonore Kofman

MDX

participant

Parvathi Raghuram

The Open University

participant

Apostolos Andrikopoulos

University of Amsterdam

participant

Maurice Crul

Vrije Universiteite

participant

Frans Lelie

participant

Tanja Bastia

Manchester University

participant

Andreas Pott

IMIS

participant

Inken Bartels

Insitute of Migration Research and Intercultural Studies (IMIS), University of Osnabrueck

participant

Philipp Schäfer

University of Konstanz

participant

Laura Stielike

participant

Gunjan Sondhi

participant

Manuel Dieterich

participant

Boris Nieswand

participant

Elena Ponzoni

participant

Maria Rast

participant

Halleh Ghorashi

participant

Kesi Mahendran

participant

Ann Singleton

participant

Camille Schmoll

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Migrant Transnationalism 11

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #186 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Mariana Rosca

Academy of Science from Moldova, II

Can I move or can I stay? Applying a life course perspective on immobility when facing gradual environmental changes in Morocco Lore Van Praag This study applies a life course perspective on immobility when facing gradual environmental changes in Morocco. Using 48 in-depth qualitative interviews in Tangier and Tinghir (Morocco), this study aims to understand how the need, desire and ability to move is shaped and structured by the life course stages people are in, and thus change over time. This study is innovative as hardly any research has been conducted to understand immobility in gradually degrading environmental contexts. The findings contrast the widespread imaginary of ‘trapped populations’ when facing environmental changes that do not seem to differ across life course stages and affect populations in a similar fashion. Conversely, the analyses indicate that hardly any respondent refers to the urgent need to move, given the gradual degradation of the natural environment. Consequently, the need and desire to move are entangled with other societal changes and employment opportunities. Differences in life course stages are noted as only people in the working age were dependent on such employment opportunities, and especially younger age groups demanded higher life standards and needed more in order to be satisfied with their lives and living conditions. Especially young people in important transitions in their lives desire to move. Elderly perceive they are not able to move, as they are settled and have well-established social/family networks and insufficient resources to start all over. People’s socio-economic status matters for both the ability to move and stay. The findings of this paper suggest that, the three dimensions of immobility as distinguished in the Foresight report (2011), namely the need, desire and ability to move, need to be considered together with the need, desire and ability to stay to fully capture all mobility outcomes. === Social remittances and interpersonal communication between Moldovan migrants and their families and peers Dušan Drbohlav Charles University, Faculty of Science, Geomigrace Dagmar Dzúrová Charles University, Faculty of Science, Geomigrace While elaborating on interpersonal communication issues in relation to social remittances (empirically and conceptually), we attempt to set a new agenda for further research. We believe that shedding new light on these issues may also be useful in the development of migrants’ poorer countries of origin. Via a quantitative approach (a factor analysis) we shed light on the function of interpersonal communication of migrants abroad (Moldovans in Prague and Turin) with their families, friends and acquaintances in Moldova. Through questionnaire surveys carried out in Prague (N=203) and Turin (N=206) in 2017/2018, we arrived at the following selected results: interpersonal communication is one of the key channels for transmitting social remittances; the most popular discussion topics include everyday activities and worries; family members are addressed more than peers and, in real life, Moldovans in Prague communicate with their families and peers more than those in Turin – the context matters. Importantly, the relationship between the communication and realized social remittances was partly confirmed. === From Social to Intangible Remittances: A Refined Concept with Evidence from Kosovo Janine Isabelle Läpple Judith Mollers Since the groundbreaking work of Levitt (1998) the research field of social remittances has seen a proliferation of empirical studies on the intangible assets transferred through migration. Based on her initial concept, a plethora of similar concepts such as political, cultural or civic remittances was developed. Only loosely linked through Levitt’s work, these different concepts were never properly related to each other nor to the concept of monetary remittances. Hence, an overarching theoretical frame, which connects all these different forms of remittances and which can be used as an effective tool for the analysis of remittances, is missing. This study takes up this research gap by refining the initial concept of social remittances and integrating it with the different forms of immaterial migration-induced forms of remittances into one comprehensive concept: that of intangible remittances as opposed to tangible (monetary and in-kind) remittances. Bringing together the available literature in this research field, we present a definition as well as a fine-grained typology of these intangible remittances. We then apply our new typology to an empirical case. We analyse different forms of intangible remittances transferred by highly-skilled female returnees from Kosovo after their sojourn in Western Europe/Northern America. Based on a series of in-depth interviews, we find that returnees had adopted and actively transferred various forms of intangible remittances which were mainly categorized as political and socio-cultural intangible remittances. Examples include notions of gender equality or civic rights and responsibilities.

author

Lore Van Praag

CeMIS

author

Dusan Drbohlav

GEOMIGRACE

author

Dagmar Dzúrová

Charles University, Faculty of Science, Geomigrace

author

Janine Isabelle Läpple

Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Devlopment in Transition Economies

author

Judith Möllers

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Migration Politics & Governance 12

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #187 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Gao Wang

Migrant Legality along the Paper Trail: The Temporal Politics of Becoming and Staying Documented Victoria Finn Universidad Diego Portales; Leiden University Jiaqi M. Liu University of California San Diego "A spatial bias has plagued international migration studies, framing migration first and foremost as the unidimensional movement from one point to another on maps. In this study, we move beyond its spatialities to highlight the understudied temporal dimension of international migration in ongoing documentation requirements. We argue that migration control is not only the spatial management of people in a divided world demarcated by sovereign nation-states, but also the temporal governance through migration paperwork that constantly shapes and reshapes (il)legal status, whereby being ‘documented’ or ‘legal’ determines mobility, membership, and citizen rights. Documents are by no means static records anchored at a fixed point in time and left behind along migratory trajectories. Instead, they are dynamic temporal tools to establish chronologically sequenced legal statuses along a four-pronged paper trail comprising pre-migration steps (t1), border crossing (t2), and post-migration steps in both the short term (t3) and long term (t4). Documents and bureaucracy have built an indefinite paper trail weaving throughout migrants’ lives. Individuals must know and complete papers, documents, forms, and bureaucratic errands in not only one country, but in two, as (potential) emigrants and immigrants. Since they are primary tools to control mobility and rights, we suggest document regimes are an integral part of migration regimes. By studying examples of migration control measures in select South American countries and in China, we highlight the temporal migration politics along the paper trail, that is, the ongoing temporal process of becoming then staying ‘documented’ in multiple countries throughout life. === A (mis)match of governance approaches to urban diversity configurations in the Netherlands Asya Pisarevskaya Erasmus University Rotterdam Ilona van Breugel Hogeschool van Rotterdam Peter Scholten Erasmus University Rotterdam This study investigates the (mis) match between local migration-related diversity configurations and local governance approaches in Dutch municipalities. The local turn in migration studies has revealed that diversity configurations in cities differ by inter alia volume and variety of migrants’ origins, their legal statuses and patterns of segregation. In parallel, the literature on governance have uncovered a plurality of local governance approaches to immigration and integration of migrants and minorities. However, our knowledge regarding a potential match between the types of migration-related diversity configurations and the governance approaches in different localities is scarce. In this study we employ a multi-method approach to explore this relationship, by combining a quantitative data analysis and fuzzy set ideal type analysis with qualitative policy analysis. First, we used the data on 373 municipalities of the Dutch Central Statistical Office for the year 2017 to calculate multiple indicators of diversity of migrants’ origins, segregation, inequality, and mobility. Second, we aggregated those indicators and map the cities on a four-dimensional space, determining 16 logical configurations of migration-related diversity. Subsequently, we did an in-depth qualitative policy analysis of ten cities, selected per type of diversity configuration, to determine the kind of the local governance approach, and their fit with the identified diversity configurations. The results enrich our understanding whether there is any link between the type of urban diversity configuration and the approaches the local governors employ, and thus, contribute to the theory of diversity governance. === The comparative analysis of policies in 52 countries: emerging dimensions of and approaches to integration Giacomo Solano Migration Policy Group (MPG) Francesco Pasetti CIDOB - Barcelona Center for International Affairs "Migrant integration and related policies have been object of a large amount of research. Started with the famous three-fold typology of the ‘90s (Brubaker, 1992), the debate has developed over the last three decades around the possibility to identify models vis-à-vis and beyond trends of convergence (Joppke 2007, Finotelli and Michalowski 2012). Despite advancements and refinements, the debate has remained mainly confined, empirically and theoretically, to the Western world (Ponzo, 2019; Schinkel, 2018). This article adopts a global perspective to identify the main policy approaches to migrant integration. We analyse the integration policy frameworks of Western and non-western countries. We employ latest MIPEX data (Migrant Integration Policy Index, Solano & Huddleston, 2020) on integration policies, covering 52 countries over 5 continents in the period 2014-2019: Americas (Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, USA), Asia (Israel, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Turkey), Europe (EU28, Western Balkans, EFTA countries, Russia), and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand). By means of principal component analysis, we first identify the underlying dimensions of integration policy (i.e. basic rights; equal opportunities; long-term settlement). Then, based on these dimensions, and how favorable countries’ policies are on each of them, we identify four approaches to migrant integration: comprehensive integration (e.g. English-speaking traditional destination countries and Scandinavian countries); temporary integration (e.g., European traditional destination countries); subordinate integration (Latin American countries and Eastern European countries); settlement without integration (new non-European destination countries, e.g. China, India, Russia). === International Donors at the Local Level in Centralised States: The cases of Adana in Turkey and Irbid in Jordan Ezgi Irgil Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg Alexander Jung School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg Isabell Schierenbeck School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg Andrea Spehar Department of Political Science and Center on Global Migration, University of Gothenburg The reception of Syrian refugees has dominated negotiations between neighbouring host states and international donors. In these negotiations, national governments of host states have engaged in rent-seeking to generate additional financial support. At the same time, however, in line with the ‘localisation of aid’ agenda, international donors have increasingly stressed the importance of local actors in delivering aid. While both rent-seeking behaviour and the ‘localisation of aid’ agenda have been analysed separately in academic work, we argue that a synthesis of both bodies of literature fills two research gaps. First, although the ‘local’ is ever-present in policy and research discussions, it still remains unclear which actors are included in the category. Research and policy oftentimes conflate regional organisations, national governments and municipalities into one the category, and thereby neglect the power dynamics between these various actors. Second, what is missing is an understanding of how donors navigate the power dynamics between stakeholders working on the ground and national governments, particularly in states with centralised political power. In order to fill these gaps, this paper looks at the activities and room for manoeuvre of international donors in Adana in Turkey and Irbid in Jordan through the analytical framework of multilevel governance. Drawing on policy documents and interviews with donors, IOs and NGOs in these highly centralised states, we argue that one way of investigating what the ‘local’ encompasses, and how international actors navigate it, is precisely to look at humanitarian responses where local implementations differ from national policies.

author

Victoria Finn

Leiden University; Universidad Diego Portales

author

Giacomo Solano

Migration Policy Group (MPG)

author

Peter Scholten

coordinator IMISCOE

author

Ezgi Irgil

University of Gothenburg

author

Jiaqi M. Liu

University of California San Diego

author

Asya Pisarevskaya

Erasmus University Rotterdam

author

Ilona van Breugel

Hogeschool van Rotterdam

author

Francesco Pasetti

CIDOB - Barcelona Center for International Affairs

author

Alexander Jung

University of Gothenburg, School of Global Studies

author

Isabell Schierenbeck

School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg

author

Andrea Spehar

Department of Political Science and Center on Global Migration, University of Gothenburg

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Liquid Trajectories: Global Stories of Flight and Migration

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #188 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

chair

Astrid M Fellner

Saarland University/UniGR-Center for Border Studies

chair

Eva K Nossem

UniGR-Center for Border Studies | Saarland University

Historically, oceans have been spaces of movement, peopled by fishers, pirates, seafarers, tourists, offshore workers, scientific investigators, coast guards, castaways, and refugees. Under the pressure of current developments, global movements, and health concerns, oceans and the oceanic have received renewed attention. Increasing rebordering tendencies and the construction of the so-called ‘Fortress Europe’ primarily affect the outer borders of the EU, such as the liquid border in the South. In an era marked by increased migration and growing social divides, oceans have become the site of intense media scrutiny and scholarly debate. Ian Chambers, for instance, has argued that the Mediterranean Sea has been turned form a site of connecting cultures by serving as the gateway between Europe, Asia, and Africa into “a mounting barrier” (Chambers 2005: 324). Combing research on the border-migration nexus with insights from the emerging field of Oceanic Studies, this panel aims at looking at oceans as sites of resistance, a space in which inequalities are being negotiated. The analysis of diverse entangled histories and forms of mobilities can help understand the conditions of diaspora and the various routes of imperialism and colonialism—the sources of social inequalities—that have traversed oceans. Focusing on stories of flight, mobility, and migration and other bordercrossings, this panel also seeks to highlight the imaginaries of the seas and oceans in cultural representations. PAPER #1 Refugee Stories in the Oceanic Borderlands AUTHOR(S) Astrid M. Fellner (Saarland U, UniGR-Center for Border Studies) ABSTRACT This paper will focus on transoceanic bordertextures through the lens of selected refugee writings, such as Patricia Engel’s The Veins of the Ocean (2017) and Sharon Bala’s The Boat People (2018). Focusing on North American oceanscapes, I will aim to look at the different strategies in the representations of migrant trajectories and refugee experiences in order to show the ways in which the oceanic experiences in these texts have shaped understandings of flight and migration. Oceans, as I will show, function as sites of relations and places of connections between different people and cultures. Through the method of bordertexturing, I will advocate for an epistemological counter-formation—a form of “seascape epistemology” (Karin Amimoto Ingersoll)—which allows for different ways of knowing about migrant identities and renewed forms of caring for each other. PAPER #2 Of Saints, Saviors, and Smugglers: Capitane in the Mediterranean AUTHOR(S) Eva Nossem (Saarland U, UniGR-Center for Border Studies) ABSTRACT Since the EU has scaled down maritime patrols to rescue migrants on the perilous crossing, this task has now been taken on by private sea rescue operations. In politics as well as in (social) media, news reports about rescuing operations quickly transform into raging debates between supporters and representatives of pro- and anti-immigration policies. The already heated debates about sea rescue operations seem to escalate further when the category of gender is added to this conundrum. In my talk I will provide a critical analysis of the Italian news coverage and social media discourses about Carola Rackete and Pia Klemp, captains of the Sea Watch 3, who dominated the news in the summer 2019 with their rescue operations, arrest and release, public honors and refusals, and all associated polemics. Fights over gender domination, I argue, as well as the Mediterranean Sea as a site of border making and breaking play a key role in the discursive production of the two capitane (Italian for “[female] captains”) either as saints, saviors, or smugglers. PAPER #3 Border Unknowing: Seascapes of In/humanity in the European Refugee Crisis AUTHOR(S) Lynn Itagaki (University of Missouri, USA) ABSTRACT I posit “border unknowing”: the deliberate ignorance and rejection of knowledge of migrants’ dignity, humanity and personhood. As a symptom and strategy of “colonial unknowing” developed from global studies of white settler colonialism and racialization, the conceptual framework of “border unknowing” indexes the normalization and rationalization of violence and deaths caused by border regimes that are supported by colonial, white supremacist, and cis-heteropatriarchal knowledge formations of borders and nation-states. Centering bodies of water as these sites and structure of knowledge formation ground theoretical efforts to make visible and undermine the unknowing within border analyses. I examine two 2016 films, the first Jason Begley’s seven minute digital short “Best of Luck with the Wall” and the second Gianfranco Rosi’s two-hour 2016 Italian documentary Fire at Sea, (Fuocoammare) in terms of the aesthetic practices of border unknowing. Both filmmakers’ depiction of bodies of water force viewers to recognize how border unknowing refuses the radical possibilities of seascapes or oceanic thinking from the Pacific, the Rio Grande, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and thereby refuses migrant experiences in and across these bodies of water and natural borders. PAPER #4 Saving, Slavery and Refugees at the Maritime Borders of Europe AUTHOR(S) Ewa Macura-Nnamdi (University of Silesia, Poland) ABSTRACT This paper looks at the acts of saving that unfold in the maritime spaces of the Mediterranean as they are represented in Helon Habila’s 2018 novel Travellers. Habila’s radical proposition links the sea crossings undertaken by refugees to slavery. But rather than positing violence against black people as what structurally ties the refugees to the slaves (as the Afropessimist perspective has it), Habila’s novel suggests it is saving and its politics that establish continuities between slavery and the so called “refugee crisis.” Probing 18th-century insurance discourses, especially the notion of the general average, and the ways it informed the legal proceedings of the notorious Zong case, I argue that the paradigm of saving that emerged from those discourses, can be found and operates in the Mediterranean scenes of rescue. Looking at the what happens in the Mediterranean through the lens of 18th-century economic and humanitarian discourses allows not only to discern how contemporary acts of saving thrive on the utility of the refugees’ life rather than death but also to reveal a set of other significant and related claims: that refugee deaths in the Mediterranean are not exceptional; that structural unsaveability is a form of border control; and that the maritime borders redefine refugees as those who fail to arrive.

discussant

Bärbel Schlimbach

Saarland University

author

Lynn Mie Itagaki

University of Missouri, Columbia

author

Ewa Macura-Nnamdi

Institute of Literary Studies, University of Silesia

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Migration Politics & Governance 16

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #189 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Hannah van den Brink

Interruption of Hypermobility, Alienation and Transnationalism Processes – the Case of the Nepalese in Portugal Alexandra Cristina Santos Pereira ISEG - University of Lisbon In this study, we depart from Dumont’s (2020) concepts of “corona-migrants” and “interruption of hypermobility” (connecting them to the hypothesis of mobility transition by Zelinsky, 1971), as well as from Scholten’s (2019) description of complexity governance through “alienation”, to analyze both migration governance practices targeting a specific nationality (Nepalese) in Portugal during the Covid-19 pandemic, and the effects of such governance (coupled with the effects of the pandemic itself) on transnationalism processes previously developed by those migrants (transnational mobility and transnational communication; economic transnationalism; socio-cultural transnationalism; political transnationalism). This is a qualitative and interpretative research, combining follow-up data from semi-structured interviews to 30 Nepalese immigrants with online ethnography and data collected from 100 online questionnaires to Nepalese immigrants in different regions of Portugal, on the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic in their lives and livelihoods (during the lockdown of the Autumn/Winter 2020-21). We will describe in detail the impacts of the lockdown on external mobility plans (re-migration, immigration, return to Nepal) and internal mobility patterns (immobility or displacement) of these migrants, as well as the effects of “alienation” on them. Concluding, we will be able to embbed such migration complexity governance options into environmental concerns, discussing how environment governance and related public health issues become migration policies themselves. Key words Hypermobility, Alienation, Transnationalism, Nepalese Immigrants === Turkish National Identity, Language Policy, and Syrian Migration: From Homogeneity to Harmonization Melissa Hauber-Özer College of Education and Human Development, George Mason University, Virginia, USA Mehmet Onur Özer Faculty of International Relations, Korkut Ata University, Osmaniye, Turkey Due to proximity, an open-door policy, and its position on the route to Europe, Turkey now hosts more refugees than any other country, including nearly 3.6 million Syrians (UNHCR, 2020). Hostility and resentment toward refugees have risen a result of inadequate migration and integration policies (Memisoğlu & Ilgit, 2016), and language acquisition, central to successful integration, persists as a key challenge (Nimer, 2019; Şimşek, 2017). Drawing on modernist and ethno-symbolist theories of nationalism, the paper traces the evolution of Turkish educational and migration policy as a backdrop for contemporary public and media discourse regarding Syrian refugees and highlights how the homogenous Turkish identity created after the fall of the multilingual, multiethnic, and multireligious Ottoman Empire has contributed to current social cohesion problems (Yıldız & Uzgören 2016). The authors posit that this has, in turn, influenced educational and migration policy frameworks (Bayar, 2011; Çolak, 2004; Özkırımlı, 2010) and resulted in a lack of infrastructure for teaching Turkish as a second language. The paper employs foundational texts in nationalism theory as well as the work of contemporary Turkish nationalism scholars to analyze primary historical and legal texts as well as scholarly literature on Turkish migration policy, language education, and media discourse. The paper closes with recommendations for creating a new vision of national identity, an imagined community (Anderson 2006) wherein kinship is based on shared humanity and rights rather than linguistic and religious homogeneity. === Making Sense of the Institutional Logics behind Protective Measures for Internationally Displaced Persons Ralph I. Hosoki Sophia University This paper presents a preliminary effort to understand and theorize the emergence and logic behind the non-monolithic, complementary, and sometimes seemingly ad hoc protections (e.g., humanitarian protections) many OECD countries have instituted for internationally displaced persons who (are deemed to) fall outside of the internationally sanctioned definitional purview of “refugees.” Within the EU and across individual OECD countries, should we understand the emergence of these practices as 1) reflections of the triumph of global human rights norms over state interests; 2) opportunistic and strategic decisions on the part of states to avoid the burdens that come with recognizing too many refugees by establishing a “pseudo-” refugee protection status that simultaneously “gives a nod” to human rights norms; or 3) – particularly in the case of the EU – simply the product of regional legal structures and agreements? To what extent could these practices exist because of, and not despite of, state interests? Can and should we speak of these developments as evidence of an opportunistic humanitarian “regime”? Using the Immigration Policies in Comparison (IMPIC) project’s data on policies for refugees, asylum seekers, and humanitarian protection status recipients, this study employs a panel data analysis, supplemented with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses (fsQCA), to both examine the determinants of cross-national variance in levels of codified protections for internationally displaced persons, and through the findings, adjudicate between sociological institutionalist (World Society) and realist theoretical explanations.

author

Melissa Hauber-Özer

George Mason University

author

Alexandra Santos Pereira

ISEG - University of Lisbon

author

Mehmet Onur Ozer

Osmaniye Korkut Ata University

author

Ralph Hosoki

Sophia University

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Return Migration 4

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #190 panel | RI Revisiting Return Migration in Shifting Geopolitics

chair

Cristina Navarrete

Role of higher education in return migration of the second generation of Afghan refugees from Iran Mitra Ghaffarian Asl Ghent University Ilse Derluyn Ghent University This study investigates why a group of highly educated second generation Afghans in Iran decides to return to Afghanistan, despite the ongoing insecurity in this country and the general reluctance for return among Afghans in Iran. Thirty Afghans who were born, raised and studied in Iran (with status as a refugee) and obtained a university degree before their return to the parental homeland, were interviewed. We questioned them about their return decision and their preparedness for return, and the role interviewees’ higher education diploma did play herein. The interviews showed that obtaining a university degree - preferably on a master’s level – was an aspect of the preparation for the return of the participating second-generation Afghan refugees in Iran, especially in order to secure higher paid jobs upon their return. The interviews also showed that professional aspects (high-status jobs and wage differences) were the main reasons for their return decision. Structural (policy restrictions in the access to highly-skilled jobs for refugees in Iran) and individual discrimination (humiliation experiences in the society), and the ongoing economic crisis in Iran also paved the way for their return decision. Thirdly, aspirations to contribute to the parental homeland’s development as an educated returnee was another reason to decide to return for the interviewed highly educated Afghans in Iran. Our findings show that higher education does play a considerable role in the second generation of Afghans in their preparation/decision to return. This may have important implications for policy through the facilitation of access to higher education for refugees in Iran and further cross-border programs supporting the return of educated Afghans. Keywords: Return migration, highly-educated refugees, second generation migrants, Afghans in Iran === Israeli and Polish Policies toward Returning Residents as a Reflection of Nationhood Agnieszka Bielewska SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities Karin Amit Ruppin Academic Center Our paper focuses on Poland and Israel, both commonly classified as ethnic nation-states, and aims to question the expression of ethnic–civic dichotomy in return-migration policies. Policy documents in each country are analysed. This analysis is complemented by interviews with policymakers and representatives from relevant organizations. Our analysis shows that, although there are differences in their policies toward returning residents and in the related programmes in both countries, Israeli and Polish policies include both ethnic and civic components. Therefore, our study supports ) argument that there is no purely civic or ethnic nationalism and there can be no purely civic or ethnic nation. We show that the proportion of ethnic and civic elements may change over time; thus, our findings contribute to the growing literature pointing to the dynamic nature of nationalism. === "Deportable" subject or "Exceptional Citizen": (Forced) Return Politicies and Practices in Turkey Özge Biner EHESS, Paris Turkey is one of the countries that accommodates large number of refugees in the world without providing them any permanent legal status and rights. Today, refugees living in Turkey are governed through ambiguous legal measures rather than well-determined legal rule. The state exercises all governmental forms of control, survey, inclusion and exclusion through temporality and legal uncertainty. This situation compels refugees to engage with multiple agents at local and transnational context such as state(s), intergovernmental organizations, smugglers, local providers and refugees’ own political and social networks. Their co-existing presence and rule of power blurs the boundaries between legality and illegality and limits refugees’ practices and movements. In doing that, it creates space in which refugees negotiate their status of “deportability” (de Genova 2002) with both institutional and informal power. Within this legal framework, the probability of being deported appears as a part of legalization process. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork conducted with Syrian refugees waiting in Gaziantep, a city located at the Turkish Syrian border area, this paper proposes to examine the concurrent relationship between temporality, legal uncertainty and deportability through the following questions: What are the legal and political structures set up by the Turkish state to include/exclude refugees waiting in the border areas? To what extent temporality and legal uncertainty are used by the Turkish state as tactical strategy to deal with refugee population? How does the legalization process affect the deportability? What kind of strategies do refugees develop to subvert the legal and social condition of “deportability” in the border areas?

author

Ozge Biner

École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)

author

Ilse Derluyn

Ghent University

author

Agnieszka Bielewska

University SWPS

author

Karin Amit

Ruppin Academic Center

author

Mitra Ghaffarian Asl

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Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 7

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #191 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Javier Gutiérrez Espinosa

Reservoir-induced displacement and social participation: Evidence from the Spanish dictatorship Laura Muñoz Blanco Trinity College Dublin By 2018, 70.8 million people worldwide had been forced to flee from their home (UNHCR, 2019). This paper explores how variations in exposure to internally displaced population that happened in the past affect social participation in host municipalities during the last 40 years. To measure forced displacement I exploit the construction of reservoirs during the Spanish dictatorship (1936-1975). I rely on a newly-collected historical dataset on forced displacement induced by reservoirs to then implement an instrumental variable approach. I find that exposure to internally displaced persons flows has a long-term and sizable impact on social participation. Interestingly, the effect is positive for municipalities hosting internally displaced population, but negative for the municipalities of origin. Results are robust to potential cofounding effects of violence during the dictatorship. === Identtity Construction Process and Future Expectation of Young Turkish Migrants in Brandenburg Çiğdem Manap Kırmızıgül Suleyman Demirel University This study aims to analyze the identity construction process and future expectation of Turkish youth living in Brandenburg, Germany. It focuses how Turkish youth forms and internalizes their identity on the basis of their self definitions and the adoption of different values. The study attempts to understand comparative aspects of the identity construction of Turkish youth in Brandenburg. This study will be focusing on their bi-linguistic skills, multi-identity and multi-cultural daily life experiences. In addition, the study will analyze the youth’s identity construction by relating it to a conceptual discussion of migration, multi-culturalism, integration and citizenship issues. Analyzing identity construction process of Turkish youth will be done by posing questions like: How does the youth gain their belongingness sense or identity feeling? Which values and traditions are mostly influential and how do they function in contributing to the identity formation of them? Are there specific characteristics and components constituting this identity? What are the expectations of these youth from the future? The experience, perception and expectation of the Turkish youth and the resources and multi-dimensionality of identity construction will be developed with a social constructivist approach. The study will be based on qualitative research methods which form an efficient way to provide a better understanding of the perceptions, expectations, beliefs, feelings and cultural characteristics of Turkish youth. Semi-participant observation and in-depth interviews will be carried out during the fieldwork. === The intercultural competence of second generation individuals: features and development processes Annavittoria Sarli University of Birmimgham In contemporary EU societies, where intercultural encounters have become very frequent, intercultural competence (IC) represent a vital asset. Second generation individuals (SGIs), born and raised between two cultures, may develop strong IC. However, the features and development of SGIs’ IC remain under investigated. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study asking: what are the main strengths of SGIs in intercultural communication? which factors foster or hinder their development? The questions are addressed through semi-structured interviews and focus groups with SG university students born in Italy with research tools partially based on the Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters, a tool built by the Council of Europe to promote young people’s reflection on their IC. Data are examined through thematic analysis. Using Barrett’s model of IC (2018) as a guide, a framework of SGIs’ IC is elaborated to describe the various facets that help SGIs in intercultural communication. Essential drivers of development of IC among SGIs result from their early experience of “being perceived as different”, that leads them to empathize with members of cultural minorities and their early feeling of being simultaneously similar and different from their peers, that leads them to conceive cultural difference as fluid and to look for commonalities with whom they perceive as different. SGIs’ early experience of “not fully belonging” helps them develop their IC only if they develop a positive idea of both their cultural identities. Such positive attitude is developed by exchanging ideas with other SGIs, having parents or teachers who highlight the value of bicultural identities, or experiencing contexts that value diversity. These findings offer important insights to be developed by both migration studies and literature on IC and encourage further research on SGIs’ IC. === Cartographies of Charity: Intra-communal Muslims relations in Portugal Raquel Carvalheira CRIA - NOVA University, Lisbon Portugal In this article, I propose to analyse charity practices from Indo-Mozambican to Guinean Muslims and to capture a whole range of intra-communal relationships within the Muslim community in Portugal. Having as a starting point the iftar meals offered by Lisbon Central Mosque, the most important Islamic institution in Portugal, to various peripheral mosques in poor neighbourhoods of the city, this paper addresses the constitution of a "network of giving" that reinforces the continuing interdependence between Indo-Mozambican and Guinean Muslims. The postcolonial experience of these populations and their migratory projects are determinant in understanding such interactions within Portuguese society. Such historical background enables to understand contemporary loyalties and attachments. Socio-economic disparities and different levels of institutional legitimacy between Indo-Mozambican and Guinean Muslims enable to understand power relations and social and religious hierarchies. At the same time, solidarity and co-responsibility exist in such practices, since they are all members of the Umma in a non-Muslim society. This paper invites to understand such relations within a wider Muslim community in Portugal and to reflect on how levels of identification and difference are used by Muslims in a non-Muslim setting. A cartography of charity enables to explore the particular networks created within, beyond and across national/ethnic and religious belongings.

author

Laura Muñoz Blanco

Trinity College Dublin (Economic Department)

author

Çiğdem Manap Kırmızıgül

Suleyman Demirel University

author

Annavittoria Sarli

University of Birmingham

author

Raquel Gil Carvalheira

Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia

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[Deleted session]

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #192 panel |

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The making of procedural (in)justice in migrant-state interactions at local, national and European level

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #193 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Sophie Andreetta

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

chair

Larissa Vetters

Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology

Procedural justice is a fundamental aspect of legal systems ensuring fair treatment of people in their interactions with state officials. Research has shown that procedural (in)justice has an impact on the perceived legitimacy of legal rules by citizens as well as immigrants. In the case of the latter, unfamiliarity with administrative procedures of the receiving country poses further challenges and procedural rules have sometimes been instrumentalized by governments to filter and restrict immigration. Together with its twin-panel looking at asylum claims-making, determination and reception, it contributes to interdisciplinary socio-legal scholarship that critically accompanies current developments in asylum and immigration policies. As part of a bipartite venture, this panel addresses the production, implementation and contestation of procedural justice and fairness in state-migrant interactions. Contributions explore the variety of ways in which procedural safeguards are invoked, altered, discarded, and reinvented in different interactions ranging from municipal registrations to bordering decisions, from residence permit issuance to regularizations. Of particular significance appear procedural issues relating to the timely and accurate provision of information as well as the (over)reliance on administrative practices. In addition to the perspectives of street-level bureaucrats at the municipalities, immigration offices, and law enforcement officials, papers include migrants’ self-perceptions and sense of justice. This panel therefore offers a multiscalar and dynamic approach to the discussion of procedural (in)justice that is produced and reproduced in migrant-state interactions in different settings and by a variety of actors. PAPER #1 Procedural (In)Justice as Practice: Ethnographic insights from Switzerland and Germany AUTHOR(S) Laura Affolter (Hamburg Institute for Social Research) Tobias Eule (University of Bern) ABSTRACT Building on ethnographies of administrative decision-making in Swiss asylum procedures and German immigration offices, we approach the issue of procedural (in)justice in immigration law not in a normative but in an empirical way by asking what (procedural) justice and fairness mean to street-level bureaucrats, how this structures their everyday practice and what the consequences of this are for the people they are dealing with. In doing so, we propose a practice-theoretical approach to administrative work and to understanding law in action, by paying attention to migration officers’ routinised, self-evident and largely unquestioned behaviours, not only in terms of what they do, but also of what they think, feel and know. Through this, we can take into account the structural, organisational and ideological contexts in which officers work, and the constraints posed by them, whilst at the same time recognising officers’ agency. This is important for three reasons. First, it allows us to understand procedural (in)justice as something that is continuously (re-)produced in everyday street-level practice. Second, it helps us to make sense of contradictory trends in immigration law. Third, it cautions us to not too quickly reduce procedural (in)justice as being the outcome of individuals’ arbitrary behaviours. PAPER #2 Informing for the sake of it. Confusion, Ignorance and Pressing Deadlines in Migration Law Implementation AUTHOR(S) Lisa Marie Borrelli (HES-SO Valais-Wallis) Anna Wyss (Université de Neuchâtel) ABSTRACT Individuals subjected to legal procedures need to be informed about their rights and duties and are expected to cooperate with state authorities. In our contribution, we build on multi-sited ethnographic research in different European countries and zoom into the asymmetrical negotiations between street-level bureaucrats and migrants with precarious legal status. We explore how (the lack of) being informed affects procedural justice during law implementation and how legal consciousness of both migrants and bureaucrats becomes relevant here. We demonstrate that migrants are often not sufficiently informed about the proceedings they are exposed to. First, we observe a difficulty to anticipate how laws work because of frequent policy changes, bureaucrats’ discretionary power and obfuscation of responsibilities. Second, we argue that migration law is implemented in an atmosphere of suspicion, negatively affecting both migrants’ and state officials’ trust in each other and building a shaky ground for ‘informed consent’. Third, a general trend towards acceleration in migration enforcement allocates limited time for information to transcend, leaving migrants uninformed about legal procedures, which aggravates the structural violence at place. Despite receiving only fragmentary information, migrants are still expected to cooperate in these illegible state procedures and if deemed disobeying, risk to become further marginalised. PAPER #3 Procedural (in)justice for EU citizens moving to Belgium: an inquiry into municipal registration practices AUTHOR(S) Roos-Marie van den Bogaard (UGent), Ana Horta Correia (Fragomen), Wout Van Doren (Fragomen), Ellen Desmet (UGent), Anthony Valcke (University of Kent) ABSTRACT Moving as a French or Dutch citizen to Belgium should be easy, given the freedom of movement of EU citizens. Reality paints a different picture, however. This paper analyses the practices of Belgian municipalities as to the registration of EU workers, self-employed, jobseekers and their family members. It is based on a desk study, a survey among a sample of municipalities, semi-structured interviews with municipal officials, the Immigration Office and other stakeholders, and a comparative research with neighbouring countries. The achievement of procedural justice for EU citizens is impaired by divergent and at times questionable practices by street-level bureaucrats at municipal level and the Immigration Office. Examples include a lack of comprehensive and accessible information (e.g. paying less attention to third country national family members and less common categories such as posted workers); administrative instructions by the Immigration Office that do not appear in line with the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU; municipalities requiring more documents than what is permitted by law; and a lack of resources hindering the capacity of the Immigration Office to review all applicants’ files, which relies on a phone call being made by municipal officials to identify ‘suspicious’ files. The paper also reflects on the challenges relating to the decentralisation of part of the processing of residence applications (caused, among others, by the divergence in size and capacity of municipalities) and on the impact of privatisation on the handling of such applications (caused by the subcontracting of the digital workflow). PAPER #4 “Tell me what documents you have, and I will tell you who you are”. Analysing migration law through the ‘life trajectory’ perspective. Italy as a test case. AUTHOR(S) Paola Pannia (University of Florence) ABSTRACT Law is often analysed by scholars in respect of its (non)compliance with national, European and international human rights legal frameworks. Legal scholars are much more committed to researching how the law should be, rather than exploring how it functions and what implications it has. The same logic applies to the migration domain, where little research has been done on the consequences of migration laws on the ordinary lives of people, their perspectives and possibilities for planning their future. Against this backdrop, this study aims to explore how migration laws affect foreigners’ life trajectories and opportunities. Italy will serve as a case study. The scarcity of regular immigration channels for non-EU citizens in this country, mixed with the frequent recourse to mass-regularization programs, very fast-changing legislations and a high discretionary implementation, provide a suitable environment to grasp the complex interplay between the legal framework and people agency over time. To this end, the analysis of the legal status regulating migrants’ conditions in Italy (and its evolution since 1998 – when the consolidated migration Act was approved) is combined with qualitative interviews, which follow both an in-depth and longitudinal approach. This paper delves into the role of rights (and legal certainty in accessing these rights) in the life trajectories of migrants, and assesses how migrants react to the continuously changing normative framework. Enhancing the understanding of this nexus between laws, their implementation and migrants’ life is also meant to promote a new approach to test migration legal systems vis-à-vis the rule of law.

discussant

Zeynep Yanasmayan

author

Laura Affolter

Institut für Sozialanthropologie, Universität Bern

author

Tobias Eule

University of Bern

author

Lisa Marie Borrelli

University of Bern

author

Anna Wyss

University of Bern

author

Ellen Desmet

Universiteit Gent

author

Ana Horta

Fragomen

author

Anthony Valcke

University of Kent

author

Paola Pannia

University of Florence

author

Wout Van Doren

Fragomen

author

Roos-Marie van den Bogaard

Ghent University

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Labour Market Integration of refugees in Europe

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #194 panel | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

chair

Rinus Penninx

University of Amsterdam

Chair: Rinus Penninx Discussant: Lisa Berntsen PAPER #1 A typology of refugees’ labor market trajectories in Germany AUTHOR(S) Stefan Röhrer ABSTRACT Where do refugees stand with regard to their labor market integration five years after immigration? With this paper, we address this question from a biographical and process-oriented longitudinal perspective. In a turbulent life phase, refugees confront the challenging task of finding their economic positioning in a new environment. Based on two waves of narrative-biographical Interviews with Syrian refugees, we identify four typical trajectories of labor market integration: exclusion, employment-related marginalization, re-normalization, and a focus on opportunity. Furthermore, we highlight factors and dynamics that underlie and perpetuate these integration trajectories. PAPER #2 Indicators of labour market participation and orientation among recently arrived Syrian refugees in the Netherlands: a two-wave panel analysis AUTHOR(S) Roxy Damen ABSTRACT Perceived successes and failures of newcomers’ settlement in receiving societies are continuous concerns of both policy-makers and researchers. Securing employment is an important policy goal as well as important for newcomers themselves, since better settlement outcomes are found to be achieved when newcomers are able to secure employment. However, securing employment takes time, and it has been shown to be especially challenging for refugees (i.e. the refugee gap). While the settlement process starts upon arrival, few studies on refugees’ labour market participation employ data collected shortly after arrival. Policy can play an important role during this first phase, yet, not much is known about the effectiveness of policy measures. As orientation towards the labour market can already be an important step during the first phase after arrival, the aim of this study is to provide insight into refugees’ first steps on the labour market by studying policy and individual indicators of both labour market participation and orientation. We use two-wave panel data of 2379 recently arrived Syrian refugees in the Netherlands, including data on key pre- and post-migration policy and individual factors (among others: length of reception period, completing the civic integration exam, local labour market conditions, language proficiency and mental health) combined with register data. By means of a Hybrid model we show both within and between group variation. Results indicate that policy and context matter for both labour market participation and orientation, moreover various individual factors indicate labour market success (over time). PAPER #3 Challenges and opportunities in the Labour Market Integration of Refugees. The Experiences of the Employees in Several Municipalities in Norway AUTHOR(S) Zubia Willmann Robleda ABSTRACT In Norway, the migration discourse, both among politicians and in academia, is largely linked to the welfare state and the ambition of having as many people as possible contributing to its sustainability through integration into the labour market. Norway differentiates itself from other countries in Europe with its full-time compulsory two-year introductory programme that is meant to qualify newly arrived refugees for further education or work. Despite national and municipal efforts to have 70 percent of participants in employment or in education one year after finishing the programme the national average recent years has barely reached 60 percent. There is a debate about whether the introductory program works as intended and large municipal variations are often being highlighted. This article explores the experiences of employees in several Norwegian municipalities working on the labour market integration of refugees. We draw from qualitative individual interviews with 12 employees at different municipalities and local offices of the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration Agency. The article discusses the challenges that the informants encounter in their work of assisting refugees in entering the labour market as well as the possible changes they see could ease and strengthen refugees’ integration into the Norwegian labour market. PAPER #4 Labour market participation of Syrian refugees in Germany and Sweden AUTHOR(S) Nahikari Irastorza ABSTRACT In 2015 and 2016, the EU experienced an unparalleled influx of more than 1 million refugees and migrants from Syria and other countries, with Germany and Sweden being among the countries that have received the largest numbers of asylum applications. This situation affects the life trajectories of displaced persons and poses multiple challenges for public services as well as labour markets and social cohesion in receiving communities. The socio-economic integration of refugees and, in particular, their introduction into the labour market is among the first steps towards full participation in receiving societies. Due to the relative novelty of large-scale Syrian migration to Europe and other destination countries, there is a scarcity of studies on the socio-economic integration of Syrians in receiving communities. We contribute to the literature by comparing the employment situation of the Syrian refugees that arrived in Germany and Sweden between 2013 and 2016. We use secondary data from Swedish registers and SOEP to answer our research questions as follows: what is the employment situation of refugees from Syria in Sweden and Germany? Are there differences by demographic, human capital and host country characteristics? Finally, how does their situation compare to that of other refugee groups who arrived in the same time period residing in Sweden and Germany?

discussant

Lisa Berntsen

Tilburg University

author

Nahikari Irastorza

author

Stefan Röhrer

author

Roxy Damen

author

Zubia Willmann Robleda

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Co-Creation and Participatory Design as Methodological Approaches in Migration Research

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #195 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Ingrid Breckner

HafenCity University Hamburg

chair

Joerg Rainer NOENNIG

HCU Hamburg

The panels presents novel methodological approaches from ongoing innovation projects NADINE, EASYRIGHTS, REACT, MIICT, and MICADO funded within the Horizon2020 program “Addressing the challenge of migrant integration through ICT-enabled solutions”. All projects target at the creation of digital applications and toolkits for the implementation of inclusion policies by public administrations to facilitate the management of the integration of migrants, improve autonomy and inclusion and thus the lives of migrants. The projects explore how data analytics and simulation tools can support policy-makers and public administration at all levels in planning and taking decisions on migration-related issues. The projects investigate how the user-centered analysis of available data can provide migrants with information on and easy access to relevant public services in accordance to their needs. In order to conceptualize and implement their respective digital solution, the projects have employed new methodologies for co- creation and participatory design which enabled the project teams to determine the necessary user needs and technical requirement. While these methodologies have proven effective in the specific project context for which they were created and deployed, the panel will discuss their replication and adaptation potential for other contexts and settings. KEYWORDS: Migration Management, Digital Technologies, Public Administration, Co-Creation, Participation PAPER #1 Co-creation process in MIICT: empowering ICT-user groups from subjects to creators AUTHOR(S) Tuomas Tammilehto (Laurea University of Applied Sciences) Miia Seppanen (Laurea University of Applied Sciences) Fidel Budy (Centric Sheffield Hallam University) Karen Latricia Hough (Centric Sheffield Hallam University) ABSTRACT The project MIICT (ICT Enabled Services for Migration) has the goal of designing, developing and deploying tools that address the challenge of migrants’ integration through the co-creation of improved ICT enabled services with migrants, refugees, asylum seekers, public sector services, NGOs (Non-Governmental-Organisations) and other interest groups. The project combines a user-centred design approach with elements of an ‘agile’ approach to software development enabling rapid prototyping and sustained pilot testing in three pilot locations, Cyprus, Italy and Spain. The core objective of the project is to ensure that the solutions co-created throughout the duration of the project in each research phase deliver value and are meeting the social, economic, cultural and technological needs of the project’s stakeholders. By adopting a human-centered approach, the project aims to put the project’s intended target groups at the centre of the design and development process, building a deep empathy with the people ICT solutions are designed for. For that purpose, co-creation workshops as well as longer piloting periods as part of the participatory design process were implemented. This paper outlines the procedural steps followed in each research phase from the elicitation of requirements, through to the testing of the prototype. It focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of this methodology to provide concrete lessons learnt for future researchers and practitioners using co-creation methods in migration studies. KEYWORDS: Co-creation, ICT solution, Human-centred approach, PAPER #2 Convergence Methodology for Demand Definition in Migration-related ICT projects AUTHOR(S) Jan Barski (HCU Hamburg) Jörg Rainer Noennig (HCU Hamburg) Carolina Mudan Marelli (University of Bologna) Manuela Maggio (University of Bologna) ABSTRACT The project MICADO aims at providing data visualisation and analysis tools in support of migrant integration. As an initial step in the development process towards an applicable ICT solution, a multitude of demands was collected from stakeholders in public administration, civil and societal organisations, as well as in the migrants community itself. Additional complexity was added to this endevaour by the fact that user demands were collected in four European cities – Hamburg, Madrid, Bologna and Antwerp. In order to converge and streamline this broad diversity of requirements into an unified concept for an European-wide applicable ICT solution, a novel, workshop-based methodology was invented by the MICADO team, and test- run in the early phase of the development process of the MICADO solution. The paper outlines the procedural steps in this process, introduces the tools and instruments used, and discusses the transferability of the approach to other project or settings. KEYWORDS: Demand definition, co-creation, stakeholder, ICT solution, workshop PAPER #3 Local application of co-design methodologies and manuals AUTHOR(S) Teresa Carlone (University of Bologna) Rosa Thoneick (HCU Hamburg) Carmen Munteanu (Synyo Vienna) ABSTRACT The project MICADO aims at providing data visualisation and analysis tools in support of migrant integration in four European cities. As outputs of the initial scientific workpackages of the MICADO, comprehensive handbooks and manuals were created to structure the co-creative sessions with local user and stakeholder groups in each partner city by which specific local requirements were defined and analysed and the basic functionalities of the solution were co-designed. Although targeting at an universally applicable ICT- system that converges all collected local demands into one generic MICADO solution, local contexts and demands strongly differed – hence a robust methodological framework was needed to proceed this important step, and to streamline the great heterogeneity of input. This paper presents the supplementing handbooks and manuals created for this purpose, and gives account on the diverse experiences of their local application. KEYWORDS: Co-design, manual, guideline, local context, stakeholder PAPER #4 Targeting integration and inclusion by supporting triple loop learning: The evaluation framework of a migrants related project AUTHOR(S) Gracia Concilio (DAStU Politecnico di Milano) Maryam Karimi (DAStU Politecnico di Milano) Lydia Rössl (MIG Danube University Krems) ABSTRACT More and more the evaluation of complex projects is being related to the capacity of the project to deal with crucial social, economic and environmental issues that society is responsible for and has to deal with. Within this perspective growing attention is given to learning in action and its possible impact. The proposed paper looks at triple-loop learning as pushed by the reflection on three dimensions: the “what”, the “how”, and the “why” of collective actions in complex projects. It does so by looking at the case of easyRights, an ongoing Horizon2020 project, that aims to develop language-oriented technologies supporting the inclusion of migrants in Europe within a co-creation approach considered crucial to learning. The paper particularly focuses on the “why” dimension - a transition perspective synthesizing “why” we learned as mobilizing the societal, approach and service values - considered strategic to any societal transition towards a more inclusive and integrated society. It describes the co-creation development of the project´s evaluation framework and the systematic integration of learning and feedback processes related to the key-learning drivers “what”, “how” and particularly “why” into the design of the evaluation tool box to support these processes in all phases of the project. KEYWORDS: triple-loop learning, evaluation, co-creation, values, transition perspective

author

Karen Hough

CENTRIC - Sheffield Hallam University

discussant

Nicholas Vretos

Information Technologies Institute, Thessaloniki

discussant

Karen Hough

CENTRIC, Sheffield Hallam University

author

Tuomas Tammilehto

Laurea University of Applied Sciences

author

Miia Seppanen

Laurea University of Applied Sciences

author

Fidel Budy

Centric Sheffield Hallam University

author

Jan Barski

HCU Hamburg

author

Carolina Mudan Marelli

University of Bologna

author

Manuela Maggio

Università di Bologna

author

Teresa Carlone

UNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNA

author

Rosa Thoneick

HCU Hamburg

author

Carmen Munteanu

Synyo Vienna

author

Grazia Concilio

DAStU, Politecnico di Milano

author

Maryam Karimi

Politecnico di Milano

author

Lydia Rössl

MIG Danube University Krems

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Researching migrant experiences and perspectives

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #196 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Carolin Müller

Technische Universität Dresden

PAPER #1 The Challenges of Researching Migration and Schooling in Ghana AUTHOR(S) Daniel Owusu Kyereko (University of Edinburgh) ABSTRACT This paper discusses methodological challenges in researching migrants and schooling in Ghana. The article draws on field experiences arising from a case study involving 68 in school migrant children (38 males and 30 females), 40 out of school migrant children (30 males and 10 females), 40 headteachers and teachers (20 males and 20 females) and 42 mi-grant parents (28 males and 14 females). This paper highlights the challenges with language and power asymmetry, recruitment of research assistants, formal and informal access and usage of appropriate terminology encountered in the field. This paper offers practical in-sights and pragmatic solutions for future researchers working on migrants and schools within postcolonial multilingual settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Positively, recommendations from research participants serve as a guide to junior researchers on what they are more likely to encounter in the field as well as a benchmark for professional researchers who may find themselves in unchartered waters. PAPER #2 An ethnography of self-protection: migrant practices and knowledge AUTHOR(S) Samia Dinkelaker (Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies) ABSTRACT Many Migration scholars are critical of framings of – most often female* – migrants as “vulnerable” and “in need of protection”. They intervene in humanitarian discourses and their role in legitimizing repressive border politics. Building on the critiques of humanitarianism in Social Anthropology, some scholars even fundamentally question notions of “protection”, “care,” and “vulnerability”, due to the deep entanglement of these notions with modern techniques of governmentality. In the paper I discuss how the critique of humanitarian, governmental discourses of vulnerability and protection could be reread through engaging with migrants’ vernacular practices and knowledge of protection in the face of violent and precarizing migration and border regimes. I explore how ethnographic, decolonial, and feminist perspectives can help notions of “protection”, “care,” and ”vulnerability” that go beyond modern techniques of governing and understand them as a precondition of agency and resistance The ideas I present are part of a research that engages with the practices and knowledge of labor migrants and refugees stuck in transit in East and Southeast Asia. Focusing on refugee regimes and regimes of labor migration, it looks at two central regime types in Asia that, on the one hand, produce migrants’ precarity and, on the other, feature gendered discourses of migrants’ vulnerability. Locating the research in Asia, the study seeks to decenter critical debates in migration studies, which mainly focus on European and North-American migration and border regimes. In the paper I will focus on conceptual ideas and on ethical considerations that an ethnography of self-protection entails. PAPER #3 Migration aspirations in West and North Africa: what do we know about how they translate into migration flows to Europe? What is the role of migrants´ socioeconomic characteristics? AUTHOR(S) Irene Schöfberger (IOM`s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC)) Eduardo Acostamadiedo (IOM´s GMDAC) Emma Borgnäs Marzia Rango (IOM´s GMDAC) ABSTRACT Aspiring migrants from Africa are less likely than other migrants to migrate to their preferred international migration destinations. This paper explores migration aspirations and intentions and actual migration of citizens of 18 North and West African countries, paying particular attention to migration to Europe. It also analyses the role of migrants´ socioeconomic characteristics. Drawing on a combination of statistics from the Gallup World Poll, the OECD, Eurostat, Frontex and the UNDESA Population Division, it provides evidence for the discrepancy between the number of people intending to migrate to Europe and actual regular and irregular migration flows. It does so by exploring regional differences and drawing on theoretical frameworks on migration aspirations and (cap)abilities. It finds that North African nationals desiring to emigrate were more likely to make concrete migration plans than West African nationals. Aspiring migrants are on average younger, better educated and tend to have a higher income than the rest of the population. They are also more likely to be male and single. This is true both for individuals who desire to emigrate and for individuals who make concrete plans to do so. Less than one in ten persons planning to migrate to Europe is likely to do so. Migrants’ socioeconomic characteristics, migration policies and changing opportunities have an impact on aspiring migrants’ will and possibilities to translate their migration plans into reality. PAPER #4 Vulnerability, subjective well-being, and transnationalism among migrants and natives: A mixed-methods approach AUTHOR(S) Iuna Dones (University of Geneva) Sarah Ludwig-Dehm (University of Geneva) Oana Ciobanu (University of Geneva) ABSTRACT This paper presents the mixed-methods approach of the project "Transnational Ageing among Older Migrants and Natives: A strategy to Overcome Vulnerability" and the methodological challenges faced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project focuses on four populations (65+): 1) Southern Italian migrants living in Switzerland, 2) Southern Italian internal migrants living in Northern Italy, 3) Southern Italian stayers who never left their home regions, and 4) Swiss natives. It aims to understand vulnerability and subjective well-being, and the role of transnationalism for these populations. The study uses a sequential mixed methods design, with a quantitative survey being followed by qualitative interviews. Respondents to the quantitative component are selected using a random stratified sampling method, while those for the qualitative component using a nested sampling design. The purpose of the mixed methods design is development: to employ the findings from the survey to inform the implementation of the interviews. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the project’s timing – the quantitative and qualitative data collections were delayed – and research outcomes. Older adults could already be considered a vulnerable population, and this has become increasingly true due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, questions on stress and social contacts were added to the survey. Additionally, Italy and Switzerland experienced different situations during the pandemic in terms of mortality and confinement measures, which need to be considered when comparing the subjective well-being of these populations. The qualitative interviews will include questions on experiences of well-being during this time to allow for a comparison of the subjective experiences.

author

Oana Ruxandra Ciobanu

University of Geneva

author

Sarah Ludwig-Dehm

University of Geneva

author

Iuna Dones

University of Geneva

author

Daniel Owusu Kyereko

University of Edinburgh

author

Samia Dinkelaker

Osnabrück University

author

Irene Schöfberger

GMDAC

author

Eduardo Acostamadiedo

IOM´s GMDAC

author

Emma Borgnäs

author

Marzia Rango

IOM´s GMDAC

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Migrant Transnationalism 15

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #197 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Marina Lazëri

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Gambian and Senegalese associations in Germany: Integration and transnationalism in times of growing migrant communities Judith Altrogge Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies - Osnabrück University Julia Stier WZB Berlin Social Science Center Hamza Safouane Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies - Osnabrück University Migrant associations are often considered important civil society actors that play a role in both the sending and receiving countries: They can facilitate the integration process of migrants and/or maintain transnational networks. Such a framing of migrant associations is loaded with policy-related understandings that view associations as instruments to enhance integration processes in the receiving country, or foster development projects in the sending country, or even encourage the return of migrants. However, these considerations overlook the perspective of migrant associations themselves as well as that of the communities that they service. First, migrant associations can have contrasted approaches to integration and transnationalism and, consequently, interact with their corresponding community in very different ways, which can potentially diverge from policy goals. In addition, it is important to also consider that the communities themselves are changing and so are their needs. To further delve into the relations between migrant associations and their communities, we discuss in this article the case of Senegalese and Gambian associations in Germany. The case of Senegalese and Gambian migrants in Germany is particularly relevant because the size of these communities has grown significantly in recent years. Between 2012 and 2017, the rates of Senegalese and Gambian migrants coming to Germany respectively doubled and more than quadrupled. Beyond the sheer size of the Senegalese and Gambian communities, the more recently-arrived migrants might have different needs than those who are already established. Their residence status as well as their economic prospects in Germany are often very precarious. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 associations of both Senegalese and Gambians migrants all over Germany, we examine here the extent to which this specific associative landscape has evolved to reflect the dynamics of their corresponding community. === Transnational Migrant Philanthropy: The Commitment of Tamils in Germany and the United Kingdom in Reconstructing the Health Care System in Post-War Sri Lanka since 2009 Sascha Krannich Giessen University Numerous hospitals got destroyed during the war in Sri Lanka (1983-2009), and many Tamil doctors and medical students left the country, half of the posts in Tamil health institutions became vacant. The health structures in Tamil regions are not recovered from the war yet, although health care plays a major role in development policies in Sri Lanka. Many Tamil migrant organizations recognized that it is important to focus not only on political or economic development in Tamil regions, but also on health improvements. They found larger umbrella organizations in Western countries, including the Tamils Health Organization (THO) and the Hospital Development Association (HDA). This raises the question of what role does the Tamil diaspora actually play in the process of rebuilding the health care system in Tamil regions of Sri Lanka after the war since 2009? Based on preliminary qualitative research in Germany and the United Kingdom, I argue that approaches to health development differ among Tamils abroad: While the first generation refuses to cooperate with the Sri Lankan state in their specific projects in selected Tamil communities, the second generation takes a broader and more pragmatic approach by cooperating with state and other actors in their countrywide development activities. Furthermore, British Tamil doctors are organized in larger transnational health networks, whereas the German ones operate individually or in smaller organizations to realize their health projects in Sri Lanka. === Intersection of Class, Gender and Ethnicity: A Micro-Ethnographic exploration of the Female Chinese Transnational Entrepreneurs in Birmingham, UK Rachel Hu University of Birmingham Dr Laurence Lessard-Phillips University of Birmingham Prof Kiran Trehan University of York Emerging from two decades ago as a nuanced business format, Transnational Enterprises (TE), especially Small Transnational Enterprises (STE), spread rapidly worldwide while how immigrant transnational entrepreneurs exploit cross-border mechanisms and resources pertains mysteries current entrepreneurship theories fail to explain (You and Zhou, 2018). Further, despite the fast-growing migratory pattern of TEs worldwide, the socioeconomic contribution of immigrant enterprises still tends to be overshadowed by the increasing anti-immigration politics and public discourse in Europe and beyond ((Zapada-Berraro and Rezaei, 2020). More timely and empirical research are called for to fully establish and comprehend the benefits of TEs. To address the particularly marginalised research void of female immigrant entrepreneurship (Audretsch et al, 2017), this paper focuses on a purposefully selected STE run by a female Chinese immigrant entrepreneur (FCIE) based in Birmingham, aiming to contribute nuanced research perspectives to the TE studies. The micro-ethnographic case study methodology (Fusch et al, 2017) is implemented to capture the rich depiction of the ‘everyday entrepreneurship’ the FCIE engrosses within a shortened period and a particular space restricted by the COVID pandemic. Illuminating the FCIE’s transnational practices from the micro, meso and macro level, this paper endeavours to fully understand the how FCIE exploits socioeconomic resources from both home and host countries. Under the lens of Intersectionality (Dy et al, 2016), this paper reveals how the combination of more fluid and hidden social factors including class, gender, and ethnicity influences the levels and results of the STE under the current transnational climate. === “But I am not like them!” (Trans)forming boundaries among Middle Eastern Immigrants in Germany Ali Niroumand BIM Humboldt University Firoozeh Farvardin BIM Humboldt University Nader Talebi BIM Humboldt University Golriz Esmaeilpour Brandenburg University of Technology The research explores inter-migrants’ racism in Germany through a transnational lens. It draws on boundary-making approaches and intersectionality to demonstrate how racist discourses both of the home/transit and destination societies are adapted, re-interpreted and enacted by certain migrant groups to differentiate themselves as “good” migrants from the ethnically/racially/culturally marked “bad” ones. It asks what conditions limit immigrants’ boundary making strategies. The research also discusses how transnational forms of community (trans-)formation can emerge as a strategy to tackle racism in Germany including inter-migrants’ racism. We focus on the main Middle Eastern migrants (Syrians, Afghans, Iranians) with 15 in-depth semi-structured interviews with civil society experts and activists who closely work with and/or are themselves of those immigrant groups. The preliminary results suggest that five factors condition the boundary-making strategies of immigrants: Institutional environments (e.g., migration policies of the states); intersectional power relations (e.g., ethnicity, gender, class); sociopolitical networks (e.g., political alliances); spatio-temporal elements (e.g., sites of confrontation and past experiences). Also, five major forms of boundary-making by immigrants can be distinguished: Bonding across the line of similarities, for instance common language or religion; bonding with majority society through appropriating discourses in Germany on “good” migrant; bonding based on minority positions e.g. sexual minorities; bonding based on the pre-migration boundaries and overemphasizing differences; disassociating from the assigned boundaries to Middle Eastern migrants in Germany. The outcome of above-mentioned strategies is the broad spectrum with two poles: intermigrant racism and transnational antiracist spaces/communities. === Transnational migration and cultural hybridization among migrant communities in Zimbabwe France Maphosa University of Botswana Grascious Maviza National University of Science and Technology Migration from Zimbabwe to South Africa is not a new phenomenon. This is a result a combination of economic, political, socio-cultural and historical factors. The movement of people from Zimbabwe to South Africa has always been circulatory in nature, where the migrants do not cut ties with their communities of origin. They are connected to their communities to through frequently visits, communication, remittances and investments. On retirement, most of the migrants return to their communities of origin to settle. The concept of transnationalism has only begun to be used in the describing the movement between Zimbabwe and South Africa. This type of movement however squarely fits the description of transnationalism. Transnational migration creates the possibility of cultural change in the migrants’ communities of origin (Chavez, 2006). As they move between places, people encounter and adopt new ways of life that they bring back to their communities of origin. They carry cultural symbols which include language, dress, music and religious beliefs. Migration researchers have developed the concept of “cultural hybridization” to describe this phenomenon. This paper presents empirical evidence of cultural hybridization in migrants communities in Zimbabwe.

author

Judith Altrogge

University of Osnabrueck

author

Julia Stier

Berlin Social Science Center (WZB)

author

Hamza Safouane

Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies

author

Sascha Krannich

FokoS University Siegen

author

Rachel Hu

University of Birmingham

author

Laurence Lessard-Phillips

University of Birmingham

author

Kiran Trehan

University of York

author

Ali Niroumand

Humboldt Innovation

author

Firoozeh Farvardin

BIM Humboldt University

author

Golriz Esmaeilpour

Brandenburg University of Technology

author

France Maphosa

University of Botswana

author

Grascious Maviza

National University of Science and Technology

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Quantitative Analyses: Traditional and Emerging Datasets

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #198 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Steffen Pötzschke

GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences

PAPER #1 Where have all the vehicles gone? - Counting Cars from Space to Monitor Internal Displacement AUTHOR(S) Ingmar Weber (Qatar Computing Research Institute) Shankar Kumar (College of Engineering, Guindy) Amin Sadeghi (Qatar Computing Research Institute) Ferda Ofli (Qatar Computing Research Institute) ABSTRACT Data on international migration often suffers from quality issues related to (i) lack of timeliness and delays in new data becoming available, (ii) differences in definitions and methodologies used in different host countries, and (iii) difficulties in measuring flows and stocks of undocumented migrants. Despite these challenges, due to the fact that an international border is crossed, many structures are in place to enable some level of monitoring and control. This is in contrast to internal displacement, where good data on people leaving their homes due to disasters or conflicts, while remaining within the borders of their residence country, is even harder to obtain. As the displaced population is free to move within their country’s borders, and as there are not necessarily incentives or or even mechanisms for them to register, corresponding monitoring structures typically do not exist. In this work, we explore the use of satellite imagery for augmenting existing methods for estimating internal displacement. Concretely, we apply computer vision to high resolution satellite images from Syria to count the number of vehicles visible in different cities over time. Here we are interested in how these counts change over time, in particular before and after periods of armed conflict. We then validate our findings against known timelines such conflicts, as well as against existing estimates of internal displacement. Preliminary results show that this approach adds value in settings such as Syria and Iraq, where most displacement happens by vehicle and where the skies are mostly cloud-free. PAPER #2 Knowledge base sphere of AI for Migration studies AUTHOR(S) Tuba Bircan (Interface Demography, Vrije Universiteit Brussel) Almila Akdag Salah (Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University) ABSTRACT The concept of Big Data and application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is gaining popularity at many scientific disciplines and migration and mobility studies is not an exception. The potential of Big Data and application of AI techniques to fill some of the gaps in traditional data sources and methods feeds to the advantages of using new data sources for the analysis of migration-related elements. Using AI technologies to analyse Big Data for migration and mobility research recently attracts notable attention of scholars from different disciplines. There have been several studies within disciplines assessing AI applications for migration and mobility related questions. Nevertheless, given the multidisciplinarity of the concepts, the common impact of these articles is not straightforward. This study aims at conducting an elaborate bibliometric study on publications of human mobility and Big Data analytics. Bibliometrics is a research line that studies the evaluation of sciences, by especially focusing on the citations between papers and journals. The resulting citation networks showcase not only how a new concept diffuses into the scientific literature, but also renders the disciplines, and subject areas that are most influenced by it. The bibliometric data for indexed scientific publications in this study is drawn from the Web of Science for the years 2015 and 2020. For analyses, bibliometrics methodology is adopted to map the time trend, the disciplinary/subject distribution, the high-frequency keywords, the topic evolutions, funding institutes, most influential journals and citation impact of the related academic articles. PAPER #3 Setting up Probability-Based Online Panels of Migrants with a Push-to-Web Approach: Aim, scope and design of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) AUTHOR(S) Jean Philippe Décieux (University of Duisburg-Essen) Andreas Genoni (Federal Institute for Population Research) Andreas Ette (Federal Institute for Population Research) Marcel Erlinghagen (University of Duisburg-Essen) ABSTRACT With the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS), we established a new and unique longitudinal data set to investigate consequences of international migration from a life course perspective. This task is challenging, as internationally mobile individuals are hard to survey for different reasons (e.g. sampling design and approach, contact strategy, panel maintenance). GERPS is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and surveys internationally mobile German citizens (recently emigrated abroad or recently re-migrated to Germany; "multi-sited design") in four consecutive waves within a push-to-web online panel design. Based on an origin-based probability sample, GERPS elucidates the individual consequences of cross-border mobility and concentrates on representative longitudinal individual data. This paper introduces the aim, scope and design of our unique push-to-web online panel study. It enables researchers to analyze the individual consequences of international migration along four key dimensions of social inequality: employment and income, well-being and life satisfaction, family and partnership, and social integration. We focus on the effectiveness of our innovative study design by reflecting on register-based sampling, contacting individuals all over the world, and motivation for panel participation within a push-to-web approach. Until now, we successfully conducted three waves (W1: N=12.059, W2: N=7.438, W3: N=6.197). Wave 4 is currently in the field. Given the information available in the population registers, we recruited our respondents by postal mail in wave 1 and "pushed" them to participate in a web survey. In the subsequent waves, we managed to establish GERPS as an online-only panel. Our findings contribute to survey research and offer valuable insights for international researchers interested in surveying migrants and for researchers aiming to implement a push-to-web survey. PAPER #4 Potentials and Limitations of Quantile Regression as a Tool in Migration Research AUTHOR(S) Sebastian E Wenz (GESIS) ABSTRACT Usually, migration researchers turn to traditional regression models that focus on conditional means—e.g., linear regression or hierarchical linear models (HLMs)—when assessing differences between immigrants and natives in metric outcomes, such as test scores in educational assessments, wages, or various measures of health. These models estimate the conditional mean function, E(y|x)= xβ, and, thus, differences between means of immigrants and natives. However, such models ignore that differences between immigrants and natives are not necessarily constant over the distribution. In my contribution I show how quantile regression (Koenker & Bassett 1978, Koenker 2005) provides a convenient way of assessing differences between immigrants and natives beyond the mean by estimating the conditional quantile function, Q_tau(y│x)=xβ_tau. I illustrate the typical use of quantile regression for studying immigrants with an analysis of OECD’s PISA 2018 study. I show that, in many countries, the immigrant native educational achievement gap in quantiles differs remarkably from the mean difference. I discuss potential statistical and substantive explanations for such differences between linear regression models and quantile regression models and show that these differences also vary across countries. I conclude by a brief discussion of the most important limitations or myths around quantile regression: In contrast to popular belief, the traditional quantile regression estimator (Koenker & Bassett 1978, Koenker 2005)—without further assumptions—neither allows inference about particular observations at the quantile under study, nor does it provide estimates that can readily be interpreted as changes in quantiles or differences at quantiles of the unconditional distribution of the outcome.

author

Jean Philippe Décieux

University of Duisburg-Essen

author

Andreas Genoni

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Tuba Bircan

Interface Demography (DEMO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Ingmar Weber

Qatar Computing Research Institute

author

Shankar Kumar

College of Engineering, Guindy

author

Amin Sadeghi

Qatar Computing Research Institute

author

Ferda Ofli

Qatar Computing Research Institute

author

Almila Akdag Salah

Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University

author

Andreas Ette

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Marcel Erlinghagen

University of Duisburg-Essen

author

Sebastian E Wenz

GESIS

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Concepts of migrant integration revisited: processes and stability

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #199 workshop | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

organizer

Louise Ryan

London Metropolitan University

organizer

Jan Skrobanek

University of Bergen

Many existing concepts of integration still retain the central premise that after a certain time different actors (individuals, groups or even nations) somehow resemble one another and become, over the course of the exchange, integrated in a common, more or less stable social body. Against this kind of ‘problem-of-order tradition’, we argue that integration should instead be conceptualized as a never-ending, contingent process of change–stability dynamics, marked by an emergent process of individual as well as institutional adjustment over time. We embark on our discussion with an invitation to critically reflect about the idea of ‘liquid’ modernity, times and society. With the focus on ‘liquid’, we focus on the interwovenness of migrants manoeuvring, their practices and structural dynamics affecting them, in the context of complex mobilities and migrations in a temporal (cross-sectional as well as longitudinal) perspective. Taking into consideration simultaneously occurring contingent institutional adjustments and counter-adjustments it is argued that the analysis of this contingent intersection of individual and structural dynamics at a specific moment in time is crucial for adequately understanding the dynamics of ‘liquid integration’ in the context of local, regional, national and global change. Building on the Horizon2020 project MIMY, this workshop invites us to critically reflect on the concept of ‘integration’ through the lens of other conceptual frameworks. In so doing, we seek to expose the multidimensional complexities and the contingent nature of integrations processes.

participant

zeynep aydar

Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development

participant

Izabela Grabowska

SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mobility Research Group

participant

Anita Harris

Deakin University, Australia

participant

Sarah Ann Spencer

COMPAS

participant

Zsuzsanna Arendas

Central European University

participant

Vera Messing

(1) Center for Social Sciences; (2) Central European University

participant

Amalia Gilodi

University of Luxembourg

participant

José Egidio Oliveira

University of Luxembourg

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Migration, citizenship and political participation 5

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #200 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Mariana Rosca

Academy of Science from Moldova, II

Compatriots from Central Europe and their political participation Zdenek Uherek Institute of Ethnology, Czech Academy of Sciences Veronika Beranská Institute of Ethnology, Czech Academy of Sciences "Transnational political ties between migrants and political forces in their countries of origin are an important political driver in many states around the world. In Central European conditions, this phenomenon can be traced back to the Thirty Years’ War. This trend was further strengthened in 19th and at the beginning of the 20thcentury, when immigration groups in Western Europe and the US played a key role in the architecture of the post-WW I European order and stood at the birth of new states such as Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. With the possibility of organizing virtual meetings, the importance of the influence of immigration groups on events in their countries of origin is growing. The aim of our paper will be an excursion to the current situation in selected Central European countries, where we will be interested in compatriot political participation and its manifestations on the one hand, and the responses of the political representation and the public in the countries of origin on the other. The axis of our contribution will be the Czech Republic after 1989 to the present. As a comparative sample of events in the Czech Republic, we will use data from neighbouring Poland and Slovakia, where migration groups play an even more important role, and Austria, which has a different migration history but has a similar relationship to expatriate communities due to ethnocultural nationalism. In our presentation, we will use data from field ethnographic probes, which we are conducting among compatriots at present." === Immigrant organization and representation in civil society organizations: implications of different models Dr. Vanessa Rau Max Planck Institute Religious Ethnic Diversity Dr. Serhat Karakayali Humboldt Universität zu Berlin Prof. Dr. Hella von Unger LMU München Prof. Dr. Karen Schönwälder MPI MMG Civil society organisations (CSO) are crucial for the formation, aggregation and articulation of interests and political claims. However, the extent to which CSO include immigrants and ethnic minority members differs widely. While scholarship on immigrant parliamentary representation and political parties has expanded, research on the inclusion and participation of migrants in mainstream CSO (as distinct from migrant associations) remains scarce. Our research contributes to filling this gap: Drawing on a three-year research project and extensive qualitative material, the paper outlines different responses in four leading German advocacy organisations. These organisations advocate for the rights of LGBT persons, persons with a disability, employees in the service sector and those infected by HIV. We demonstrate that their modi of inclusion vary, including self-representation and self-organisation but also mainstream inclusion. Forms of presence include migrant groups within or affiliated with the mainstream organisation, dedicated organisational units as well as representation on elected bodies. Against this backdrop, we ask under what conditions do such different forms of presence and representation emerge? What does this say about the organisation and the articulation of immigrant concerns? What are the possibilities and limitations of separate organising? Our examples suggest that separate migrant organising and representation impact organisations, yet might not lead to large-scale inner-organisational transformations in terms of migration-related diversity. === Narratives of statehood or peoplehood? How the European Commission narrates a European community in its migration and citizenship policies Johanna Hase WZB Berlin Since 2019, the European Commission has had a Vice-President with the controversial portfolio of “promoting our European way of life”. However, whether a European “we” exists at all has been at the center of heated public and academic debate. This paper investigates how the Commission has (re)narrated a European people in its migration and citizenship policies. While both are areas of boundary-drawing, the EU is limited in legally institutionalizing these boundaries - even more so in citizenship than in migration policy. Drawing on a longitudinal narrative analysis of key Commission documents since the treaty of Lisbon and interviews with EU officials, the paper compares the development of “European peoplehood” narratives across time and policy areas. It makes a threefold contribution: First, it demonstrates the analytic potential of a narrative approach to studying “European peoplehood”; second, it provides a deeper understanding of the relation between the power to institutionalize narratives and narrative change; and third, it sheds light on what “European way of life” the Commission conveys. === Political Participation of Migrant Women in Italy: An Intersectional Analysis Rosa Gatti University of Naples Federico II Alessio Buonomo University of Naples Federico II Salvatore Strozza University of Naples Federico II Despite the relevance of the gender dimension of immigration, political participation of migrant women rarely been the focus of studies in Italian literature. Using data from the ‘Social condition and integration of foreign citizens’ survey carried out by the National Institute of Statistics in 2011–12, our paper presents an intersectional analysis of migrant women’s political participation in Italy. Starting from the intersectional explanation that recognizes race, gender and class (among other categories of importance) as intersecting political forces, the paper develops the hypothesis that the different intersectional positions of migrant women in Italy determine their different participatory styles in Italian politics. The analysis focus on an intersectional model to show how both race/ethnicity and gender operate jointly to influence how migrant women participate in Italian politics. Using logistics regression models (presented as average marginal effects), first, we explore the degree to which different groups of women engage in Italian politics and, second, applying interactions we verify the intersectional role of social capital and its different effect on the different groups of women. Our results demonstrate that many of the traditional factors associated with high levels of political participation matter less for some groups of migrant women than other and that social capital plays a key role in promoting their political participation at different level. Our results show that Asian women participate less than other groups of migrant women while social capital play a greater burden for African women than other groups of migrant women in spurring political participation. Keywords: Political Participation; Gender; Intersectionality; Migrant Women;Social Capital; Italy.

author

Zdenek Uherek

GEOMIGRACE

author

Veronika Beranská

The Institute of Ethnology of the Czech Academy of Sciences

author

Vanessa Rau

Max-Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversion

author

Serhat Karakayali

Humboldt Universität zu Berlin

author

Hella von Unger

LMU München

author

Karen Schönwälder

Max Planck Institute

author

Johanna Hase

WZB Berlin Social Sciences Center

author

Rosa Gatti

University of Naples Federico II

author

Alessio Buonomo

author

Salvatore Strozza

University of Naples Federico II

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Adapted information to migrant people in European countries: problems and challenges

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #201 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Emmanuelle CANUT

Lille University

chair

Juliette Delahaie

Lille University

Discussant: Laurent Fillietaz (University of Geneva) Newly arrived migrants in Europe master at different levels the language of the host country. This mastering depends mostly on their previous level of education in their original country. At each stage of their integration process, there is a big challenge for these people to find their bearings, to fit into different communication situations and to find the best way for their integration into society. Social and professional integration through language is widely covered in the various European reports. In this context, the European Pathways project, initially aimed at people with intellectual disabilities, has been extended to people in exile or illiteracy. Its objective is to make information more accessible. Social workers refer to the easy to read and understand to try to improve communication with the migrant people they support. However, the question remains if the exchange modalities and the discourses adapted to migrant people are actually more comprehensible. This panel will take an interdisciplinary approach, with contributions from psychology, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics, and deals with the following questions: - how to provide adapted information to different categories of migrants? - how to engage them toward a better understanding of what they are expected to do: workshops, non-linguistic support, simplified text and discourses, specific pedagogical tools, translanguaging practices...? - How does this adaptation of information enable better professional integration, better access to care, etc.? PAPER #1 Engaging migrants in communicating healthcare information: discursive strategies of healthcare communicators as cultural brokers AUTHOR(S) Kaufhold Kathrin (Department of English, Stockholm University (Sweden)) Wirdenäs Karolina (Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Stockholm University (Sweden)) ABSTRACT Pedagogic interventions to improve migrants’ access to healthcare mostly focus on migrants’ health literacy. These interventions often follow information transmission models. A recent approach involves interaction with multilingual, medically trained persons with prior experience of migrating to the country, i.e. healthcare communicators (HCC). This paper reports on a case study at a transcultural centre in Sweden that aims to empower migrants to access healthcare services and make healthy lifestyle choices. The study examines the discursive strategies of the centre’s HCCs during voluntary courses for migrants. It is a communicative activity type analysis (Linell, 2010) of one HCC’s discursive structuring of these interactions. The data consist of two recorded training sessions in easy Swedish including translations across several languages. To understand the pedagogic intentions, we carried out interviews with the centre’s HCCs before and after the sessions. The analysis reveals that the HCC positions himself in various social roles (medic, pedagogue, etc.), which on the one hand underlines his expertise and credibility as cultural broker, and on the other hand encourages the participants’ engagement. The dialogic structure invites participants to contribute to the topic development and provides opportunities for language development as a side effect. Comments by the participants and the HCC suggest that the engagement in the topics leads to changes in lifestyle habits. Linell, P. (2010). Communicatve actvity types as organisations in discourses and discourses in organisations. In S.-K. Tanskanen, M.-L. Helasvuo, M. Johansson & M. Raitaniemi (Eds.), Discourses in interaction (pp. 33–60). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. PAPER #2 Multilingual information for migrant and refugee students in Greek schools: issues of linguistic landscape and educational policy AUTHOR(S) Androulakis George (University of Thessaly, Greece) Kitsiou Roula (University of Thessaly, Greece) Tsioli Sofia (University of Thessaly, Greece) ABSTRACT In an officially monolingual country such as Greece, schools that host students from various migrant and refugee communities face the challenge of adequate, multilingual signage (Brown, 2012; Gorter & Cenoz, 2015), as well as information available to the students’ families. Multilingual information is not a part of official texts for educational policy, but isolated, situated initiatives have transformed some schoolyards and buildings to multilingual landscapes. Reactions to these initiatives are far from unanimously positive, and this remark concerns both teachers and the public opinion. In this paper, we will present the results of ethnographic research (observation, interviews and focus groups) undertaken in 2019 in (and around) six primary and lower secondary schools in Greece, where initiatives of multilingual signage and multilingual information destined to the students’ families had taken place. The main research questions were the following: - what are the margins left by officially proclaimed educational policy to local initiatives aiming at displaying multilingual information? - if and to what extent multilingual information facilitates the inclusion of migrant and refugee to these schools? - how the cases of these schools are perceived by several stakeholders inside and outside the school community? Tentative results show that multilingual signage has a striking influence to the attitudes and beliefs of students, teachers and inhabitants of the schools’ cities, whereas multilingual leaflets or projects are a more covert factor of change. Multilingual information is considered as being placed “just outside the limits of illegality”, but educational authorities show tolerance and do not intend to oppress them, “unless multilingualism upsets the local communities”… PAPER #3 Communication tools for unaccompanied minors : from assessment to support until coming of age AUTHOR(S) Pascal Quesque ABSTRACT To assess foreign person by interview requires language adaptation and supports to understand well and exercise their rights as much as to achieve properly the professionnal's missions, reason why working with the University has allowed to adapt interview's method and written medium PAPER #4 Easy to read and understand for migrant people: an experimental study of text comprehension AUTHOR(S) Canut Emmanuelle (University of Lille - STL UMR CNRS 8163 (France)) Delahaie Juliette (University of Lille - STL UMR CNRS 8163 (France)) ABSTRACT Our communication reports on a study on the comprehension of written documents by migrants with a level of French below B2. These documents deal with the topics of administrative and legal life in France (original documents from the administration or host structures, legal and medical informations). The level of understanding of these documents has an impact on the integration of migrant people, on their social behaviour according to the rules and codes of the host society (Taché, 2018). Our aim is to show that the content of these documents is very poorly accessible for migrants, even texts written according to the Easy-to-Read principles (European standards https://easy-to-read.eu/fr/projects/, Freyhoff & al.); therefore, some additional criteria have to be taken into account (Nietzio & al., 2012; Paetzold, 2015; Siddharthan, 2014; Yano, 1994). Our experiment aims to explore these criteria through 5 stages: 1) identification with the migrants of the difficulties encountered in the texts, including those that have adopted the Easy-to-Read principles; 2) a linguistic study of the documents based on a reference system developed to complement the Easy-to-Read principles (Canut & al., 2020); 3) a rewriting of the texts; 4) Development of a comprehension questionnaire; 5. A test session with 60 migrants. The results of this experiment show that texts written according to the linguistic criteria identified in our reference framework facilitate better comprehension PAPER #5 Didactic engineering for access to literacy and professional integration of migrants AUTHOR(S) Husianycia Magali (Association AsFoRel/ATILF-CNRS) Royer Sabrina (University of Lille, France) ABSTRACT The professional integration of migrants is linked to the appropriation of language skills. At each stage of the integration process, professional culture necessarily involves learning about language structures in context (understanding of complex administrative documents, procedures, instructions for use) but also through the use of digital interfaces (applications registration for administrative procedures for job search, professional contact but also for the follow-up of professional tasks thereafter). How can we build tools with learners to develop this access to the transliteracy skills? Based on a holistic approach to the learner (recordings of interactions in the classroom, semi-structured interviews), this contribution will present the impact of two tools for working on these questions of literacy in the language class. Their objective is to provide these groups with access to literacy and to facilitate their professional integration. Two studies will be presented: - the development of a linguistic repository proposing specific linguistic criteria in order to (re) write adapted, understandable texts. These criteria are developed both from oral data recognized by allophone speakers and from scientific researches. - the creation of a smartphone application (Migra-Pro). It allowed learners to master professional lexicon, and at the same time to create digital habits in order to prepare them for handling the interfaces necessary for integration into employment. These tools made it possible to overcome a certain number of difficulties by acting on two levers with the learners: 1) support in their learning; 2) adaptability of literacy by offering texts that are closer to their development zone.

discussant

Laurent Filliettaz

University of Geneva

author

Kathrin Kaufhold

Stockholm University

author

Karolina Wirdenäs

Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Stockholm University

author

George Androulakis

University of Thessaly

author

Kitsiou Roula

University of Thessaly, Greece

author

Tsioli Sofia

University of Thessaly, Greece

author

Magali HUSIANYCIA

ASFOREL

author

Pascal Quesque

author

Sabrina Royer

University of Lille

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Superdiversity, migration & Cultural change 3

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #202 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Vinod Sartape

Central European University

Muslim brothers or disloyal Arabs: Nationalism and racialized othering of refugees in Turkey ÜLKÜ GÜNEY University of Innsbruck My presentation aims to explore the perception of Syrian and Iraqi, Muslim refugees by local people of a small city in Turkey. Based on the fieldwork data, I will look at the ways along which cultural, social, and political categories Muslim refugees are constructed as the racialized Other in a Muslim-majority country. Employing the concept of racialization that is implicated with the notion of the “Other”, I intend to reflect on partly contrasting expressions of the interviewees, oscillating between the rhetoric of ‘Muslim brotherhood’ and nationalist /chauvinistic discourses of fatherland and loyalty. The results indicate that in Turkey, Muslimness is not the primary category of the racialization of Syrian and Iraqi refugees. This undocking of Muslimness from racialized representations can be seen as the major difference to western representations. However, the othering process operates through nationalistic and patriotic discourses. This is expressed in the narratives of the interviewees via the leitmotifs such as war, fatherland, patriotism, loyalty, martyrdom, etc. Hence, my primary argument is that the othering process excludes Muslimness and operates rather through other referential markers such as ethnicity (Arab) and culture employing nationalistic and chauvinistic discourses. === Turkish Mosque Students Negotiating Identities and Belonging in the Netherlands Semiha Sözeri Utrecht University Hülya Kosar Altinyelken University of Amsterdam This study explores the perspectives of Turkish mosque students in the Netherlands with regard to their sense of belonging and multiple identities. Three interrelated concepts are central to the analyses in the study: social capital, sense of belonging, and identity. The study is based on 29 semi-structured interviews conducted between March and December 2017 with Turkish-Dutch mosque students. The findings revealed that mosque students prioritized their Muslim identity over their national belonging regardless of whether they self-identified as bi-cultural or not. However, the majority expressed stronger belonging to the Netherlands than Turkey, and seemed to be successful in combining their different cultural and religious identities without experiencing distress. This is an important finding considering that the sample of children in this study is likely to have much higher levels of Islamic religiosity than their Turkish-Dutch peers who do not attend mosque education. Future research investigating the role of Islam in the lives of Turkish-Dutch children and Muslim children with other ethnic backgrounds who do not attend mosque classes might shed more light onto this. The findings, however, also indicate that there is a group of mosque students who do struggle with growing up between two cultures. This is also reflected in the results about interethnic friendships: although most children report that background does not matter for them when making friends, the great majority of them are friends with co-ethnics regardless of whether they meet them in the mosque or at school. The preference for co-ethnic friendships should be interpreted cautiously as residential and school segregation are significant challenges for contact with native Dutch peers. Student experiences of exclusion in attempts to make Dutch friends, Islam-related discrimination and bullying at school, are seen as significant obstacles to children’s sense of belonging and identification as Dutch. === Religious diversity and migrations. Research trends in Spain Gorka Urrutia Asua Human Rights Institute, University of Deusto Trinidad L. Vicente Human Rights Institute, University of Deusto Spain has been exposed during the last decades to a qualitative change in its socio-religious composition, evolving from a mainly catholic country to a more diverse one, equating to other European societies. Several elements have contributed in this direction, starting with the political change occurred in the late 70’s with the opening to a democracy and the recognition of human rights as the freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Since then, first with the implantation of other religions (different to Catholicism) and secondly with the increase of religions and their members, the landscape has been slightly modified. One of the phenomena that has contributed to it is the migratory changes occurred at the end of XXth century and beginning of the XXIst century. Many scholars have been focusing their work at either religious changes of the Spanish society or the impact of immigration processes in the country. There have been also several contributions that combined migration and religious diversity issues. This paper aims to contribute in this direction exposing the results of the analysis of the PhD research projects conducted in during the last two decades on this issue. === Volunteering as a means of fostering intercultural relations. Evidence from an in-depth analysis in two European contexts Andrea Carla EURAC Research Marie Lehner Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences Astrid Mattes-Zippenfenig Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences Ursula Reeger Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences Previous research on volunteering and its interplay with migration and social cohesion has produced manifold and to some extent ambivalent results. This relationship has often been seen in problematic terms and considered to be unidirectional with migrants seen as passive recipients of voluntary activities (Ambrosini 2020). However, migrants in fact are active subjects in volunteering and some scholars see a need to shift perspective and highlight the phenomenon of volunteering by people with a migrant background. The list of reasons to engage in volunteering among migrants includes gaining a foothold in the new place and socializing with people among the most important ones (Cattacin and Domening 2014). Intercultural relations can be fostered by concrete contacts in the sphere of volunteering with migrants bringing in cultural opening and intercultural skills as valuable impulses. We intend to contribute to the understanding of the role that youth volunteering plays in society in general, and in regards to the process of societal integration more specifically. We do so by presenting an innovative empirical study, based on interviews conducted at two points in time over a period of 13 months. A specific project setting brought together EU and third country nationals in volunteering activities in the realm of arts and sports in Vienna and the Italian province of South Tyrol. Thereby, we are able to provide an in-depth account of volunteering experiences and their effects on intercultural relations. More specifically, this analysis aims at (1) revealing the interaction between volunteerism and individuals’ human, cultural and social capital and (2) shedding light on the effects on the participants’ intercultural understanding and interpersonal contacts.

author

Andrea Carlà

EURAC Research - Institute for minority rights

author

Ülkü Güney

Karl-Franzens Universität, Graz

author

Semiha Sözeri

University of Amsterdam

author

Hülya Altinyelken

University Amsterdam

author

Trinidad Lourdes Vicente

University of Deusto

author

Gorka Urrutia

DEUSTO

author

Marie Lehner

Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences

author

Astrid Mattes-Zippenfenig

Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences

author

Ursula Reeger

ISR

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The age of rights for migrants too? Reflections on migration and the law in the XXI century

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #203 workshop | SC Migration Politics and Governance

organizer

Paola Pannia

University of Florence

organizer

Veronica Federico

Università degli Studi di Firenze

Migration law is a highly contested terrain, both at national and at supranational levels. It is a terrain where the notions of the rule of law, multilevel governance, multilevel protection of fundamental rights, but also legal certainty and predictability, all basic defining features of contemporary constitutionalism, have come at odds with the reality of legal frameworks too often characterised by fragmentation, incoherence, and sometimes also disrespect for fundamental rights. And yet, the law remains one the most powerful instruments to induce and support social change in democratic societies, and it can be an exceptional enabler when it provides people with safe entry channels, secure legal statuses, and a reliable system of rights vindication. Drawing together migration legal scholars from diverse specialization fields, the workshop intends to critically discuss the multiple, and complex dimensions of the relationship between the law and migration. In a typical workshop style, the round-table discussion will stem from the following questions: How and to what extent does the law affect migration and migrants’ lives? Are there common trends in contemporary European national migration laws? What is their impact on the separation of powers, the rule of law and the basic axioms of constitutionalism? Do the Courts have a role to play? Where are we with the European Common Asylum System?

participant

Tesseltje de Lange

Radboud University

participant

Dora Kostakopoulou

Warwick University

participant

Madalina Moraru

Masaryk University

participant

Rebecca Thorburn Stern

Uppsala University

participant

Jean-Pierre Gauci

British Institute of International and Comparative Law

participant

Markus Gonzalez Beilfuss

Universitat de Barcelona

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Education & Social Inequality 4

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #204 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Gao Wang

Second language acquisition and the self-concepts of refugees – A longitudinal biographical approach to refugees‘ language learning in Germany Anne Staver NIBR/OsloMet Tone Maia Liodden NIBR/OsloMet Internationalization is an important ambition of and for the Norwegian higher education sector; and many Norwegian universities vocally affirmed their wish to contribute to refugee inclusion after the 2015 “refugee crisis”. Formal education and qualifications are increasingly seen as prerequisites for immigrants to enter into and stay in the labor market. One might expect a link to be drawn between different ambitions for internationalization, inclusion and training, yet it appears that the reality is nearly opposite. How can this be? This article takes as its starting point an empirical project carried out in order to assess whether Norwegian language instruction for highly skilled refugees and migrants should be transferred from municipalities to higher education institutions. The project revealed that admission criteria function to effectively bar migrant students from accessing these institutions. In particular, the English language requirement – which is tied to internationalization – was a barrier against entry for many refugees. Moreover, the results based management structures in higher education work against creating e.g. language programs. This article seeks to identify the barriers to access and the mechanisms which have lead some inclusion initiatives to fail in practice. Furthermore, it considers the situation in light of discourses on internationalization in higher education; contending that refugee inclusion is not seen as a form of internationalization in the same way as e.g. student exchange. If it were, institutions might have further incentives to facilitate inclusion. === Second language acquisition and the self-concepts of refugees – A longitudinal biographical approach to refugees‘ language learning in Germany Stefan Bernhard Institute for Employment Research This presentation deals with the host language acquisition of refugees and how it intertwines with learners’ self-concepts. Extant research identified key drivers of migrants’ second language acquisition, such as age, education or duration of stay in the host country. Despite decades of research, relatively little is known about the actual processes of refugees’ host language learning from the perspective of those learning. Against this backdrop, I lay out a longitudinal biographical approach to second language acquisition. In particular, I focus on how learning experiences feed into the self-concepts of refugee learners. I argue that learning experiences affect refugees’ self-concepts and through these concepts their further biographical trajectories in host countries. The data originates from two waves of narrative biographical interviews with of Syrian refugees in Germany. === The role of Continuing Professional Development in creating Teacher Agency for Social Cohesion: The case of post-apartheid South Africa Joyce Raanhuis Centre for International Teacher Education, Cape Peninsula University of Technology This paper explores how teachers in post-apartheid South Africa experience Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes to promote social cohesion within their diverse classrooms. Despite the advent of political democracy in 1994 and the subsequent transformative education agenda, the defining features of colonisation and apartheid, namely racial segregation and inequity, still remain entrenched in the society. Although there are numerous policy initiatives in South Africa that address issues of social cohesion in education, and teachers’ roles in promoting this agenda, CPD for social cohesion in South Africa is a neglected area of research, despite its importance for building peaceful and tolerant societies. This qualitative research draws upon empirical evidence of three CPD interventions that have been facilitated in Cape Town. A realist methodological framework (Pawson & Tilley 1997) is used to analyse three social cohesion focused CPD programmes. The paper draws on empirical data from fieldwork in seven diverse high schools in Cape Town. The data derives from teacher surveys; classroom and programme observations; documentary analyses; and semi-structured interviews with teachers, principals, policymakers, CPD programme managers and facilitators regarding the selected social cohesion CPD programmes. The paper emphasises on how CPD programmes in a post-apartheid context are experienced by high school teachers who work in various contexts and how such programmes enhance or limit teachers’ agency of social cohesion. The findings of the paper point to the importance of CPD to promote social cohesion, its context-sensitive nature, and challenges of implementation in diverse classroom settings. === Diversity and cultural encounters at an Italian university: exploring social representations and individual paths of migrant students Laura Soledad Norton Sapienza University of Rome Mauro Sarrica Sapienza University of Rome Globalization, migration and internationalisation of Universities have contributed to enhance the mobility of students at tertiary level, a phenomenon that is rather tangible when looking at “international students”. This group of students, although often treated as a homogeneous one, gathers many different profiles that have specific motivations and intentions. Thus, academic performance (or dropouts), (il)legal status recognition and/or renewal, social ex/inclusion, participation and empowerment (or structural violence and discrimination) are some of the factors that can foster - or hinder – an international (and migratory) experience. In the case of international students at Italian universities, recent studies have shown that this group is rather heterogeneous. This paper explores the cultural encounters that take place at campus and the social construction of diversity in the students’ experiences at a large Italian university. It also deals with the role of universities in promoting inclusivity and fostering participation and empowerment of migrant students. Qualitative methodology was used to explore the discursive construction of social representations as well as identity, belonging and discrimination issues related to the migratory experiences. Results concern both the institutional perspective and the students’ perspective, revealing an imbalance of power that, in some cases, led to complaint/conflict with the host university. The students’ identity emerges as an intercultural one and, as such, constructed, negotiated and contested (Mantovani, 2004). Recommendations concern the necessity of enhancing university policies and services towards the real needs of international students.

author

Anne Balke Staver

Oslo Metropolitan University

author

Tone Maia Liodden

NIBR/OsloMet

author

Stefan Bernhard

Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg/Germany

author

Joyce Raanhuis

Centre for International Teacher Education, Cape Peninsula University of Technology

author

Laura Soledad Norton

Sapienza University of Rome

author

Mauro Sarrica

Sapienza University of Rome

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Return Migration 2

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #205 panel | RI Revisiting Return Migration in Shifting Geopolitics

chair

Hannah van den Brink

Migration return to Portugal from France and the UK: socioeconomic indicators and return intentions Filipa Pinho Centro de Estudos Sociais da Universidade de Coimbra/Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra José Carlos Marques CICS.NOVA.IPLeiria/Polythecnic Institute of Leiria Pedro Góis Faculdade de Economia e Centro de Estudos Sociais, Universidade de Coimbra/Faculty of Economics and Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra Portuguese out-migration intensified with the economic crisis, the unemployment growth and the austerity measures, particularly since 2011. Recently (before the pandemic), Portugal restarted a cycle of positive growth and the return of Portuguese emigrants, particularly of those who left the country after 2000, entered the research agenda. In this presentation, within the scope of a Portuguese project on return migration, we aim to analyse, on one hand, socioeconomic indicators or push-pull factors in France, UK and Portugal, such as employment rate, GDP in PPS, national minimum wages, housing prices, among others, which altogether frame recent return migration intentions and/or decision processes from the UK and France and, per se, do not seem to favour the return of economic migrants. On the other hand, we illustrate, with data on a survey to Portuguese immigrants on those countries, the reasons underlying the emigration, rates of return intentions, and reasons for return (or not return). Some exploratory data based on interviews to returnees, conducted also under the same project, seem to point out to returns in which the origin country (Portugal), family and emotional ties are most valued, over competitive (dis)advantages that the return means in economic terms. Migrant trajectories show that return is not a bounded and closed process, what is partially due to the easiness of the European free movement area, particularly in the case of the “new” migrants (those who left Portugal after 2000). We will compare these exploratory results from interviews with preliminary results of the above mentioned survey and discuss the importance of “affective” ties and economic factors on intended and actual return migration. === “Then” and “now”: Romanian returnees contemplating re-migration Laura Morosanu University of Sussex Alin Croitoru Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu Monica Serban Research Institute for the Quality of Life, Romanian Academy This paper examines re-migration considerations amongst Romanian returnees from various European countries, drawing on 120 interviews with participants aged 20-40. Whilst returnees’ motivations and reintegration experiences are increasingly well documented, much less is known about the re-migration intentions of those who have moved back to the country of origin for some time. Yet, ongoing mobility and re-migration are common phenomena (White 2014), and offer unique insight into returnees’ adaptation, life trajectories, and aspirations. Our paper contributes to this under-researched area by exploring how young Romanian returnees think and talk about re-migration. We pay specific attention to how economic and family circumstances shape re-migration considerations in the case of students, higher- and lower-skilled workers. We find that re-migration considerations are often informed by a comparison between “then” and “now”, whereby returnees compare where in life they are now, in terms of age, work, and family circumstances, to then, when they initially migrated. In contrast to the more experimental and spontaneous moves undertaken in the past, reflections on re-migration indicate much more careful assessment and clearly defined parameters, dictated by returnees’ different and increasingly complex life circumstances. In many cases, re-migration thus depends heavily on the promise of employment security, financial and professional rewards, and/or opportunities for family members abroad. Our findings extend life-course perspectives on migration, showing how transitions to adulthood in the sphere of work and family crucially shape returnees’ re-migration intentions, and im/mobility more generally, in conjunction with previous experiences abroad, transnational connections, and life on return. === The road less travelled: Voluntary return migration to Bosnia and Herzegovina –obstacles, reintegration strategies, and sustainability Aida Ibričević Center for Diaspora Studies - Sarajevo School of Science and Technology/Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) - Global Fellowship Program This paper looks at voluntary return migration to Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), a post-conflict society. The people this study attempts to understand are part of a small cohort in absolute terms, and particularly small relative to the staggering numbers of people either leaving or trying to leave the same home state, with one of the highest net emigration rates in the world (Collyer, 2013). Their return is “decided or chosen” (Cassarino, 2008), as each one of the participants in the study had the option of staying in the host state, as they have attained full citizenship status with a viable livelihood alternative and a well-integrated social presence abroad. There was also neither any direct political, economic or social pressure for them to return nor were they a part of an assisted return program. They are of full working age, still in the process of building their retirement plans and thus, the decision to return to BiH also entailed a considerable amount of direct financial risk. The circumstances of their departure from BiH were in most cases violent and traumatic, while their years of life as a refugee in the host state were filled with other kinds of struggle. After managing to re-build their shattered lives abroad, they decided to come back. Based on thematic analysis of 35 in-depth interviews conducted with returning diaspora members, this paper firstly examines the obstacles they faced and reintegration strategies they developed. Secondly, given the available and often considered option of re-emigration, an investigation of how the returnees perceive the success of their return projects gives a sense of the overall sustainability of this type of return migration. === Do policy choices in the past shape choices made today? A focus on assisted return programmes in Europe Simona Schreier Danube University Krems Austria The assisted voluntary return and reintegration (AVRR) programmes concepts and practices have undergone major changes playing an increasingly important role in the migration policies of European countries. Due to the lack of reliable data on return, the impact of the different migration policies on return migration is poorly understood. Return of irregular migration is typically organised by European governments in close cooperation with international and non-governmental organisations. This research paper offers an in-depth policy analysis of the historical evolution of these return programmes. We identify both actors and policies of European host countries towards countries of origin, hereby addressing the complex interplay of political and economic factors in the short and long run. This paper takes a historical institutionalist approach to understand, and in part, to explain, the development of assisted return in Europe and traces the process through different time periods as it looks for the presence of a path dependency shaped through (inter)governmental programmes. By using the DEMIG Policy database (2015) it further assesses national AVRR programmes across Europe, while exploring the shifts or critical junctures in more detail for the period 1945-2018. Based on longitudinal information, this paper finds that the sequencing, timing of policymaking and internal and external institutional shifts, have had an impact on the degree of assisted return policy changes in different European countries. Additionally, the paper provides valuable insights for policymakers and contributes to the historical-comparative academic literature on return migration.

author

Alin Croitoru

author

Laura Morosanu

University of Sussex

author

Pedro Góis

University of Coimbra

author

Aida Ibričević

author

Filipa Pinho

Centro de Estudos Sociais - Universidade de Coimbra

author

Jose Carlos Marques

Polytechnic Institute Leiria

author

Monica Serban

Research Institute for the Quality of Life, Romanian Academy

author

Simona Schreier

Danube University Krems Austria

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Meeting the Editors: Migrations in History

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #206 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

machteld venken

University of Luxembourg

Chair: Machteld Venken Discussant: Maddalena Marinari This panel presents the new De Gruyter Book Series 'Migrations in History'. First, two editors of the series present the thematic focus of the series. Then, the public will listen to a presentation of the series' first volume: Delphine Diaz & Sylvie Aprile (eds.) Banished: traveling the roads of exile in nineteenth-century Europe (2021). Afterwards, Rabea Rittgerodt, acquisition editor at De Gruyter, explains the review process and other practical issues related to publishing a book with De Gruyter. PAPER #1 Banished: traveling the roads of exile in nineteenth-century Europe AUTHOR(S) Delphine Diaz (University of Reims) ABSTRACT 'Banished' is the first volume that will be published in the new De Gruyter Book Series 'Migrations in History'. While “every history worthy of the name is contemporary”, that of the nineteenth-century refuges going into exile and circulating throughout Europe and beyond no doubt resonates strongly with the topical phenomenon of migration. By re-examining the history of Europeans on the move, or more precisely Europeans obliged to move, this book investigates exile on a continent which, in the nineteenth century, witnessed intense circulation by banished individuals. From the outset, these exiles consistently modified social equilibriums, sparked political changes in the lands of departure, transit, and refuge, triggering reactions of attachment, distrust, or rejection even in the places where they found asylum. Without seeking to compare the past and the present term by term, this book endeavors to shed light on other “asylum crises” associated with exiles and refugees that Europe experienced after the end of the Napoleonic wars. Studying them suggests we should relativize the supposedly unparalleled nature of the contemporary situation. Furthermore, this book strives to show that this history of exile and asylum in nineteenth-century Europe was never a purely and exclusively European phenomenon. PAPER #2 Publishing your book with De Gruyter AUTHOR(S) Rabea Rittgerodt (De Gruyter) ABSTRACT In this contribution, acquisition editor Rabea Rittgerodt from de Gruyter Publishing House provides an overview of the practical issues related to getting your book published in the new Book Series 'Migrations in History' of De Gruyter. She explains how a book proposal can be composed, how the double blind peer review process takes place, and how the manuscript is later processed (typesetting, proofreading, making an index, promoting your book...). PAPER #3 Book Series 'Migrations in History' AUTHOR(S) Anna Mazurkiewicz (University of Gdansk) ABSTRACT The Book Series 'Migrations in History' focusses on migration in historical context. It includes monographs and edited volumes that investigate any aspect of migration on any time period and from any region of the world. Submissions explore migration in comparative perspective, investigate the memory of migration, and study migration as a process that unfolds across countries of departure, arrival, and transit. We prioritize work from scholars who frame their work historically. The purpose of this series is to draw attention to the historical roots of current global patterns of migration and debates over its broader ramifications.

discussant

Maddalena Marinari

Gustavus Adolphus College

author

Delphine Diaz

Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne / Institut universitaire de France

author

Rabea Rittgerodt

De Gruyter

author

Anna Mazurkiewicz

University of Gdańsk

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[Deleted session]

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #207 panel |

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[Deleted session]

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #208 panel |

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Opening the debate: reflections on ethics practices in research with refugees and migrants in Latin America

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #209 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Patrícia Nabuco Martuscelli

University of São Paulo

chair

Marcia Vera Espinoza

Queen Mary University of London

Latin America has a long tradition of researching migration and asylum. Despite the vast literature produced by these scholars, discussions about researchers’ ethical practices are quite recent. The increase of migration in Latin America has also translated into a growing academic production in relation to migration and refugee studies. This panel opens the discussion about current and emerging ethical discussions in the process of knowledge production about migration by researchers from and within the region. Understanding the ethics of research is a key methodological debate to be included in any discussion of people's migration experiences. How reflexive we are of the extractive nature of research, and the negotiation of access and interests of both researchers and participants, are pivotal while trying to understand the complexity of migration experiences. The papers in the panel discuss these and other issues, including working with NGOs and elite workers, researchers’ positionality, and the use of online methodologies. Latin America has its own developments on asylum and migration which demands specific attention when conducting research with migrants and refugees in the region. We contribute to this debate through an interdisciplinary ethical dialogue that goes beyond the challenges and best-practices of Global North researchers conducting their studies in the Global South. PAPER #1 Ethical and methodological challenges of conducting an ethnography among ‘refugee-elites’ in Brazil AUTHOR(S) Natalia Cintra (PUC-Rio and University of Southampton) ABSTRACT Research concerning refugees normally involves methodological decisions that choose to incorporate refugees’ ‘voices’ within it. A little less common are investigations aiming to look more intimately at how decisions are made, focusing on the perspective of decision-makers, bureaucrats, elite workers, individuals with higher political power. Being able to access closed-door meetings, to offer a perspective on the daily political plays and struggles that reverberate on how refugees are produced, managed, seen and controlled, offers rich grounds for research analysis that shift the viewpoint from refugees’ own experiences to how decisions are made, why, and what are the main elements that involve decision-making. Such shift in perspective, however, comes with great difficulties in accessing information, normally only allowed to those already working in and within the established Brazilian refugee-system. This was the backdrop of my own ethnography, in which I not only observed, but also acted and interacted in the field as both researcher and a refugee lawyer. I thus hope to share the main ethical decisions and questions arising from my PhD observation-intervention, my double-role in and within the field, the difficulties in navigating a highly hierarchical system, and the political involvement that presents a number of ethical and methodological challenges. PAPER #2 Ethical and methodological reflections of research on refugees and family reunification in Brazil AUTHOR(S) Patricia Nabuco Martuscelli (NUPRI/USP) ABSTRACT Ethical discussions have become key to Refugee Studies. New approaches advocate that refugees should be seen as subjects and even peer-researchers instead of objects. Most of this literature focuses on resettled refugees in developed countries or refugee camps in Global South countries. Recommendations and experiences of researchers in the Global North do not completely understand the challenges and opportunities of researchers from the Global South conducting research on refugees. This paper discusses my experience of conducting a “do-no-harm” research with 20 semi-structured phenomenological interviews with refugees in the city of São Paulo between August and October 2018. These interviews allowed me to understand the lived experience of refugees that asked for family reunification in a first asylum country in the Global South. They also demanded new ethical and methodological decisions and dialogues. This research experience contributes to this literature on ethics and refugee studies by bringing new ethical and methodological reflections considering trust-building, sampling, reflexivity and confidentiality. PAPER #3 How much do we need to know? Lessons from conducting ‘Operational Research’ within a Non-Governmental Organization AUTHOR(S) Nuni Jorgensen (Queen Mary University of London) ABSTRACT Non-Governmental Organizations, due to their privileged access to hard-to-reach populations, have long been conducting research in the Global South, be it in partnership or not with academic institutions. But ‘operational research’, as it is often called, is built under very different premises than those applied in academic investigation. One key distinction derives from the fact that NGO practitioners, even when collecting data, have to see participants as beneficiaries, with whom they might have enduring relationships. The need to be accountable to studied populations on the medium or long term, generates a whole new set of responsibilities and challenges that would not generally be in place in academic research, regardless of its stringent ethical review procedures. In this article, I rely on my experience in a Humanitarian Organization, while conducting a cross-sectional survey among migrants and refugees in Latin America. Departing from the question often posed to me by fellow colleagues - “How much do we need to know?” - I explore some key ethical practices and dilemmas faced when collecting data within the organization’s framework. Finally, I discuss to which extent these could be applicable to academics carrying out studies among vulnerable populations in the Global South. PAPER #4 Doing research with SOGI asylum claimants and refugees in Sao Paulo and London: methodological and ethical considerations AUTHOR(S) Vítor Lopes Andrade (University of Sussex) ABSTRACT Although both Brazil and the UK grant refugee status due to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI), doing research with SOGI claimants and refugees in these countries bring different methodological and ethical issues. In Brazil there are just a few NGOs that work specifically for this public, while in the UK there are lots of them, including some which are led by SOGI refugees themselves. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015/2016 and in London, UK, in 2019/2020, the aim of this paper is to discuss some of the methodological and ethical issues that I had to face. In Brazil, I had access to my research participants through an NGO I was volunteering at, which raised ethical considerations regarding my dual role of researcher and volunteer. In the UK, most British NGOs were not welcoming to my research. However, two SOGI refugee-led groups accepted me into their meetings and social events. The fact that I am an immigrant, like they are, made us be close to each other. The different methodological approaches I have used in the two countries brought (dis)advantages, as well as diverse ethical dilemmas regarding my positionality and access to research participants. I argue that this is not only related to my research topic, but also to the difference between doing research in my own country and in a country in the Global North. PAPER #5 The ethics of online fieldwork across borders: Researching the impacts of COVID-19 on migrant and refugee populations in Latin America AUTHOR(S) Dr Marcia Vera-Espinoza, Queen Mary University of London ABSTRACT While most borders in Latin America have been closed during the pandemic, dynamics of mobility and immobility across the region haven't stopped. In this context, there has been an increasing need to understand how COVID-19 and the measures to mitigate the effects of the pandemic, have impacted migrant and refugee populations across the region. However, with migrants facing exacerbated conditions of vulnerability (Bengochea et al 2020) and with new working modalities affecting all members of society, key ethical questions emerge about how, when and where, we should conduct research. This paper reflects on an ongoing regional project that includes online interviews, to discuss the limitations and opportunities, as well as the ethical challenges, of conducting online research across borders. I discuss these challenges drawing, and in dialogue, with previous research projects (one conducted between 2013-2015 and the second conducted between 2016-2017) in order to explore how ethical issues related to migrants' and refugees' security, research fatigue, negotiation of access, and researcher’s positionality (Vera Espinoza 2020), are reproduced both on the field and through online research. This reflexivity is key within the development of the research project, as well as relevant to understanding how knowledge on migration and displacement in Latin America is produced during, and beyond, the pandemic.

discussant

Thais França

CIES-IUL

author

Natalia Cintra

University of Southampton

author

Nuni Jorgensen

Queen Mary University of London

author

Vitor Lopes Andrade

University of Sussex

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Migrant Transnationalism 14

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #210 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Tamar Todria

Institute for European Studies IES TSU

Transnational migration and social change. An exploration of the mechanisms through which labour migration can reduce poverty and inequality Guri Tyldum Fafo Research Foundation Migration is often associated with increased incomes for migrants and their families, and although migration and remittances is claimed to have a poverty reducing impact in many policy initiatives, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of how and when migration can reduce poverty in a population. In this paper I investigate current theories of poverty and migration to identify the key mechanisms through which migration can reduce poverty for individuals, communities and for nations at large. The paper focusses on transnational practises of short term (circular) labour migration, and draw on research from Eastern Europe and Asia. I show that migration can have a poverty alleviating effect for individuals and communities in some context, in particular in softening negative impacts of economic restructuring and economic crisis. However, the relationship between migration and social change is more complex. Although migration can empower marginalized groups by giving access to resources, ideas and networks, short term (circular) labour migration is not likely to change structural inequalities, discrimination and marginalization, and in some cases, the alleviation of acute poverty provided through labour migration can be argued to delay required economic transformations and social change. === What does it take to be a transnational family? A review and empirical evaluation. David Schiefer German Center for Integration and Migration Research (DeZIM-Institute) Magdalena Nowicka German Center for Integration and Migration Research (DeZIM-Institute) Since the emergence of the transnationalism approach in social sciences, a large body of scientific work has applied it to the family context. The term ‘transnational family’ has become somewhat autonomous and is being used by a large variety of studies for different research questions and empirical approaches. Yet, there is still conceptual ambivalence as to the question what a transnational family actually is. Studies select and focus on very different dimensions (interactions with relatives abroad, financial transmittances, identification with country of origin, to name just a few). But what are required central characteristics of a family in order to label it as transnational? This paper discusses this question on the basis of a quantitative-empirical approach. It first summarizes definitions, dimensions and indicators that have been used in quantitative-empirical studies under the umbrella term ‘transnational families’. Using various existing survey data, it then scrutinizes how different dimensions of transnationality are empirically interrelated and to what degree they measure a common underlying phenomenon. Findings are discussed against the background of the sociological and psychological family research as well as the methodological literature on reflective and formative measurement of latent constructs. The paper argues that being a transnational family is not a category but needs to be described as a continuum. Furthermore, it recommends to distinguish more clearly between family characteristics that are inherent to the phenomenon (those by which a family can be described as being more or less transnational) and characteristics that rather function as antecedents and consequences of it. In particular, it argues that the core feature of a transnational family is the degree of social and emotional closeness despite physical distance. Other aspects, such as monetary transmittances, are no core feature but rather correlates of the phenomenon. === Historicizing arrival neighbourhoods - the case of Hamburg in the 20th century David Templin IMIS, University of Osnabrück The current debate on “arrival neighbourhoods” and “arrival spaces” often lacks an historical dimension, focusing on specific quarters with historical housing stock and a high degree of diversity in the early 21st century. In this paper, I will compare the emergence and characteristics of arrival neighbourhoods in the city of Hamburg for the time periods of 1890-1923 and 1960-1985. By an analysis and comparison of the urban and migration historical contexts and preconditions, specific “arrival infrastructures” (Meeus/Arnaut/van Heur 2019) such as religious institutions, migrant associations and businesses as well as the public perceptions of these urban spaces, I will show differences and similarities of historical arrival neighbourhoods. Can we distinguish different types of arrival neighbourhoods based on their location in the city, the housing market or the extent of social infrastructure they provide? And can we observe continuities regarding specific structures of these quarters and references to earlier experiences with urban spaces and migration-related diversity? The paper also asks for the production of space and scale by migrant city dwellers themselves in order to determine the role of the neighbourhood in their “multi-scalar networks” (Çağlar/Glick Schiller 2018). Based on research for a case study on Hamburg, the paper will also relate to research findings regarding neighbourhoods in other European cities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the conceptual debate on urban arrival spaces and the nexus of cities and migration by using a comparative historical perspective. === Social support networks and perceived loneliness among newly arrived migrants in Germany: A question of native, co-ethnic or transnational social contacts? Julia Rüdel University of Heidelberg Marie-Pier Joly Concordia University Newly arrived migrants face a particular risk of feeling lonely as they establish new relationships, learn a new language and find a new job in their receiving countries. Previous research finds that social support networks have significant effects on loneliness for older migrants; however, it is not known whether these have the same effects for recent migrants. Drawing on new data collected on recently arrived Turkish, Syrian, Polish and Italian migrants from the project “Early Integration Trajectories in Germany” (ENTRA), we test what kinds of social contacts matter for loneliness, and to what extent the contexts of reception and origin contribute to differences in loneliness between the four migrant groups. Using OLS regression and roughly 1,000 observations per group, we find that regardless of their ethnicities premigration and local ties are associated with lower levels of loneliness, whereas transnational contacts do not. In addition, Polish migrants experience lower levels of loneliness compared to the other migrant groups, but the differences are mainly explained by the context of origin in terms of migration motives. The context of reception, measured as discrimination, is associated with significantly higher levels of loneliness and does not explain the group differences, suggesting that discrimination is prevalent among newly migrants in Germany. Findings demonstrate that maintaining local ties may alleviate feelings of loneliness among new migrants but that societal discrimination may also offset these effects. === When women leave – social discourses on the female Ukrainian migration. Alina Penkala Ghent University Ine Lietaert Ghent University Ilse Derluyn Ghent University It is well known that mobility alters people’s attachment to places and as such return demands renegotiations of a sense of belonging to a new life and a changed place. The impact of the places to which people return has been mainly investigated through its structural components and more insight and empirical data is needed to understand how discourses to which returnees are subjected in places of return enable or hamper attachment to a place and ability to find belonging. The Ukrainian female labour migration to Italy is marked by a negative public discourse. The dominant narratives on mobility of that group, its scale, composition, dynamic, impact on society, families, children and the nation, have portrayed it as a shameful social problem. Knowing what such narratives do to societies, influencing people’s attitudes, it is problematic for the big group of women that is recently returning to Ukraine after their stay in Italy. However, rich academic literature on this specific migration trajectory shows that very different narratives are used by migrants themselves and their children, which shape their behaviours in both Italy and Ukraine. It points out the ongoing transnational negotiations about the meaning of their migration experience, meaning of the monetary and social remittances. This has consequences for the migrants’ practices of integration in Italy and their successful negotiation of belonging after the return to Ukraine.

author

Ine Lietaert

University of Ghent

author

Alina Penkala

Ghent University

author

Julia Rüdel

author

Ilse Derluyn

Ghent University

author

Guri Tyldum

Fafo

author

David Schiefer

German Center for Integration and Migration Research (DeZIM-Institute)

author

Magdalena Nowicka

DeZIM-Institute

author

David Templin

IMIS, University of Osnabrück

author

Marie-Pier Joly

Concordia University

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Migrant Transnationalism 9

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #211 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Mark van Ostaijen

Exploring the limits of neoliberal language ideology: Experiences of professional transnational migrants in Brussels Fien De Malsche Universiteit Antwerpen Mieke Vandenbroucke Universiteit Antwerpen This contribution examines professional transnational migrants in Brussels and how they deal with language as part of their quotidian international lives, both professionally and socially. In addition to their physical mobility, these migrants move between ideological, political, and linguistic spheres as part of their transnational trajectories. This presentation topicalizes the navigation between linguistic spheres, as we ask how the participants reconcile the linguistic ideologies associated with their global trajectory with the local and temporary context of their stay in Brussels. The project is based on a dataset consisting of 31 in-depth semi-structured interviews with professional transnational migrants who are currently residing in Brussels, have both moved across international borders in the past, and who seek further professional international mobility in the future. On the one hand, the data show that neoliberal and globalized influences are internalized in their linguistic habitus and result in a deep-rooted belief in the importance of English, a drive for unbridled (linguistic) self-improvement, and willingness to pursue boundaryless careers. However, this study also explores the limits to these ideological values, which are the result of localized conflicting ideologies or practicalities. As such, the participants arguably do internalize neoliberal and globalized values, but they also reveal paradoxes and inconsistencies in this belief system that need to be closely examined in order to define the nuances of its limitations. This contribution therefore underlines the complexity of the different linguistic ideologies and practices that professional transnational migrants are confronted with and how they balance and navigate them in an ever-changing world. === (Transnational) family arrangements of recent refugees: Comparing Eritrean and Syrian women and men in Germany Elisabeth K. Kraus Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany Lenore Sauer Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany Kamal Kassam Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany Our contribution aims at analysing the transnational family arrangements of refugees in Germany focussing on Eritreans and Syrians, two important countries of origin of recent flows of forced migration towards Germany. Thereby, we investigate the extent and patterns of transnational family structures and explore the determinants for diverse arrangements. Although the numbers of forcibly displaced persons worldwide has increased substantially over the last years, research on refugee families in European destination countries is scarce. It can be assumed that the negative consequences on psychological and physical wellbeing resulting from the geographic separation of families that have been found for economic migrants are even more pronounced in the context of flight and forced migration. The empirical data derive from the Germany-wide representative quantitative survey “Forced Migration and Transnational Family Arrangements – Eritrean and Syrian Refugees in Germany” (TransFAR), conducted in 2020. This new dataset with over 1,450 observations includes detailed information on the whereabouts of close and extended family members of recent male and female refugees, on the timing and sequencing of the family members’ migration as well as on mutual support arrangements of geographically separated families. By taking a comparative approach, we disentangle similarities and heterogeneities between refugee families from Eritrea and Syria and between men and women, and examine the main determinants for the resulting differences. First descriptive results reveal that while transnational nuclear families (spouse, children) are rather rare, extended families (parents, parents-in-law, siblings) are scattered across Germany, the country of origin as well as other countries. === Transnationalism and Collective Remittances Among the Manjaco Diaspora - The Importance of Home Legacies Paula Pinto Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning - University of Lisbon In explanations of migrant collective remittance behaviour, much attention has been paid to the classic dichotomy between altruism or self-interest motivations. This paper, however, addresses a less-explored topic in the diaspora literature, that is, the impact of origin cultural institutions in migrants remitting behavior. Relying on qualitative data collected in Portugal, with two hometown associations (HTA), and ethnographic fieldwork in the origin communities of the HTA in Guinea-Bissau, we explore both the viewpoints of origin community and migrant transnational associations. The paper focusses on the Manjaco (one of Guinea-Bissau ethnic groups, acknowledged for its collective remittance practices) nosological system, deeply related with spiritual and mystical obligations. The fullfilment of such obligations requires the migrant travel back to their hometown for traditional ceremonies or mandjidura (propitiating ceremonies of luck/protection). The paper interrogates the role of these spiritual practices in the maintenance of transnational practices, namely collective remittances, as well as in the power balance through the transnational network given the control the community of origin exerts over access to the sacred places and entities. This cultural monopoly means power is perceived and can be activated by the origin community to maintain bonds and to encourage contributions to collective projects understood as necessary in the hometown. Simultaneously, it provides a strong argument for associations to promote migrant’s permanent engagement and to encourage contributions to collective shipments. We argue that the collective remittance practices of international migrants are deeply rooted in the cultural meanings, social structures and practices of the places and communities of origin. Meaning that the context of socialization more influential in the maintenance of transnational practices concerning collective remittances is the migrant origin context.

author

Elisabeth Katharina Kraus

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Kamal Kassam

Federal Institute for Population Research

author

Fien De Malsche

University of Antwerp

author

Mieke Vandenbroucke

Universiteit Antwerpen

author

PAULA Azevedo PINTO

IGOT-ULisboa

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Reflexivities in Migration Studies. Pitfalls and Alternatives (Session 2)

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #212 workshop | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Anna-Lisa Müller

University of Osnabrück

chair

Andreas Pott

IMIS

Sessions: “Reflexivities in Migration Studies. Pitfalls and Alternatives” (2) Session convenor: Standing Committee “Reflexivities in Migration Studies” IMISCOE Annual Conference 2021 The framework for the session is provided by a joint book project on the reflexive approaches and knowledge production in migration studies. The starting point for this book project is twofold: First, we start from the observation that in Europe migration has become an object of intensive study. Migration studies have begun to take on quasi-disciplinary features which draw from a variety of disciplines and cross-disciplinary collaborations. In addition, migration scholars and knowledge on migration have gained significant attention outside academia. Second, since roughly thirty years migration scholars are struggling with some particular challenges concerning the epistemological, ethical and theoretical underpinnings of migration studies. Primarily, it has been criticised that migration research contributes to reproducing post-colonial legacies and the ‘national order of things’ and that it could not create alternative narratives beyond ‘the migrant’ as a racialised and problematic figure of ‘the other’. A particular strand of research has emerged which pushes forward a reflexive and (self)critical orientation towards the coming of age of migration studies and problematic aspects of migration-related knowledge production. The book project is embedded in this line of research. In the two sessions authors will shortly present their contributions to this volume. Each author will present one particular problematic aspect and formulate alternatives which ideally should lead to new or altered forms of knowledge production. Session II : Chair Andreas Pott 1. Carolin Fischer (University of Bern): Reconceptualising the links between migration, gender and violence 2. Valentina Mazzucato (Maastricht University): Playing with categories: Operationalizing a transnational perspective for migration research 3. Elena Ponzoni/Maria Rast/Halleh Ghorashi (Free University Amsterdam): 4. Jens Schneider (Osnabrück University): What comes after ‘Post-Migration’? On the biography of a term and its potential for the future 5. Kesi Mahendran (Open University): How non-migrant/migrant relationships reveal the importance of dialogue-led methods in migration studies 6. Ann Singleton (University of Bristol): The critical gaps 7. Camille Schmoll (Paris 7 Denis Diderot University): For a cosmopolitan field of migration studies

participant

Jens Schneider

IMIS

participant

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

participant

Janine Dahinden

University of Neuchatel

participant

Carolin Fischer

participant

Eleonore Kofman

MDX

participant

Parvathi Raghuram

The Open University

participant

Apostolos Andrikopoulos

University of Amsterdam

participant

Maurice Crul

Vrije Universiteite

participant

Frans Lelie

participant

Tanja Bastia

Manchester University

participant

Inken Bartels

Insitute of Migration Research and Intercultural Studies (IMIS), University of Osnabrueck

participant

Philipp Schäfer

University of Konstanz

participant

Laura Stielike

participant

Gunjan Sondhi

participant

Manuel Dieterich

participant

Boris Nieswand

participant

Elena Ponzoni

participant

Maria Rast

participant

Halleh Ghorashi

participant

Kesi Mahendran

participant

Ann Singleton

participant

Camille Schmoll

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Gender & Sexuality 7

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #213 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

chair

Claudia Araujo

Sisters on the Move; gender and Migration in Ethiopia Meron zeleke Addis Ababa University The paper presents intricacies of culture and migration drawing on the growing phenomenon of Ethiopian female labour migration. Feminization of migration displays how the migration process is highly impacted by dominant gendered socio-cultural norms as much as it is affected by the demand structures in destination countries. Gendered socialization patterns, gendered norms and gendered roles highly affect the migration trends in defining who migrates, why and how, in the context of patriarchal society. Overarching gender norms influence women’s access to education, employment and their autonomous decisions of migration. In a highly gendered cultural setting like Ethiopia’s migration is used as a “resistance” mechanism to flee different forms of gender- Based violence young girls and women face at their places of origin. Co-migration and sponsorship of female family members reinforces the gendered labour migration, enhancing intergenerational female labour migration pattern. The paper discusses the phenomenon by drawing on an ethnographic study conducted in Ethiopia and Djibouti on Ethiopian female migrants destined to Europe and the Gulf states === Cultural resocialisation after migration: Gender norms, sexuality and post-socialist identity Irina Gewinner Institute of Education and Society, University of Luxembourg This article problematizes gender norms, sexuality and post-socialist individual cultural legacy by focusing on attitudes towards gendered sexual initiation and related family formation in migrant Russian-speaking women in Germany. It represents the results of a study that investigates whether and how norms of sexual maturity, adulthood and sexual behavior undergo a change or preservation in women after a migration episode and adjustment to a new cultural environment. By doing so, this piece of research scrutinizes the norms of (sexual) maturity, mostly associated with sexual debut and accompanied interpersonal experiences, common for individuals who underwent socialization in the (post-) socialist period and are now living in Germany. Drawing on primary data stemming from online discussions with Russian-speaking first generation migrant women in Germany, this study addresses individual cultural understandings of sexuality, adulthood and sexual behavior. The study challenges previous research that showed how individual practices and notions towards sex transform and detraditionalize after a migration episode to countries that are founded on individualism (Ahmadi 2003; Evans et al. 2009). The case of Russian-speaking women in Germany shows that their cultural understandings of sexual initiation and attitudes towards openly lived sexual interactions are gendered and do not considerably modify after migration. This research, thus, contributes to the debate on how far cultural norms can transform through a change of the geographical context. === The Role of Language in Shaping Interplay between Gender Regimes and Migration Experiences – Serbian Women in France and Germany Dunja Poleti Cosic University of Belgrade – Faculty of Philosophy, Institute for Sociological Research This paper examines the migration experiences of Serbian women who emigrated after 2000 and were economically active at the time of the fieldwork in France and Germany. The overall aim of the research is to investigate the interdependence of gender regimes in the destination countries and female life strategies. While gender regimes are defined as “relatively permanent structures of gender relations, i.e. relations between men and women, masculinity and femininity, which are expressed at the macro social level, in the institutional and non-institutional environment"; under life strategies we imply “a relatively stable pattern of action aimed at spending and converting resources to secure a social position” (Babović, 2009). The research question – how the social characteristics of respondents, such as class, ethnicity, migration and family status, as well as types of capital they possess, affect their chances to achieve certain positions in destination countries, work or family statuses – directed the research toward biographical-narrative approach. The data was collected through 60 semi-structured in-depth interviews, with the reconstruction of the life trajectories. Thematic analysis has shown the importance of the role of the local language skill. Not only did language fluency prove to be the most important form of human capital to ensure a position in the labor market and an essential step towards upward socioeconomic mobility, but also it was the crucial factor in reshaping the interplay between gender regimes and life strategies, enabling the change in the individual gender practices and positive turn in migration experiences. === Language in the abortion clinic: a barrier to migrant women’s reproductive agency Ella van Hest Ghent University July De Wilde Ghent University In many strands of sociolinguistics, language has repeatedly been examined as a key element of participation in society. At the same time, language differences are considered inextricably linked to issues of inequality. In this contribution, we provide insights on how lack of knowledge of the institutional language prevents migrant women from fully exerting their reproductive agency in the feminized space of an abortion clinic. Our arguments are based on sociolinguistic-ethnographic fieldwork in an abortion clinic in Belgium, where we observed and audio-recorded consultations and mapped the local language policy and practices regarding the migrant clientele. The focus is on pre-abortion intake interviews, in which women are informed about the abortion procedure and receive contraceptive counselling. In an attempt to overcome language barriers, translation in the clinic is often provided by clients’ male partners or family members who accompany them during the interview. Our findings show how migrant women’s voices get lost in sex-asymmetric multiparty consultations in various aspects. We draw attention mainly to the ways in which male interlocutors interactionally and discursively claim epistemic authority on women’s contraceptive decisions, for instance through incomplete and erroneous translations. Our study confirms previous findings on the role of language in processes of exclusion in institutions such as healthcare. In doing so it sheds new light on this topic by focusing on the specific contexts of abortion care and female sexual and reproductive health.

author

Irina Gewinner

author

Meron Zeleke

Addis Ababa University

author

Dunja Poleti Cosic

University of Belgrade – Faculty of Philosophy, Institute for Sociological Research

author

Ella van Hest

Ghent University

author

July De Wilde

Ghent University

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[Deleted session]

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #214 panel |

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Norms & Values 8 [GO TO SESSION 213]

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #215 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Eva Fortes

The right to effective participation of refugee and migrant children: views of professionals and children Stephanie Rap Leiden University Worldwide, the number of child refugees has more than doubled in the last decade. In this paper the position of children as asylum applicants will be conceptualised, in light of the increased acknowledgement of the child as bearer of rights and active participant in legal proceedings. Child migrants are often not recognised and respected as rights holders and thus as active agents in asylum procedures. However, a one-sided view of these children as vulnerable objects is not in coherence with international children’s rights law and standards, including among others the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, that see all children as autonomous subjects and full bearers of rights. Moreover, recent studies suggest that the right to participation and information is insufficiently safeguarded for children involved in asylum procedures. Through 42 in-depth interviews conducted with professionals working in the asylum procedure in the Netherlands (e.g. immigration officers, lawyers, guardians, judges, government officials, NGO’s, etc.) understanding of the practical implementation of this right is sought. Moreover, interviews have been conducted with (un)accompanied children about their experiences as asylum (co-)applicants. In this paper the question is posed how the right to participation can be conceptualised for refugee and migrant children, from a children’s rights perspective taking into account both the views of professionals and children? === Sharing Otherness: Teenagers In-between two Social Spaces and their Need to Meet Together Zuzana Terry Faculty of Humanities, Charles University, Prague Anglophone youth migration is privileged. For Anglophone children with migratory experience there are many opportunities to practice their parents' language and share their cultures with peers. However, they live in-between the two cultures and are marked as others in Czech society. My paper describes the teenager’s experience with one of the afterschool activities, the youth theatre. I aim to explain why this afterschool activity seems to give the anglophone migrant teenagers such a strong feeling of belonging, and explain how the afterschool activity with others in similar in-between situation forms their sense of self. The paper is based on ten moths research conducted in anthropological tradition of ethnographic fieldwork; participatory observation of a teenagers class (age 15 – 18) of fifteen pupils during their rehearsals, performances and breaks in youth theatre, and semi-structured interviews with the teenagers, the youth theatre owner and their teachers. Analysing the observations and interviews, I argue: That the youth with migratory experience feel excluded and they need to share their in-between experiences. They fulfil their needs in the youth theatre. They can share their experience because they are all from different spaces and all feel other and because of the youth theatres' environment. With its British including tradition (Hughes, Wilson, 2007), youth theatre offer the anglophone migrant acceptance of otherness and therefore feeling of belonging. The youth theatre brings together children from different in-between families, and at the same time, it offers knowledge that transcends these spaces. These teenagers articulate their appreciation of the place where their feelings of incomplete integration can be shared, a place where their in-between is normativity." === Soviet War Graves: Educational Activity in the Diaspora as a Tool for Maintaining Transnational Relations Dana Bittnerová Charles University Migration from the former Soviet Union countries continues from the 1990s. It creates Russian-speaking diasporas in Europe and globally, maintaining their relationship with the country of origin, Russian culture, language and memory. I will focus on a specific educational activity of the Russian-speaking diaspora in the Czech Republic (the CR), organised for Russian teenagers by a non-profit organisation led by Russian-speakers with migration experience. The project maps the graves of Soviet army soldiers who died during WWII and are buried in the CRs cemeteries. The activity is to search for graves of specific soldiers, their identification and finding their descendants. The activity aims to connect the place where young people grow up with memory tied to the Russian-speaking space. The activity connects the preferences and initiatives of parents of teenagers, NGOs - diasporas in the CR, the Russian Federation, organisations of countries where the Russian-speaking diasporas live. According to Russian-speaking parents, the activity conveys to children the values they have been socialised (including the language). The project is meaningful for NGOs; it connects many entities (in the CR and abroad) thus increases the relevance of the activity and the organisation. Several Russian Federation organisations' support corresponds partly to their own agenda (support for compatriots, teaching the Russian language, maintaining memory for the Second World War). Besides, organisations from other countries welcome international cooperation. Young descendants from Russian-speaking families are placed in a network of these relationships and expectations. In my paper, I will address how the activity contributes to the feelings of belonging of teenagers with a migratory experience, and how it is involved in maintaining transnational identities; what effect does the activity have on Russian-speaking people's imagination as members of the global diaspora." === Anti-immigrant Attitudes and Support for Anti-Democratic Norms in the U.S, Switzerland, and Turkey Beyza Buyuker University of Illinois-Chicago Alexandra Filindra University of Illinois-Chicago Eva Green University of Lausanne Anita Manatschal University of Neuchâtel We argue that in racially and ethnically diverse societies, public support for anti-democratic norms among majority groups may be driven, in part by perceived threat related to immigrants. Following racial priming theory, we suggest that for members of majority groups who harbor strong negative priors about immigrants, immigrant-origin groups’ demands for democratic inclusion may be perceived in zero-sum terms. We further argue that threat to the majority group's cultural primacy by outgroups may drive majority group members to support anti-democratic norms that may better protect the elevated social status of the majority group over democratic norms that extend equality and cultural representation to immigrant groups. We test this theory via three original priming experiments in the U.S, Switzerland, and Turkey.

author

Dana Bittnerová

Charles Univer

author

Zuzana Terry

Faculty of Humanities, Charles University, Prague

author

Anita Manatschal

Swiss Forum for Migration and Population Studies SFM, University of Neuchâtel

author

Stephanie Rap

Leiden University

author

Beyza Buyuker

UIC

author

Alexandra Filindra

University of Illinois-Chicago

author

Eva Green

University of Lausanne

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Arts at the Margins or Core of the Arts? Creative Migration and Trasformative pathways Towards the Cities of Tomorrow

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #216 workshop | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

organizer

Feifei Zeng

CET Platform Italy

organizer

Gabriela Yanez Atiencia

Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, EMMIR Master Erasmus Mundus

CONTEXT: Arts and sociopolitical movements are engaged in similar spaces of creation, dissent, and resistance. Historically, both the emergence of art protest and the development of social and cultural movements have played a crucial role in the empowerment, belonging, self-expression, and revindication of those traditionally marginalised. The forms of expressions used by migrants and refugees in the urban spaces across the EU are extremely relevant to investigate the transformations and regeneration of cities themselves, from the occurrence of gentrification processes – especially in cities such as Barcelona and Lisbon – to the exclusion and discrimination practices that also wealth and racial stratification of the society - such as in Rome, Paris and Athens. The proposed workshop will be an opportunity to present migrant contribution to the transformation of urban space also from a creative point of view which has been underestimated for a long time. From this perspective, they are no longer passive recipients of assistance measures or a mere reflection of the unsolved global issues, seen instead as active thinkers and creators as an alternative form of citizenship. The participants will be invited to learn more about the proposed perspective on both a theoretical and practical level. The organisers/trainers will also propose non-formal education methodologies from their experience within EU projects. Practical activities based on interactive sessions: I. From picture to story/migration story from one of the key EU cities II. Mapping the city and other expression activities on the basis of “Blank Pages” Methodologies III. Making Art in the (H)eart(h) Organisers: 1) Anna Lodeserto 2) Feifei Zeng 3) Gabriela Yanez Due to space constraints, the bibliography, the biography of the organisers/trainers and the detailed programme of the sessions proposed are available upon request.
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Transnational migrant entrepreneurs bridging urban, regional, national, and global spaces: A multi-scalar global perspective Part 2

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #217 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Yvonne Riaño

SFM Neuchâtel and nccr - on the move

chair

Christina Mittmasser

University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Geographie

In a globalised world, the actions of groups and individuals span across multiple geographical scales. In recent years, migration researchers have called for taking multi-scalar processes more seriously. In a multi-scalar global perspective, local, regional, national, and global are not separate levels of analysis; they are mutually constituted spheres of action in which people – both migrants and non-migrants – live. This perspective allows researchers to investigate not only the different opportunities and constraints created by nation states, but also the conditions produced by urban and regional contexts within specific nation states, as well as the transnational settings in which migrants act. Some research on transnational migrant entrepreneurship does exist but studies seriously addressing the global multi-scalar perspective by examining how entrepreneurs bridge urban, regional, national, and global spaces are scant. This session contributes to filling this research gap by examining the local, regional, national, and global contexts in which transnational migrant entrepreneurs (TME) are embedded, and how they bridge these different spaces through entrepreneurial activities and creative mobility strategies. We are interested in comprehending the diverse contexts of opportunity, or lack thereof, against the backdrop of entrepreneurship policies and mobility regimes in which cities, regions, states, and global spaces are imbricated. Understanding how transnational entrepreneurs creatively connect and transform such settings through the multi-scalar mobilities of people, goods, capital, and ideas is central. With this panel, we also want to examine how these multi-scalar processes (re)produce social, economic, and spatial power dependencies as well as social inequalities. PAPER #1 The impact of international study and work experience on the performance of high-tech firms – evidence from transnational migrant entrepreneurs in Israel AUTHOR(S) Susann Schäfer (Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena) ABSTRACT The paper examines the impact of international study and work experience on the performance of transnational migrant entrepreneurs in the high-tech industry using the case study of hightech firms founded in Israel. Based on previous research, temporary migration for study and work purposes is expected to increase the probability for business success because international study and work purposes allow future entrepreneurs to experience different business cultures and to connect to potentially relevant business networks. This is especially true for called born global firms defined as firms having a global orientation from the very beginning. To examine the link between international study/work experience and business performance of transnational migrant enterprises in the high-tech industry, this contribution draws on 32 personal interviews with Israeli high-tech founders and secondary statistics of 883 Israeli startup founders (retrieved from their LinkedIn profiles) and their firm indicators. The results show a positive link between firm success (measured in foreign venture capital acquired and number of employees) and foreign work experience, but no link between international study experience and economic success of the firm. Moreover, successful entrepreneurs tend to have migration experience in the countries of origins of their foreign investors. The in-depth interviews with the founders provide evidence that relationships revealed in the secondary statistical analysis are due to the work experience in foreign firms and the international business network enabling Israeli high-tech founders to contact and negotiate with foreign venture capital firms more easily than entrepreneurs with no migration experience. PAPER #2 Bridging the gap – Coupling informal and formal business structures through multi-scalar business models (Hybrid business models) AUTHOR(S) Judith Terstriep (Institute for Work and Technology, Westphalian University) Alexandra David (Institute for Work and Technology, Westphalian University) ABSTRACT Embeddedness in transnational entrepreneurial ecosystems shaped by national and regional regulations, customer relations, market demands and country specific understandings of the status entrepreneur or else business man, allows migrant entrepreneurs to strategically couple informal with formal business structures. We argue that EU Single Market and free movement of people opened up and accelerated new opportunities for hybrid business models for migrant entrepreneurs. That is, being embedded in multi-scalar settings informal migrant entrepreneurs innovate and leave behind proven approaches to parallel build up formal business models. We present the case of two Polish-German transnational migrant entrepreneurs to exemplify how multi-scalar based migrant businesses can change the owners’ power dynamics, habitus, and feeling of belonging while counteracting social exclusion and self-discrimination. By means of reverse engineering, as an application of tools and processes traditionally used for the generation of new businesses, the business models behind the cases and their evolution over time has been uncovered by utilising a business model canvas (BMC). Both analytical tools were applied to uncover the entrepreneurs’ business activities and shed light on the motives, incentives and barriers of the endeavours and the changes over time. Particularly, attention was given to transnational flows of knowledge, goods and ideas as well as network building since the EU opening of borders. Based on our results, initial ideas for facilitating transition processes from informal to formal entrepreneurship are presented forced up by multi-scalar processes and transnational embeddedness. PAPER #3 The COVID-19, migration and remittances nexus: evidences from rural entrepreneurs in Moldova AUTHOR(S) Francesca Crivellaro (University of Bologna) Elisa Iori (University of Bologna) Matteo Masotti (University of Bologna) Matteo Vittuari (University of Bologna) ABSTRACT Since the collapse of the communist regime in the late Nineties, over 30% of the Moldovan gross domestic product has been covered by remittances and agriculture. Long-term and seasonal migration represent a livelihood strategy for Moldovans to mitigate the structural lack of employment and access financial capital. The agri-food sector, despite suffering massive migration flows, provides an important economic and social buffer. In our study, migrants leaving in rural areas seasonally or permanently are understood as transnational entrepreneurs since they provide crucial economic resources to facilitate the transition of domestic peasant farms into rural commercial firms, considered broadly as transnational enterprises. Agri-food enterprises innovation and land plot development are fostered by transnational migrants connecting home and destination countries (e.g. Italy, France, Russia) through financial and human capital flows. While this improvement might not be the main goal of migration, remittances can generate collateral innovation. The Moldovan Government exploited these family-level ties, developing tailored programmes like “Diaspora Succeeds at home”, aiming at attracting transnational migrants’ financial capital to foster rural and agricultural development and to support returnees to “make the most of emigration”. Potential benefits for local agricultural entrepreneurs have been severely affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and the associated severe restriction measures. Drawing on data collected through a nationally representative household survey with over 500 respondents launched in late 2020, this work explores the role of the Covid-19 pandemic on mobility and the economy of remittances sustaining rural entrepreneurs in Moldova.

discussant

Laure Sandoz

University of Basel and nccr - on the move

author

Susann Schaefer

University of Jena, Institute of Geography

author

Judith Terstriep

Westphalian University, Institute for Work and Technology

author

Alexandra David

Institute for Work and Technology

author

Francesca Crivellaro

University of Bologna

author

Elisa Iori

University of Bologna

author

matteo masotti

University of Bologna

author

Matteo Vittuari

University of Bologna

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Visiting Migrants 3

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #218 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Md Farid Miah

University of Sussex

For migrants the world over, visits ‘home’ and being visited by relatives and friends are an essential part of the migrant experience. Such visits are eagerly anticipated and vital to transnational family connection. Yet, surprisingly little attention has been given by migration scholars to these visits. Twenty years ago, anthropologist Baldassar published her pioneering book Visits Home, on visits between Australia and Italy. This remains virtually the only in-depth study, although a scattered literature of journal articles has evolved from scholars in transnational migration, diaspora studies, mobilities, and tourism. The title of the workshop is deliberately ambiguous, with the word ‘visiting’ being used both in its verbal and adjectival sense. Adjectivally, visiting migrants are migrants engaged in visiting home. Verbally, we refer to the non-migrant relatives and friends who are visiting their migrant co-nationals abroad. Either way, visits are social and cultural encounters circumscribed by expectations, performativity and rituality (e.g. gift-giving, hospitality) in which transnational familyhood is reasserted and affective bonds renewed. There are several ways that visits can be conceptualised. As short-term mobilities, visits are temporally enfolded within the longer time-frames of migration and diaspora formation. Visits are often an element of transnational ties; and for longer-established diasporas, visits to the ancestral homeland are an essential part of diasporic identity. Regular visits to the homeland can be a preparation for a subsequent return migration; or they can be a substitute for permanent return. The three panels bring together scholars of different career stages, including several PhD students. Collectively, they explore the cultural landscape of visiting migrants in many differing parts of the world and from interdisciplinary perspectives. The panel organisers have already made plans for either an edited OA book or journal special issue. PAPER #1 Home for summer vacation: embodiments, attachments, and insulations AUTHOR(S) Lauren B Wagner (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT Taking the case of Europeans of Moroccan origin, who regularly visit Morocco en masse for holidays and summer breaks, this paper proposes a theory for approaching ‘diasporic visits’ as mobilities that are simultaneously about leisure and about belonging. Based on ethnographic engagement through an ethnomethodological perspective, I try to approach these visits without beginning from a premise that ‘migration’ is the key factor. That is, while issues related to migration may manifest in how these visits are practised, such visits could also be viewed simply as a travelling ‘home’ to where one’s grandparents live, or as an enviable choice of touristic destination for one’s summer vacation. The combination of these two motivations for mobility, regardless of transnational positioning, can always create tension. Therefore, rather than focusing on how these visits demonstrate a paradox of migrant or transnational belonging between two homelands, I approach them as a holistic act of ‘becoming diasporic’, whereby the repetition and circulation of the mass of Moroccan visitors from Europe creates spaces and practices for diasporicness in Morocco. I argue that this becoming manifests as three entwined forces: a complex sense of attachment to Morocco as a place of ancestral origin, a desire for embodied pleasure and leisure as being on vacation, and an instinct to differentiate oneself from the local population. All three simultaneously contribute to the potency and longevity of diasporic visiting in Morocco. PAPER #2 Conceptualising return visits for knowledge transfer: Diaspora returnees’ motivations, aspirations, and experiences AUTHOR(S) Charlotte Mueller (Maastricht University/UNU-MERIT) ABSTRACT Return visits form an integral part of diaspora members’ transnational mobility. This paper focuses on return visits for knowledge transfer which have received scant attention in existing research. It draws on in-depth interviews with 35 diaspora returnees who participated in a diaspora return programme in Ethiopia, Sierra Leone and Somaliland between 2016 and 2019. This study contributes to the academic literature in the field of return, return visits and diaspora engagement in two ways. First, it discusses return visits for knowledge transfer as a distinct type of return visit. Second, it refines the conceptualisation of this type of visit by exploring returnees’ motivations, aspirations, and experiences to conduct such visits. This paper shows how return visits for knowledge transfer are part of a broader process of transnational engagement and mobility as diaspora returnees who participate in the programme previously engaged in other types of return visits, mostly to visit friends and relatives. Largely driven by altruistic motives, return visits for knowledge transfer constitute a means for diaspora returnees to ‘give back’ to their country of origin. Against common assumptions, some diaspora returnees also pronounced self-seeking motivations, such as an opportunity to gain additional professional experience. Besides fulfilling their desire to contribute to their country of origin, return visits for knowledge transfer allow diaspora returnees to familiarise themselves with the work environment in their country of origin as well as to obtain skills that are applicable more generally. PAPER #3 Pathways to adulthood from young people’s perspectives: envisioning one’s future self through mobility AUTHOR(S) Gladys Akom Ankobrey (Maastricht University) ABSTRACT Transnational migration studies have established that mobility enables migrating adults to evaluate their lives abroad in comparison with their country of origin but have paid less attention to the perspectives of young people within the context of their mobile lives. Second-generation ‘returns’ literature does take into account young people’s own mobility but mostly focuses on family visits or return migration. Little attention has been paid to how independent trips and long-term stays shape the ways in which young people develop aspirations for the future. Drawing on 16 months of multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in The Netherlands and during trips to Ghana, this paper heeds the call to consider how mobility mediates young people’s pathways to adulthood by exploring how Dutch Ghanaian youth envision their future self through (semi)independent visits to their or their parents’ country of origin. Different from family visits, young people were able to explore Ghana beyond the sphere of familial relationships. The country and its capital city in particular were described as spaces to practice becoming adults and experiment with notions associated with adulthood, and romantic relationships and careers more specifically. While being in this unfamiliar but at the same time familiar place, young people engaged in behaviours that required them to step out of their comfort zones such as dating, going out and working in international teams. These experiences enabled young people to critically (re)assess the ways in which their engagement with Ghana supported their constructed future self. PAPER #4 Visiting the ‘Holy Land’: Palestinian Christian diasporic visits from Jordan AUTHOR(S) Annabel C. Evans (Loughborough University) ABSTRACT This paper will use the adjectival form of the visiting migrant to analyse how personal and communal visiting trips from Jordan to Palestine are utilised by those in diaspora to balance a sense of belonging which is attentive to personal, national but also religious dimensions of identity. Using ethnographic data collected for my doctoral research looking into concepts of home amongst the Palestinian Christian diaspora in Jordan, this paper will seek to explore how visits to Palestine from Jordan are both an emotionally and imaginatively driven endeavour which is embodied through religious performativity and rituality. The political as well as religious significance of the ‘Holy Land’ mean visits from Jordan are laden with personal and communal meaning which facilitate both material and meta-physical (re)connections to an inaccessible landscape. This is also a layered landscape, incorporating multiple, and contested, meanings of place which rely heavily on historical narratives and religious geographies, which confront as well as contribute to mobile and multidimensional forms of diasporic belonging. This paper heeds the call for a closer theorisation of religion and diaspora to explore how experiences of both are simultaneously grounded and transcendent, mobile and geographically located. As such, visits - as a regular practice amongst my participants - will be analysed as a performed and embodied form of transcendently grounded identity which helps mediate a sense of belonging in and between Jordan and Palestine.

author

Gladys Akom Ankobrey

Maastricht University

discussant

Aija Lulle

Loughborough University

author

Lauren B Wagner

Maastricht University

author

Charlotte Mueller

Maastricht University

author

Annabel Catherine Evans

Loughborough

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Discrimination and racism in cross-national perspective 5: Policy Frames of Exclusion

Fri July 9, 09:45 - 11:15, Session #219 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

Chair: Anders Neergaard, Linköping Discussant: Marco Martiniello, CEDEM For a long time, racism has been studied without references to discrimination and was mainly conceived as a specific expression of prejudice. The retreat from blatant forms of racism that are no longer tolerated today to more subtle and systemic forms of racism has paved the way for studies on ethnic and racial discrimination and inequalities. In response to the IMISCOE statement on structural racism and racial justice in the context of Black Lives Matter, this panel unites papers that study policy frames of exclusion in the context of discrimination and racism. Drawing on qualitative evidence, the panel focuses on discourses and frames of discrimination and racism to understand how exclusion is created and maintained in the everyday. Questions of cohesion and community are contrasted with stigmatization and contributions from critical race theory. With this, the panel will explore the role of dominance and power in discrimination and racism, and discuss ways to overcome them. PAPER #1 The communitarian stigma. Dynamics of racial and religious exclusion in French urban social policies AUTHOR(S) Linda Haapajärvi (Centre Maurice Halbwachs (CNRS-EHESS-ENS)) ABSTRACT In the 2000’s, social participation has been promoted as a particularly efficient tool of preventing marginalization in France’s segregated banlieues. The universalistic and inclusive agenda of French urban social policies however coexists with paternalistic and exclusionary underpinnings. Racialized minorities in particular run the risk of being labelled as enemies of the French Republic when taking part in local civic life. This article examines minority citizens’ attempts of civic participation in the working-class banlieue of Tiercy in the Paris area. It analyses the chain of events that caused a minority leader of West African origin to be disqualified as a civic actor based on accusations of “communitarianism”. Bringing together the conceptual frameworks of stigma and social space, the article shows how the cultural repertoire of the “communitarian threat” produces ethno-racial exclusion in concrete institutional settings. It analyses three properties of the “civic” space of the area’s community centre that prepare the ground for the emergence of the communitarian stigma: its adherence to the “Republican” normative order, asymmetrical social relations, and racially differentiated principles of civic interaction. The article uncovers communitarian stigmatization as a robust mechanism of institutional racism that represses minority citizens' civic engagements. PAPER #2 Exploring the potentials of interculturalism in supporting social cohesion: A Case Study of South Asian Migrants in London and Auckland AUTHOR(S) Golam Nasibul Hoque (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) ABSTRACT The proposed study is concerned with the assessment of 'interculturalism' and how it can play a crucial role in sustaining the social cohesion process in the context of London, the UK; and Auckland, New Zealand. The reason for choosing these top-north and down-south Anglophone countries due to their long-standing history of immigration that helped London and Auckland flourish as super-diverse cities. Besides, both countries have a similar Westminster system of government and research design, resemblances in terms of diversity management and multicultural policies. The context of New Zealand is quite different due to the country's biculturalism-multiculturalism policy approach whereas the UK changes its immigration policies over time. Within the different multicultural policy frameworks of the chosen countries, this study attempts to situate Pan-European- interculturalism as a potential policy approach to support social cohesion. In more specific terms, the commitment to promote and manage the issue of interculturalism and its function within social cohesion will be based on the researcher's interdisciplinary knowledge, combined with a critical analysis of the state of the art. It will be scientifically enhanced by the choice of Critical Discourse analysis (CDA) as Theoretical Framework and Methodological Approach to particular focus on contemporary assessments of policymaking strategies in those countries. PAPER #3 Ethno-racial inequalities in Belgian and German employment policy: Understanding policy frames through critical race theory AUTHOR(S) Laura Westerveen ( Vrije Universiteit Brussel) ABSTRACT Migrants and minorities continue to face inequalities in European societies across multiple societal domains, such as the education systems and labour markets. This paper studies the framing of these inequalities within policy discourses. It does so by studying policy frames in Belgian and German employment policy. Through a critical frame analysis of policy documents, the first part of the paper analyses the prevailing representations of ethno-racial (in)equality as a policy problem in Belgium and Germany. Inspired by critical race theory, it proposes a two-dimensional typology for conceptualizing ethno-racial (in)equality policy frames that distinguishes between colour-blind and colour-conscious policy frames, on the one hand, and redistributive and non-redistributive policy frames, on the other hand. The second part of the article adopts a comparative analysis and provides possible explanations for the dominantly found (colour-conscious and non-redistributive) ‘deficit frame’. Within the deficit frame, ethno-racial inequalities are portrayed as being caused by individual deficits of people with a ‘migration background’, and policy responses focus on compensating for these deficits. Again drawing on critical race theory, the paper suggests that the idea of ‘racial neoliberalization’ in Europe can best help explain the observed dominance of and trend towards the deficit frame.

author

Linda Haapajärvi

Centre Maurice Halbwachs (CNRS-EHESS-ENS)

author

Golam Nasibul Hoque

University of Canterbury, New Zealand

author

Laura Westerveen

discussant

Marco F Martiniello

CEDEM

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The IILME-research agenda (1): preparing the project “State policies and the demand for migrant workers pre and post COVID 19”.

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #220 workshop | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

organizer

Rinus Penninx

University of Amsterdam

organizer

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

In 2020 the Standing Committee IILME took the initiative to develop a common research project that intends to study the role of the state in its different forms in relation to migrant labour, using the particular circumstance of the COVID-pandemic as a critical case. An online workshop, held on November 25, 2020, was attended by 15 IILME-researchers from eight EU-countries to discuss a draft research proposal. This session is a direct follow-up of that workshop in which – among other issues – researchers from eight countries will outline how the central questions of the research proposal could be researched concretely in their country and comparatively.
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Methodological proposals to carry out research with migrant and refugee children – The experience of the IMMERSE H2020 project

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #221 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Yoan Molinero Gerbeau

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

chair

Ángela Ordóñez

Comillas Pontifical University

In the last decades, migration studies have experienced an upsurge that has been accompanied by long debates on which methodologies fit better with the different populations and cases conforming each research. There is a consensus on the fact that migrations are an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon that implies defining concrete methodological tools according to the specific characteristics of the collectives and situations to be analyzed. While several discussions on different fields have attracted an important part of the scientific community, research with migrant and refugee children is still underdeveloped. The H2020 IMMERSE project tried to fill this academic gap by deploying different methodologies aimed at mapping the integration of migrant and refugee children in Europe. From the construction of the final set of indicators through different qualitative methodologies involving children (focus groups) and experts (Delphi method) to the elaboration of a dataset on good practices and the construction of a dashboard of indicators containing the results of a survey with more than 9,000 respondents. IMMERSE’s research experience aims to be a point of reference for academics and policymakers. The objective of this panel will thus be both to discuss the design and some of the preliminary results of the diverse tools developed by the research teams conforming the project and see how they can contribute to the academic field of research on migrant and refugee children's integration. PAPER #1 Constructing the IMMERSE Questionnaires: Balancing Considerations for Digital Data Collection AUTHOR(S) Deirdre Horgan (University College Cork, Institute for Social Sciences in the 21st Century (ISS21); School of Applied Social Studies) Reana Maier (University College Cork, Institute for Social Sciences in the 21st Century (ISS21); School of Applied Social Studies) Shirley Martin (University College Cork, Institute for Social Sciences in the 21st Century (ISS21); School of Applied Social Studies) Jacqui O’Riordan (University College Cork, Institute for Social Sciences in the 21st Century (ISS21); School of Applied Social Studies) ABSTRACT "The development of survey questionnaires for IMMERSE involved a complex set of considerations in order to ensure the collection of quality data on migrant children’s experiences of education. This presentation will focus on the development of those instruments. Beginning with the dashboard of indicators as our foundation, we created a suite of data collection instruments to answer the ambitious vision of the project. This involved the development of questionnaires for multiple participant types: parents; younger (6-9) and older children (10-18); teachers and principals. The project aims to collect data from all participant types through a specially designed IT solution which significantly influenced the development of data collection instruments.. The questionnaires incorporated the dashboard of indicators and a range of demographic variables about the children and their schools, intended to complement one another and provide as complete a picture of their socioeducational integration as possible. We decided to split the children’s questionnaires into two age groups in order to create more age appropriate instruments incorporating child-friendly language and visual imagery for the younger group. The children’s questionnaires also needed to be appropriate for migrant and non-migrant children as we intended to collect data from entire classrooms. In addition to these various participant types and their accompanying specificities we also had to consider issues of language and technology which presented unique challenges, particularly in relation to consent. Finally, in light of recent events we have had to consider the challenges of conducting research in the age of COVID-19 conditions. This paper will be of interest to all those engaged in research through online platforms, those engaged in research with children and young people, and with migrants" PAPER #2 Qualitative research with refugee and migrant children in contexts of difficult access AUTHOR(S) Maria Daniela Marouda ( Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences) Eleni Koutsouraki ( Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences) Eirini Gkatsi ( Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences) Konstantina Tzavara ( Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences) ABSTRACT This paper aims to examine the challenges of qualitative research with migrant and refugee children in contexts of difficult access. The findings are based on the first phase of the IMMERSE project and precisely on the qualitative data collection that took place between May and September 2019 in Greece. Most of the children either had an intermittent education for the past years or they had never been involved within an educational context before. In addition, they were living in difficult conditions in Athens (e.g. refugee camps) and some of them were unaccompanied. Thus, the paper will present the methodological choices and the empirical experience on building and applying the research tools in order to address these and other obstacles, such as difficulties in interpretation and lack of cultural mediation. Special emphasis will be put on the collaboration with recreational facilities providing children with supporting education and/or psychosocial support, which was identified as the best way for reaching them. Furthermore, the paper will analyse the use of tools that facilitated communication with children during the focus group discussions such as icebreakers, music, post-its, boards with statements and energizers. PAPER #3 "Analysing good practices in the field of migrant children social and educational inclusion. Tools and results from the IMMERSE project" AUTHOR(S) Silvia Taviani (Save the Children Italy ) Valeria Fabretti (Save the Children Italy ) ABSTRACT "The notion of good practice commonly indicates a novel and creative solution aimed at improving the living conditions of individuals, groups, and communities. However, a certain ambiguity of the concept derives from its multifarious uses and to the fact that it is an extremely context-depending one. Indeed, a project, process, or result can be said to be “good” or “innovative” only relatively to a specific context of reference and to its capacity to respond to a specific need. In this, the need to adopt and adapt a good practice developed elsewhere in a new context has to be addressed and answered on a case-by-case basis. In the context of the Horizon 2020 research project Integration Mapping of Refugee and Migrant Children in Europe (IMMERSE), Save the Children Italy directed the phase dedicated to the collection and analysis of good practices in the national territories of the partner countries and at European level. In the methodology, the main indicators of migrant children integration, identified in the IMMERSE Dashboards, and the traditional identification requirements for a good practice (efficacy, efficiency, transferability etc.) have been combined in order to set up a tool for the detection of good practices to be used in the different contexts covered by the research project. At the same time, a large space is given to the identification of elements of innovation specifically responding to features and need arising at the very local level. The paper presents and discusses such methodology in the light of an overview concerning the preliminary results emerging from the IMMERSE first wave of good practices collection and analysis, in which 60 programs, projects or initiatives have been investigated. The capacity of the tool to balance standardization and flexibility is deepened while attempting to reconstruct, through the data collected, the state of the art in social innovation for migrant children inclusion in Europe. " PAPER #4 Identifying the core indicators of migrant and refugee children’s integration using the Delphi Method: findings of the IMMERSE project AUTHOR(S) Eva Bajo Marcos (University Institute of Studies on Migration. Comillas Pontifical University) Ángela Ordóñez Carabaño (University Institute of Studies on Migration. Comillas Pontifical University) Elena Rodríguez-Ventosa Herrera (University Institute of Studies on Migration. Comillas Pontifical University) ABSTRACT The objective of the IMMERSE project is to develop a dashboard of indicators on the socio-educative inclusion of refugee and migrant children in Europe. To that aim, 6 European partners coordinated a process of preselection and validation of indicators. This contribution will present the Delphi methodology employed to the selection of the dashboard of 30 indicators. A first identification of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) was carried out including a specialised scientific literature review, the mapping of previous indicators and qualitative workshops with key stakeholders at micro, meso and macro levels in the 6 countries. A resulting list of 50 key outcomes and determinants with their corresponding indicators underwent a two round Delphi study. International experts in the areas of inclusive education and/or migration assessed the pool of indicators via the Calibrum online tool based on the parameters of Clarity, Adequacy, Relevance and Accessibility foreseen in the CARA model. Additionally, 5 indicators considered as the most relevant for refugee and migrant children’s integration were selected. The experts were researchers, NGOs representatives and public officers. Initially, 62 experts were contacted, 24 agreed to participate and responded to the first consultation round, and finally, 19 responded to the second round too. Based on the Delphi results, the final set of 30 indicators was formed by those that reached a broader consensus, considering also the necessary representativeness of the indicators for each dimension or sub dimension of the dashboard.

discussant

Shannon Damery

CEDEM

discussant

Mateja Sedmak

author

Deirdre Horgan

University College Cork, Institute for Social Sciences in the 21st Century (ISS21); School of Applied Social Studies

author

Reana Maier

University College Cork

author

Shirley Martin

University College Cork, Institute for Social Sciences in the 21st Century (ISS21); School of Applied Social Studies

author

Jacqui O'Riordan

UCC

author

Maria Daniela Marouda

Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

author

Eleni Koutsouraki

European Centre of Research and Training on Human Rights and Humanitarian Action (EKEKDAAD), Panteion University, Athens

author

Eirini Gkatsi

Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

author

Konstantina Tzavara

Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

author

Silvia Taviani

author

Valeria Fabretti

author

Eva Bajo Marcos

Universidad Pontificia Comillas

author

Elena Rodríguez-Ventosa Herrera

University Institute of Studies on Migration (Comillas Pontifical University)

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Migration governance in the time of Covid-19: case studies of ‘crisis’ management in South-East Europe

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #222 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Dragana Stoeckel

This panel aims to contribute to understandings of how migration governance is being shaped by a ‘crisis’ discourse. We take the Covid-19 pandemic as the latest ‘crisis’ shaping migration governance and we focus on South-East Europe (SEE). Focus on this region stems from its geopolitical importance, especially since the ‘migrant crisis’ of 2015-16, which transformed its positioning in relation to European migration governance. Dynamic migration patterns have made SEE countries, to a varying extent, countries of origin, transit and destination. The Western Balkan countries experienced significant change, becoming one of the most populated migration routes into the EU. They constitute simultaneously the border along the EU, and the buffer zone between Greece and Western Europe. Greece, meanwhile, has experienced its own transformation, from a transit to a (temporary) destination front-line state. Significant numbers of migrants, therefore, are currently stranded in the Western Balkans and Greece, and in the time of Covid-19 they have become further subject to logic of ‘crisis’ management. The panel comprehensively examines the “crisis” management through policy, media and behavioural lenses, and as related to different groups of migrants (irregular, regular and returnees). By interrogating intersections between migration, health, security and economic development, the panellists consider the impact of Covid-19 on different aspects of migration governance, such as border control, domestic sociopolitical parameters that have been steering decision making toward securitization of migration policies toward further “campization” of migrants as well as the patterns of interpretation of migration issues found in the media. Beside the governmental, media and NGO role, the panel will provide insight into the intentions of Covid-19 triggered returnees in regard to permanently settling in their home country and potential solutions to mitigate emigration flows from the region. PAPER #1 Migration governance in the time of Covid-19: ‘crisis’ management in South-East Europe AUTHOR(S) Majella Kilkey (University of Sheffield, UK) Rebecca Murray (University of Sheffield, UK) Aneta Piekut (University of Sheffield, UK) Ryan Powell (University of Sheffield, UK) ABSTRACT Across Europe, migration, asylum and refugee policies have increasingly become subject to the logic of ‘crisis’ management.Governmental and media discourseshave framed various events as ‘crises’, and have governed with a rationale of “managing the ‘crisis’”. In this paper, we take the Covid-19 pandemic as the latest manifestation of this process focusing on South East Europe. This is a region, which since constituting the ‘Balkan corridor’ in 2015-16, has come to occupy a particular, albeit internally differentiated, positioning in relation to European migration governance. Drawing on data accumulated in the course of two European-funded projects – MIGRATE (2016-19) and MIGREC (2019-21) - and informed by a burgeoning scholarship on the intersection between ‘crisis’ and migration governance, we interrogate what the ‘crisis’ framing of Covid-19 has entailed for migration policy across the region. We find that policy responses, to some extent, have built upon pre-existing cognitive frames and practices, highlighting the enfolding of ‘crisis’ one within another, as well as the mutually reinforcing relationship between ‘crisis’ and ‘routine’ (Jeandesboz and Pallister-Wilkins 2016). Moreover, policy responses have been largely instrumental and ad hoc, seeking to find a solution to the immediate ‘problem’. The ‘crisis’ frame, therefore, works to conceal underlying systemic problems within migration policy, and fails to embed deeper social and political change (Tagliacozzo et al. 2020). PAPER #2 The impact of COVID-19 on policy responses to the ‘migrant crisis’ in Greece in the first year of the pandemic (2020-2021) AUTHOR(S) Alexandra Prodromidou (International Faculty of the University of Sheffield-CITY College/South-East European Research Centre (SEERC) ) Faye Ververidou (South-East European Research Centre (SEERC)) ABSTRACT The paper adopts a framework of multiple crises in the EU periphery, which reenact each other. The combination of a prolonged period of strict economic austerity measures, political and social turmoil dating back to 2010, had left the country severely unable to deal with the influx of irregular migrants, whose numbers peaked in 2015. The Greek handling of the ‘migrant crisis’ has been conducted within the framework of the EU policies and responses, exposing gaps in EU migration and asylum policies and the securitization tendencies both at the national and the EU policy formation level. The COVID-19 pandemic reduced significantly the influx of migrants, while it created an urgency for speeding up processes for access to housing and to health services for migrants already in Greece, a group described as a ‘health time bomb’ because of the living conditions they have been subject to. This paper argues that during the pandemic Greece’s migration governance is being conducted as a two-speed process. On the one hand restrictive measures are causing severe disruptions in an already sluggish asylum and integration system, while at the same time the urgent need to depressurize camps allows for policies formulated even before the break out of the pandemic, which expose migrants to even more vulnerability, like allocation of housing to asylum seekers and speedy eviction of recognized refugees from them. As a result, in the absence of an effective integration system, populations of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees remain vulnerable socially, economically and physically. PAPER #3 COVID-19 and migration in the public spheres of Greece and North Macedonia: agenda setting and (re-) framing in the context of the pandemic (2020) AUTHOR(S) Ioannis Armakolas (University of Macedonia,Thessaloniki, Greece/Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy) Panagiotis Paschalidis (University of Western Macedonia, Greece) Ognjan Denkovski (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands ) ABSTRACT This paper will study the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the dominant patterns of interpretation (frames and agenda setting) of migration issues in the public sphere of Greece and North Macedonia, two countries of the ‘Balkan corridor’. Previous studies (Bosilkov and Drakaki, 2018) have demonstrated the presence of two major frames, security and humanitarianism, with the first being more dominant. According to the literature, this trend applies to many countries in Europe. One has to expect either continuity (security rather than humanitarianism, deprioritization in the agenda) or a modification with bigger emphasis on humanitarianism, solidarity and integration. This paper will provide a qualitative discourse analysis of opinion papers (op-eds and editorials) from various media sources (print and digital) in Greece and North Macedonia. It will also draw upon framing and priming theories in order to analyze the basic frames applied by the media to migration issues and also to determine the effects of their agenda setting during most part of 2020. The paper will also include an analysis of discourse on social media platforms (i.e. Facebook and Twitter). This analysis will include aggregate summaries of the views of citizens expressed in response to news content and political statements related to migration issues as shared on social media, as well as an overview of the popularity (engagement rates) of this content. These insights will be used to determine the impact of the identified media framing of migration among citizens in Greece and North Macedonia. PAPER #4 Encampment and marginalization of irregular migrants as a policy response to COVID-19 along the Balkan route AUTHOR(S) Natalija Perišić (University of Belgrade, Faculty of Political Science, Serbia ) Dragana Stoeckel (University of Belgrade, Faculty of Political Science, Serbia, ) Nermin Oruc (Center for Development Evaluation and Social Science Research, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina) ABSTRACT The Balkan migration route witnessed a transit of almost a million of irregular migrants during the migration “crisis”, reaching its peak in 2015. With the closure of the route in March 2016, the number of migrants has been decreasing but the length of their stay has prolonged. The COVID-19 crisis which has been affecting the countries along the route as of the beginning of March 2020 disabled migrants’ transit and resulted in their encampment. Within the overall context of the impact of COVID-19 on irregular migrants in the countries along the Balkan Route, the paper is focused on Serbian and Bosnia and Herzegovina’s government measures targeted at irregular migrants from the beginning of the COVID-19 crisis. The authors analyze the regulation of their life in the camps and effectuation of rights to services in the two countries. They also analyse the roles of the public and the civil sector organizations, both international and national, and their contribution to the welfare of migrants in the camps in the changed reality. By looking into intersections of health, migration and security concerns, the authors argue that the implemented measures contributed to further marginalization of irregular migrants in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and at the same time, made many of the UN Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration objectives irrelevant for policy makers in those countries during pandemic upheaval. The methodological approach deployed is the review of regulations and interviews with stakeholders in the field from the public and civil sectors. PAPER #5 Returnees in Serbia in times of COVID-19 AUTHOR(S) Danica Šantić University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Serbia Milica Todorović PhD candidate, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Geography, Serbia Vlasta Kokotović Kanazir Geographical institute "Jovan Cvijić", SASA, Serbia ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic has created extraordinary and unprecedented challenges to societies worldwide, having a serious economic and social impact on origin, transit and destination countries, as well as on the migrant workers and their families. Impact of the virus on economic activity, in line with restrictive measures such as lockdowns and travel bans, enacted in an attempt to reduce the spread of COVID-19, have triggered large flows of returnees and repatriates. The Republic of Serbia was no exception to these occurrences as a traditionally emigration country. According to the official data, only in March 2020 more than 300.000 people returned to Serbia due to the pandemic. The research was conducted in Serbia in order to gather information on the impact of the pandemic on Serbian diaspora, the key reasons for returning home, intentions for permanently settling in the country of origin, highlighting the drivers that would influence that decision. Data was collected from a total of 336 respondents to an online survey during the period 25th September – 20th October 2020. The purpose of information gathering was to provide an opportunity for better understanding the reasons for outward migration, characteristics of life abroad, as well as the insight into potential systematic solutions to mitigate permanent emigration flows. This paper is looking into more depth not only at individual level, but also community and institutional levels, thus being able to propose an evidence-based integrated response. This response could have positive effects for demographic and economic development of the state and society as a whole.

discussant

Izabela Grabowska

SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mobility Research Group

discussant

Dejan Pavlović

University of Belgrade, Serbia

author

Majella Kilkey

University of Sheffield

author

Ryan Powell

University of Sheffield

author

Aneta Piekut

University of Sheffield, UK

author

Ryan Powell

University of Sheffield, UK

author

Alexandra Prodromidou

CITY College, University of York Europe Campus

author

Faye Ververidou

University of Sheffield

author

Ioannis Armakolas

University of Macedonia,Thessaloniki, Greece/Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy

author

Panagiotis Paschalidis

University of Western Macedonia, Greece

author

Ognjan Denkovski

University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

author

Natalija Perisic

author

Nermin Oruc

CREDI

author

Danica Šantić

University of Belgrade

author

Milica Todorovic

University of Belgade

author

Vlasta Kokotović Kanazir

Geographical institute "Jovan Cvijić", SASA, Serbia

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Covid and Post-Covid digital education. Opportunities and risks for migrant and other disadvantaged students

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #223 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Roberta Ricucci

FIERI

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the near-total closure of schools, universities and colleges. According to data provided by UNESCO, as of the end of November 2020, approximately 1,077 billion learners have been affected, 13% of the total learner population. School closures have impacted not only students, teachers, and families, but acted as a multiplier of socio-economic inequality at the intersection of class, gender, (dis)ability, ethnicity and migration status. The panel will be focussed on the impact on migrant and refugee children and their families: interrupted learning, compromised nutrition, childcare problems, and consequent economic cost to families who could not work during the pandemic. The various contributions will compare and contrast the effects of Covid-19 in various countries - Italy, Greece, Malta and Israel - and educational contexts and to what extent schools, administrations and civil-society organizations act in support of migrant children and their families in pursuing educational activities. Indeed, digital methods highlighted new potentialities such as new forms of digital transnational educational alliances between parents, children and educators; new partnerships among educational actors working in the formal, non-formal and informal settings; and a new focus on multilingualism in education. All the contributions will further discuss these opportunities in various local socio-cultural contexts, highlighting practices and initiatives which can then be discussed in the framework of policy transferability. PAPER #1 Inclusive Digital Education. Lessons from Europe. AUTHOR(S) Miali Dermish (SIRIUS Policy Network on Migrant Education) ABSTRACT In 2020 we saw many Ministries of Education instruct schools to move to various forms of distance-learning. Yet availability of advice, tools, guidance and support to do so, as well as preparedness of schools to implement such a shift smoothly, was very mixed. The OECD “Framework to guide a response to the Covid-19 Pandemic” reported that a large number of countries surveyed offered no initial guidance to “support the ongoing academic instruction of schools”. However, in many European Union countries we saw a slightly better response. As a network of researchers, policy-makers and migrant-led initiatives, SIRIUS Policy Network on Migrant Education collected information from their members on inspiring practice during the Covid-19 school closures, particularly at the school and NGO –level. This practice could be used to inform and improve both distance learning, digital learning and a post-pandemic prepared education system. In fact, SIRIUS was the first organisation to formulate a set of Member State and EU level recommendations for educational policy-makers in making digital education and post Covid-19 education more inclusive and robust (see here: https://www.sirius-migrationeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Moving-Educational-Policy-Forward-after-Covid-19-A-SIRIUS-Perspective-FINAL-1.pdf ). In addition, on December 2020 SIRIUS hold an ‘Inclusive Digital Education Workshop’ for 15 EU Member State teams consisting of policy-makers, teachers, students, migrant activists and social workers which has the dual role of identifying key challenges and potential solutions towards making digital inclusion more inclusive and informing national digital education plans for the future. As the leading network on migrant education in Europe in this paper we share the learnings from this workshop and our ongoing work on Digital Education. PAPER #2 Toward a digital esperanto? Suggestions and projects to overcome the linguistic gaps in the era of covid- education. AUTHOR(S) Letizia CInganotto (INDIRE Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione Innovazione e Ricerca Educativa) Alessia Rosa (INDIRE Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione Innovazione e Ricerca Educativa) Gabriella Taddeo (INDIRE Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione Innovazione e Ricerca Educativa) ABSTRACT During the pandemic, the school has been reorganized with articulated forms of distance and blended learning (Eurydice, 2020). As some researches, at national (Indire, 2020) and international (ICIPES, 2020) level, show, the greatest limitations were found precisely in the inclusiveness of distance learning, since the family background was central to supporting students, especially the younger ones, and this factor led to amplify inequality in the learning opportunities. The linguistic issue was, in such gap, one of the central issues. The presentation will analyze some initiatives carried out to support immigrants and refugees by providing educational pathways with particular focus on language learning in multilingual and multicultural contexts. At international level, it is worth mentioning the "Language for Resilience" project, created by the British Council in 2016 out of a need to address the language needs of migrants and refugees who experienced interruption to learning and life. Starting from this project and the different actions provided, such as the involvement of different stakeholders, the creation of a digital repository of learning contents, the combination of formal and informal learning within the refugees' communities etc., the presentation will try to design possible future educational scenarios addressing the specific refugees and migrants language needs, also taking into consideration the latest Council Recommendation for a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages (2019), the report "Education begins with language" (2020) and some other documents at international level. PAPER #3 Digital Education for asylum-seekers in Greece: NGO/IGO Projects and the Challenge of Coordination AUTHOR(S) Asteris Huliaras (University of the Peloponnese) Sotiris Petropoulos (University of the Peloponnese) ABSTRACT In September 2016, the Greek ministries of education and migration policy jointly presented a plan for the education of refugee children and their integration into the Greek education system. This plan aimed at facilitating access to education for all minors living in accommodation structures in Greece. It provided for pre-schoolers to be educated through schemes organized in the refugee camps (as parents were considered to feel uncomfortable sending them away to pre-schools), while children of primary and secondary school age would be integrated into local schools. However, many Greek teachers felt unprepared to deal with ethnically diverse classes and the language barrier proved a major impediment to the implementation of the plan. Efforts with regard to education and training in digital literacy and e-skills that are now of fundamental importance for access to education in the Covid-19 era were sporadic for asylum-seekers and mostly originating with NGOs and international organizations. There is an almost complete lack of data available on the state of digital culture of migrants in Greece. Nevertheless, the average level of education of migrants in Greece is among the lowest in OECD countries. The paper identifies and classifies relevant digital and e-skills projects implemented by NGOs and IGOs for migrants in Greece focusing on the problems of fragmentation, lack of coordination and duplication. It attempts to analyze best practices and see how a digital culture and e-skills can “diffuse” within and among migrant communities and within migrant families – overcoming gender and age gaps. PAPER #4 Educational and Cultural Practices during Covid 19 - African Asylum Seekers' Schools in Israel AUTHOR(S) Dolly Eliyahu-Levi (Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv) Michal Ganz-Meishar (Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv) ABSTRACT African asylum seekers children in Israel suffer from developmental disabilities, learning difficulties and sensitive problems (Kritzman-Amir, 2015). Corona crisis exacerbated the situation, because many children found themselves together with their parents in a complex reality of life: crowded apartments without computers and suitable space for studying. During such a period, the educators are required to practice that goes beyond the boundaries of the classroom and allows communication with the parents, who often do not understand what is expected of them (Ben-Peretz & Flores, 2018). In this study, we examined the actions of teaching students who taught in educational institutions where children from families of African asylum seekers study. The study is qualitative-interpretive (Shalsky & Arieli, 2016), and included 20 teaching students who experienced teaching experiences outside the school walls in community, socio-cultural contexts. For example, meetings with language mediators and culture mediators, conversations with parents and community leaders. The findings were collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with the students. The findings reveal pedagogical practices in four spaces: (1) Personal - expressing a commitment to know about children's culture, customs and language of origin (Eliyahu-Levi & Ganz-Meishar, 2017), (2) Distance Learning - division into groups, use of classroom YouTube channels, language mediation (Burdina, Krapotkina, & Nasyrova, 2019), (3) Family - strengthening the bond with the parents, (4) Community - tightening the connection between the school and support organizations. This research may expand the academic discussion about teaching-learning processes with children from diverse groups in society. Increasing awareness of pedagogical practices that encourage personal relationship with the child, familiarity with families and their socio-cultural capital.

discussant

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

discussant

Alessio D'Angelo

University of Nottingham

author

Miali Dermish

SIRIUS Policy Network on Migrant Education

author

Asteris Huliaras

author

Sotiris Petropoulos

University of the Peloponnese

author

Dolly Eliyahu-Levi

Levinsky College of Education

author

Michal Ganz-Meishar

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Moving beyond ‘marriage migration’ – negotiations of cross-border relations beyond heteronormativity and ethnic ‘particularism’

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #224 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

chair

Sarah Scuzzarello

University of Sussex

The literature on transnational marriages tends to focus on specific South-to-North mobility flows and on heterosexual relations. While these studies are valuable, they do not capture the full diversity of cross-border relations. The panel aims to shed light on the diversity of mobility and of unions by questioning ‘migration’ and ‘marriage’. The papers show how cross-border relations take place beyond the movement between an economically less developed country and a more advanced one. They present examples of understudied mobility patterns e.g. rural-urban, regional, North-South, or North-North. Further, and unlike much of the existing research on the topic, the papers do not solely focus on heterosexual marriages, but examine the dynamics of non-heteronormative intimate unions. The panel wishes to contribute to better understanding of the process and dynamics of cross-border relationships by examining (a) how state migration regimes govern and shape the mobility, and ultimately the existence of, transnational unions; and (b) what consequences these legal boundaries have for individuals within a cross-border relation. Drawing on data from the United Kingdom, Kenya, and Thailand, the papers engage with the strategies deployed by individuals to maintain a transnational union in the context of the legal and social barriers they face. PAPER #1 Marriage, migration and mobility for same-sex couples in Kenya AUTHOR(S) Apostolos Andrikopoulos ( University of Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Although marriage and mobility are inherently related, marriage migration researchers are interested only in marriages in which the spouses move across international borders. This selection bias, even when researchers are critical of state’s exclusionary policies, reproduces a state-centered approach that considers migration as a problem to be explained and imposes the legal definition of marriage as a self-evident one. Without treating cross-border mobility as exceptional, this paper examines the mobility trajectories of Kenyan men and women in same-sex marriages. The paper explores the social conditions that generate different types of mobility (rural-urban, regional, international) and the interrelation between these types of mobility and marriage. For Kenyan men and women in same-sex unions, there are multiple meanings and moralities of same-sex marriage. These include socially (but not legally) recognized marriages, religious marriages solemnized by LGBT-inclusive churches, marriages officiated in countries that legally recognize same-sex marriage, and the less popular and declining institution of woman-to-woman marriage. In addition to this spectrum of options, there is also the possibility of remaining single or marrying a person of different sex. The paper shows that all these forms of same-sex marriage involve some sort of geographic mobility and often implicate social mobility, at least for one of the spouses. Analyzing marriage and mobility into a single frame that does not prioritize one particular type of marriage and one particular type of mobility, we are able to see the similarities of cross-border marriages with other marriages and how the regulatory role of the state produces and accentuates differences. PAPER #2 Kept Apart: dis-integrating impacts of family immigration restrictions on UK citizens with non-UK partners AUTHOR(S) Katharine Charsley (University of Bristol) ABSTRACT The literature on transnational marriage in the European context has disproportionately focussed on particular ethnic groups or nationalities of migrant spouses, masking the diversity of contemporary transnational partnerships and spousal immigration. As Brexit brings an even wider variety (and greater volume) of relationships under the purview of the UK family immigration regime, this paper draws on co-produced research with British spouses of partners from a range of national backgrounds, to explore the impacts of immigration-related separation. Whilst national discourses focussed on ethnic minority transnational marriages increasingly use the promotion of integration as a rationale for immigration restrictions, this research explores the dis-integrating impacts on those denied family reunification. PAPER #3 Negotiated exchanges in Western-Thai non-heteronormative relations AUTHOR(S) Sarah Scuzzarello (SCMR University of Sussex) Paul Statham (SCMR University of Sussex) ABSTRACT Thailand has been a preferred destination for foreign tourists for the past 60 years and tourism is now a key source of income for the country, with the tourism industry contributing to 17% of the GDP (2019). The scale of foreigners moving in and out of the country has led to the establishment of transnational mobility patterns between Thailand and countries in the global North, often as the resultants of heterosexual, partnerships and marriages. These relations have been the disproportionate subject of research which has overshadowed transnational relationships between Western men and Thai gays and trans people (kathoey). This paper aims to contribute to fill this knowledge gap. We examine how the dynamics that characterise non-heteronormative cross-border relations differ from heterosexual interactions. Further, we highlight how non-heterosexual cross-border relations are embedded in global patriarchal structures which intersects with socioeconomic class and ethnic background. Drawing from a non-representative sample of Thai gay men and kathoey (N:10), we argue that these relations lead to the establishment of new ‘patriarchal bargains’ that that aim to (a) enhance the participants’ status in Thai society; (b) create a space to express their sexuality/gender; and (c) secure their future.

discussant

Eleonore Kofman

MDX

author

Apostolos Andrikopoulos

University of Amsterdam

author

Katharine Charsley

author

Paul Statham

SCMR University of Sussex

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Gender & Sexuality 5

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #225 panel | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

chair

Cristina Navarrete

The main aspects of adaptation of female migrants from Central Asia to Russia at the early stage of migration experience Elizaveta Kosmidis NRU Higher School of Economics, Moscow The number of female migrants who arrived in the Russian Federation in 2019 were 299,433, which is about 43% of the total number of migrants (Rosstat, 2020). Most of them are immigrants from Central Asia - the main donor counties of labor migrants. The significant features of this migration as a whole (established migration channels, backbreaking work and impoverished living conditions, etc.) is complemented by the peculiarities of the position of women in the countries of origin (traditional families, established patriarchal relations, a high degree of compulsion of cultural and religious norms). In the moving process a woman is immersed in a new urban and cultural environment that is unusual for her, which she needs to adapt and build her life - everyday, social, and cultural - from scratch. In terms of migration from Central Asia to Russia, traditionally we mean the move of a man and a possible move of a woman after him. Currently we are increasingly faced with women who decide to move on their own or break off relations with a partner after moving in order to continue the migration path on their own. Among the main reasons for such changes, it is worth considering both structural factors (transformation of the labor market, increasing demand for traditionally “female” vacancies, etc.), and socio-cultural processes, such as the feminization of migration flows, which often demonstrates the gap between migrants and the traditional culture of the countries of origin. In the course of this report, women will be presented as independent subjects of the migration process. We will make an attempt to assess the independence of women in their decisions at the early stages of the migration path, we will analyze the transformation of the social roles of women and gender contracts in the process of gaining migration experience. The study will be based on the results of qualitative field research, which will be carried out in Moscow in 2021. === Number of children of Cape Verdean and Portuguese women in Portugal. Are they really that different? Pedro Candeias Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa Violeta Alarcão Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa and ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia Sónia Cardoso Pintassilgo ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia Madalena D’Avelar ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia The aim of this communication is to compare fertility behaviors between Cape Verdeans migrant and Portuguese native women in Portugal. According to the national statistics, in 2019, about 11.000 live births were born to foreign mothers, corresponding to 12% of the total of births. The same year, the foreign population in the total resident population was 6%, indicating that births are more frequent in foreign women. The second most represented foreign nationality is the Cape Verdean, with about 37.000 citizens in Portugal in 2019. This communication represents an exploratory analysis and is empirically supported by the FEMINA project (Fertility, Immigration and Acculturation), in which a probabilistic sample of 151 Cape Verdean migrant and 102 Portuguese native women of childbearing age residing in the Greater Lisbon area was surveyed. The average number of children was 1.13 in Portuguese women (mean age 37), and 1.15 in Cape Verdean women (mean age 32). In order do understand these differences obtained by a Ancova that controlled the effect of age (p=0.001) the following hypotheses will be explored. The hypothesis associated with the length of stay postulate that the fertility of migrant women is especially high upon arrival, since the purpose of the migration can be to start a family. A competing hypothesis holds that the first years in the destination society are disruptive moments, so fertility should be low in the early times. The length of stay can also be related to an adjustment to host society fertility patterns. In a similar sense, the hypothesis of transnationalism assumes that more people with coethnic sociability networks will have a fertility behavior similar to one in the country of origin. The hypothesis of socialization argues that is important where the woman spends her childhood, since this is where she will internalize the dominant norms regarding fertility. This work expects to contribute to the discussion of fertility related factors. === Insights into dimensions of Trafficking in humans: The Zimbabwean Perspective Chamunogwa Nyoni Bindura University of Science Education Roda Madziva University of Nottingham Juliet Thondlana University of Nottingham Innocent Mahiya Women's University in Africa Human trafficking has been an on-going global rights violation since time immemorial. Zimbabwe moved in tandem with the world when she criminalised human trafficking in 2014 through the enactment of the Trafficking in Persons Act [Chapter 9: 25]. Despite this bold move, macro structural factors that include social, economic and political contexts of human trafficking remain least understood due to unavailability of rigorous research on the subject. This research examines the recruitment and transportation of humans for the purposes of exploitation. It explores the dynamics of trafficking in Zimbabwe including the methods used to lure the victims. The study is anchored on the argument that poverty underlies vulnerability hence trafficking in Zimbabwe is largely symptomatic of multiple dimensions of deprivation. Years of economic decay resulting in disparities in economic and social conditions provide a clear explanation for the path and movement of trafficking. This research seeks to establish how deprived individuals are rendered powerless – in all fronts-physically, legally and politically. Furthermore, this research explores the gendered nature of human trafficking and its variable impacts on women in the Zimbabwean society where cultural stereotyping and sexism often make women more vulnerable to human trafficking than men. Key Words Human trafficking, Zimbabwe, economic decay, exploitation, sexism, cultural stereotyping

author

Elizaveta Kosmidis

National research university Higher school of economics

author

pedro candeias

ISAMB, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa

author

Violeta Alarcão

Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa and ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia

author

Sónia Cardoso Pintassilgo

ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia

author

Madalena D’Avelar

ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), Centro de Investigação e Estudos de Sociologia

author

Chamunogwa Nyoni

Bindura University of Science Education

author

Roda Madziva

University of Nottingham, School of Politics and International Relations

author

Juliet Thondhlana

University of Nottingham

author

Innocent Mahiya

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Norms & Values 1

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #226 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Tamar Todria

Institute for European Studies IES TSU

Everything but the marriage certificate: On the accommodation of unmarried partners in Norwegian immigration regulation Anne Staver NIBR/OsloMet Helga Eggebø Nordland Research Institute The border closures brought on by the covid-19 pandemic separated countless couples and families, including many unmarried partners who previously had the privilege of accessible transnational family lives. Many states eventually opened for entry of “boyfriends“ and “girlfriends“ - with varying criteria for how these were to be identified. Taking these recent regulations as a point of departure, we have traced the historical accommodation of unmarried partners in Norwegian immigration regulation, analyzing policy documents, media coverage and a set of family reunification case files. Over time, civil society and some politicians have mobilized to further open the doors for certain forms of non-formalized relationships, for example through the Liberal party’s recurrent proposals for a “love visa”. At the same time doors have been closing on other types of relationships which ostensibly are in line with the letter of the law, with heightened scrutiny of so-called marriages of convenience and arranged marriages. In a society where there is no clear cultural preference of marriage over cohabitation, this points to the normative power of purpose over papers. In this paper we highlight contradictions inherent in family immigration regulation that become apparent when our lens is aimed at unmarried couples. We find that certain specific forms of domestic partnerships - those which conform to the idea of heterosexual romantic love and stable relationships - have continuously been accommodated and allowed entry. === Moral Economies of Undocumented Migration? Hannah Pool Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies Research on undocumented migration tends to focus on either the country of origin or destination perspective, neglecting the transit route and trajectory between these two locations. When focusing on the trajectory, however, the central role of money in undocumented migration becomes apparent. Without money for transportation and smuggling fees, movements along undocumented migration trajectories are impossible to initiate or enact. Nevertheless, the role that personal and communal finances play in undocumented migration is often overlooked as a primary research topic in migration studies. This research project investigates the pivotal role of money in enabling and disabling undocumented migration by asking 
(1) what is the relational aspect of money in informal settings?
 (2) how do social relationships enable, facilitate, or hinder economic interactions in undocumented migration trajectories? (3) how do these economic interactions in return affect social relationships on the route? To analyse the role of social relationships for economic interactions throughout the entire trajectory, a nine-month multi-sited ethnography (Marcus 1996) was carried out from Iran via the transit countries Turkey and Greece along the Balkan route to Germany. Thereby, recorded interviews with 66 undocumented Afghan migrants and 10 NGOs were conducted. The presentation investigates how social relationships between undocumented migrants and their families, their smugglers, their fellow migrants, and state agents shape their respective economic interactions along the route. Further, it examines how these economic interactions, in turn, affect social relationships at the destination. " === Lived experiences of stateless Afghan refugees in Iran: Narratives of resilience and trauma growth Hadi Farahani University of Eastern Finland Mohamed Tavakol Tehran University As a neighboring country, Iran has hosted 3.8 million Afghans for almost 40 years. According to the official statistics, only 898 thousand Afghans living in Iran have a residence permit and the remaining are considered as “stateless”. The stateless Afghans live in shadows and have no rights in Iranian society at all. We have probed the lived experiences of the stateless Afghans in Iran to understand how positively they have managed life difficulties during years. To do this we chose narrative theory and methodology. We interviewed 34 stateless Afghans through the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed in NVivo and 4 main categories including, “interpersonal trust”, “semi-official life management”, “cohesive community within society”, “transient philosophy of life” were extracted. Discrimination, humiliation, powerlessness, hesitation, and unpredictability were common daily life experiences within stateless Afghans in the Iranian society. Cultural, religious, and linguistic similarities between Afghanistan and Iran along with sharing long borderlines and better economic situation of Iran compared to Afghanistan were referred to by stateless Afghans as encouraging factors to migrate from Afghanistan to Iran. There is a strong institutional, and systematic discrimination towards Afghans (including registered and stateless) generally in Iranian society that excludes Afghans from the mainstream. Stateless Afghans in Iran need their voices to be raised by more independent research and be heard by international agencies. Iranian society can promote laws and rethink legislative barriers in the way of granting citizenship and residence permits to Afghan immigrants.

author

Hannah Pool

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies

author

Anne Balke Staver

Oslo Metropolitan University

author

Helga Eggebø

Nordland Research Institute

author

Hadi Farahani

University of Eastern Finland

author

Mohamed Tavakol

Tehran University

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Governing Migration

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #227 workshop | SC Migration Politics and Governance

organizer

Christiane Fröhlich

GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies

organizer

Lea Müller-Funk

German Institute of Global and Area Studies

How do states govern different forms of migration, for instance forced migration or protracted displacement? What are the consequences of the different governance approaches? Which alternative models exist? What could an alternative migration management look like which both considers how development processes affect migration and vice versa, and more globally, which understands migration as an intrinsic part of human societies across the globe? These questions are not only at the core of migration studies and have led to a sizeable number of academic works; they also have garnered the attention of policy-makers all over the world in recent years. This is illustrated by the number of large research consortia focusing on migration governance and migration dynamics which have been established in the last decade. The workshop aims to bring a number of such projects in fruitful dialogue with each other in order to a) compare research designs and goals, b) identify synergies between the projects and remaining research gaps, and c) discuss outreach strategies to maximise impact in order to counter post-factual migration discourses. The following projects will be represented: ADMIGOV - Advancing Alternative Migration Governance DEMIG - Determinants of International Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of Policy, Origin and Destination Effects MAGYC - Migration Governance and Asylum Crises MIGNEX - Aligning Migration Management and the Migration–Development Nexus TRAFIG - Transnational Figurations of Displacement

participant

Benjamin Etzold

Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)

participant

Anja van Heelsum

IMES Amsterdam

participant

François Gemenne

Hugo Observatory, Université de Liège

participant

Hélène Thiollet

Sciences Po

participant

Katharina Natter

University of Leiden

participant

Marta Bivand Erdal

Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)

participant

Ayşen Üstübici

Koç University

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Norms & Values 10

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #228 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Doga Ultanir

Immigration and Trust: The Case of Venezuelans in Colombia Jeremy Lebow Duke University Jonathan Moreno Duke University Horacio Coral Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, Colombia What is the effect of mass migration on trust towards foreigners? We combine an instrumental variable approach with a nationwide survey on social preferences to study the effect of the Venezuelan exodus into Colombia. We find that migrants sort into more trusting locations, but there is no average causal effect of immigration on trust. However, immigration increases trust in foreigners in municipalities that are more urbanized, have better public goods provision and where natives and foreigners are less residentially segregated. Given appropriate conditions, proximity to immigrants does not drive anti-immigrant sentiment and can in fact improve cooperative attitudes. === The governance of migration-related services: Does Human Rights literacy matter? Grazia Concilio Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Maryam Karimi Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Giuliana Costa Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Paola Regina Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Welcoming migrants and implementing measures to guarantee their inclusion and integration are public administrations’ key duties and goals within the constraints of national and international norms and regulations. In this paper, we present a study based on the experience being collected within the framework of easyRights, an ongoing Horizon2020 project aiming at easing migrants’ access and use of public services to guarantee their inclusion and integration. The project is providing evidence that in addition to well-known obstacles frequently making services access hard for migrants (like linguistic gaps, bureaucratic complexities, complicated interfaces), a relevant and sometimes disruptive role is played by the limited literacy regarding human rights general principles, prescriptions, and norms among people dealing with migrants’ needs and problems. This limitation often inhibits existing rights enforcement thus restricting migrants’ opportunities. As stated in the EU Charter, human rights are the basis of a pluralistic democracy, founded on the universal values of human dignity, freedom, equality, and solidarity, which are the common European heritage. Therefore, protecting and promoting fundamental rights is the main duty of the European public administration at the supranational, national, and regional levels. Here we present the conceptual framework that we developed to investigate the human rights literacy of public and private actors in charge of providing services to migrants. We also discuss some preliminary research results findings of that investigation, focusing on different services provided to migrants in four different European cities, namely Palermo in Italy, Larissa in Greece, Malaga in Spain, and Birmingham in the UK. === Reframing Integration through Belonging: A Case Study of Labor Migrants and Refugees from Yugoslavia in Switzerland Sandra King-Savic European University Institute Florence For my ongoing research project, I examine how labor migrants and refugees position themselves within narratives of integration in Switzerland. What does integration mean for migrants, and how do those who experienced migration define integration? Crucially, how do narratives of integration differ between labor migrants and refugees, including their children? By extension, are there hierarchies of perceived ‘deservingness’ that separate labor migrants from refugees, and how do labor migrants and former refugees evaluate the arrival of new refugees in terms of possible competition for labor and social assistance? While voluntary and involuntary immigrants from the Western Balkans form the largest migratory group in Switzerland, the question of how these migrants define belonging in Switzerland has not yet been researched. === ‘We don’t sit close on the bus’: boundaries of ‘Swedishness’ in mono/multiethnic non-whites and monoethnic whites in Sweden Caroline Adolfsson Malmö University In interviews with 40 Swedes, the question ‘Do you consider yourself Swedish’ was explored. The formation of identity or the boundaries of ‘Swedishness’ were found in three separate themes across all interviews; ascription, active particiation, and ancestry. All three of these themes were present for monoethnic white and multi/monoethnic non-white participants. However, their meanings and usages took on different roles depending on the participants categorization. For example, ascription aided monoethnic whites in claiming Swedishness whereas a lack of ascription could be a hinderance for multi/monoethnic non-whites. Many scholars within Sweden have discussed the implications of not being ascribed as Swedish within society and therefore being denied the identification of being ‘Swedish’ (Osanami Torngren, Hubinette & Lundstrom, 2011; Hubinette & Tigervall 2009; Lundtröm 2010). Considering the changing demographics of Sweden it is important to ask whether or not individuals of non-Swedish backgrounds feel as if they have a place or belong in society. What shapes an individual’s feeling of being Swedish, or the centrality of that identity? Prior research and results from this study suggest that this may be affected by ascribed identity from others related to reflected appraisal, feelings of personal belongingness, and the centrality of continued ethnic identification with ancestral home country identities. === Time and the Power of Education: Attitudes towards “Others” in Polish Society (1988-2018) Ewa Nowicka Collegium Civitas, Warsaw Slawomir - Łodzinski Warsaw University , Faculty of Sociology In this paper, we explore both the evolution and the diversity of attitudes found in Polish society towards “Others.” Serving as the empirical database for this longitudinal analysis across three decades are the results of nationwide surveys (applying an identical methodology and questionnaire) conducted in 1988, 1998, and 2018. The data obtained allows us to trace the changes in the ways in which socially-recognized, ethnic borders function as well as the principles for inclusivity and exclusivity in Polish society towards “Others.” The variations in attitudes towards “Otherness” range from a postulated openness and archetypical tolerance towards immigrants (1988), through moderate openness during the political transformation (1998), to a deterioration in acceptance and tolerance during the 2015-2018 migration crisis – a period in which “foreigners” became the subject of a strongly politicized public debate. In general, Polish thinking about contacts with “Others” remains largely consistent with European attitudes towards “strangers” and their variability. Acceptance of migrants in various social roles is part of a worldview at the core of which is an understanding of cultural diversity alongside a need to maintain a cohesive social order. In this paper, our goal is to show that an inclusivity towards “Others” – an openness to cultural and physical differences – is most influenced by an individual’s level of education. Accepting, positive attitudes towards immigrants in Poland correlates with the building of a deeper body of knowledge, reflection, and curiosity about the world. Such a relationship is observed over the course of three decades.

author

Grazia Concilio

DAStU, Politecnico di Milano

author

Maryam Karimi

Politecnico di Milano

author

Ewa Nowicka

Collegium Civitas, Warsaw

author

Slawomir - Łodzinski

Warsaw University, Faculty of Sociology

author

Jeremy Lebow

Duke University

author

Jonathan Moreno

Duke University

author

Horacio Coral

Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística, Colombia

author

GIULIANA COSTA

Politecnico di Milano

author

Paola Regina

Politecnico University

author

Sandra King-Savic

University of St. Gallen

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Culture, Language and inclusion in European countries: problems and challenges

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #229 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

organizer

Juliette Delahaie

Lille University

PAPER #1 The linguistic and cultural challenges of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK: Investigation and implementation AUTHOR(S) Gloria Chamorro ABSTRACT Being aware of cultural differences is a key factor for the successful integration of refugees and asylum seekers in the host country (e.g. AlHammadi, 2016; Baranik, Hurst, & Eby, 2018), so an important part of their education and acculturation process should be intercultural understanding, and not just language learning, but how do language teachers and courses deal with this? This paper will present a study conducted to find out about the language learning support offered in the UK for refugees and asylum seekers from different backgrounds, with a particular focus on the practices that are used by language teachers to support migrants’ language learning and acculturation to the host country, as well as the challenges faced by them and their students in this regard. The results from this investigation will be discussed, which among other issues revealed that teachers lack awareness of their migrant students’ cultural and linguistic backgrounds and that cross-cultural differences lead to miscommunication and misbehaviour in the classroom. These findings have led to a number of implementations to support the language learning of refugees and asylum seekers. Some of these implementations will also be presented. References AlHammadi, F. S. (2016). Psycholinguistic determinants of immigrant second language acquisition. Lingua, 179, 24-37. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2016.03.001 Baranik, L. E., Hurst, C. S., & Eby, L. T. (2018). The stigma of being a refugee: A mixed-method study of refugees' experiences of vocational stress. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 105, 116-130. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2017.09.006 PAPER #2 Research into the development of unaccompanied minor refugees in foster care AUTHOR(S) Johan Vanderfaeillie (Vraie Universität Brussels (Belgium)) ABSTRACT In Flanders, unaccompanied minor refugees (URM) are increasingly care for in foster care. In 2017, 331 URM of 1920 (17.2%) stayed in a foster family; 74 in non-kinship foster families and 257 in kinship foster families. Non-kinship foster families are mostly autochthonous foster families, kinship foster families have the same cultural background. Although URM increasingly live in foster care, little is known on their development in foster care. This study aimed at investigating the development of URM in kinship and non-kinship foster care and the association of positive development with foster child, foster parent and placement characteristics. URM in kinship and non-kinship foster families out of two Flemish foster care agencies participated in the study. The URM filled in a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, a Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress, a Resilience Scale and items from the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale. The quality of the educational environment was measured with the Best Interest of the Child Questionnaire. Compared to population norms, URM reported as much behavioural problems as they autochthonous counterparts. However, they did report significantly less resilience and more trauma symptoms. URM in kinship care did not differ regarding behavioural problems, resilience and trauma symptoms from URM in non-kinship foster care. Contact with adults was associated with less trauma symptoms and contact with peers from the host country was associated less trauma symptoms. The development of URM in foster care is problematic. Screening and assessment of behavioural problems and trauma symptoms is recommended, and treatment of these problems may be needed. Resilience of URM is not granted. Interventions promoting resilience in URM may be needed. PAPER #3 Separated young people's perspectives and experiences of life in Northern France AUTHOR(S) Amy Stapleton (Trinity College Dublin) Paula Mayock (Trinity College Dublin) ABSTRACT Aged-out separated children (those who are outside their country of origin, without their parent or customary/ legal guardian and have recently turned eighteen) confront significant challenges as they navigate the transition to adulthood due to a lack of family support and because of their distinctly limited access to state support. It is imperative when developing new policies and attempting to resolve an issue as pressing as the displacement of people across Europe, that the contexts and concerns of those most affected are among the informing factors. Despite this, there is a lack of research on this highly marginalised youth population and their voices are rarely heard or considered. As a result, little is understood on how separated young people experience the process of acculturation. This presentation draws from participatory action PhD research that examines 12 separated young people’s experiences of the transition to adulthood in Northern France. The young people were invited to take part in one in-depth interview and a participatory group project consisting of 3 non-formal education workshops and 16 informal meetings, and during which they created six social actions. The aim of the presentation is to better understand the complexity and diversity of separated young people’s lives by asking: how do these young people experience and perceive the acculturation process and what stakeholders contribute to shaping these experiences? PAPER #4 Language teaching to migrant people in Italy: Italian language, immigrant languages and cultures AUTHOR(S) Carla Bagna (University for Foreigners of Siena) Sabrina Machetti (University for Foreigners of Siena) ABSTRACT The aim of our contribution is to show how in Italy the emphasis, during last decades, on the Italian language for migrants was not accompanied by an explicit and unique idea of acculturation. The reasons are that the process of teaching Italian language is always a process of teaching language and culture and the idea of intercultural knowledge is present in different official documents (for example for the schools we have a document about “La via italiana all’intercultura – The Italian way for intercultural”) and for the migrants the EU language policy, in many EU documents, underline linguistic diversity and multilingualism considered as a priority, as we found also in AMIF projects. The idea of the teaching of Italian language is accompanied by a process of “educazione civica – civil education”, as the migrants can live in Italy as Italian citizen. In the test for long-term permits introduced in Italy by a ministerial decree in 2010, A2 test of Italian for integration and later B1 level for citizenship, the words integration and citizenship are central for the debate in Italy, not only for newcomers. The paper will explore how during courses of Italian language for migrants we take into account other cultures and languages and how it’s important to improve existing tools. PAPER #5 How to introduce the culture of the host country into a language training? Two case studies from France and Sweden AUTHOR(S) Emmanuelle Canut (Lille University, France) Juliette Delahaie (Lille University, France) Silvia Kunitz (Stockholm University, Sweden) ABSTRACT The intercultural approach of language is very famous at the European level, since at least the Common European Framework for Languages (2001); there are though fewer references to this approach when it deals with migrant people in European reports (see the 2018 report, Survey on language and knowledge of social policies for migrants). This communication focuses on how culture-related topics emerge in two different settings in France and Sweden. In Sweden, language cafés for newcomers are organized by civil society to aid the social integration of immigrants and provide them with an arena for “language training”. In these settings, culture is talked into relevance in various activities (e.g., information-giving sessions, discussions, readings, etc.). The aim of this communication is twofold. First, an overview of the topics chosen for the language training activities sheds light on the volunteers’ and coordinators’ emic conceptualizations of “culture”. Second, a close analysis of interactional sequences in which culture-related topics are discussed will illustrate how such topics are characterized and how the migrants’ reactions are treated in subsequent talk. In a second time, we will contrast these findings with the results from an experimental school conducted in Lille (French project led by the University of Lille and supported by the local authorities, 2019-2020. In this program of French as a Foreign Language, the teaching of culture is a key factor. We will compare the topics chosen for the language training activities with the Swedish ones. We will then analyze how these topics are dealt with in the language classroom and we will focus on the intercultural pedagogical approach developed in these courses.

author

Emmanuelle CANUT

Lille University

discussant

Erika Kalocsanyiova

University of Greenwich

author

Johan Vanderfaeillie

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Amy Stapleton

Trinity College Dublin

author

Paula Mayock

author

Carla Bagna

University for Foreigners of Siena

author

Sabrina Machetti

University for Foreigners of Siena

author

Gloria Chamorro

University of Kent

author

Silvia Kunitz

Stockholm University

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Education & Social Inequality 10

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #230 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Vinod Sartape

Central European University

The Extent and Determinants of Linguistically Responsive Teaching in southwest China Qian Liu KU Leuven Zehra Colak University of Antwerp Orhan Agirdag KU Leuven Multilingualism research has flourished in recent decades. However, most studies focus on linguistically responsive teaching in Western contexts, where the majority of teachers are White, middle class, and monolingual. This paper aims to contribute to research on multilingualism by investigating the linguistic diversity beliefs and practices of school teachers from ethnic minority and majority backgrounds. A unique sample of 606 minority and non-minority teachers across ten minority-dominant schools from southwest China participated in the study. The results of the descriptive analyses show that school teachers hold both monolingual and multilingual beliefs. Despite holding positive views about multilingual education activities and multilingual teachers, teachers perceive minority students’ home language as a barrier to learning the dominant language and achievement in schoolwork. Furthermore, teachers rarely implement linguistically responsive teaching practices. The results of bivariate analyses indicate a moderate correlation between teachers’ beliefs and linguistically responsive teaching practices. Also, multivariable regression analyses reveal the impact of age, gender, language background, travel experience, news exposure, and culturally relevant teacher training on teachers’ linguistically responsive teaching practices. Interestingly, the ethnicity of teachers does not make a significant difference in the extent of linguistically responsive teaching practices. This implies that sharing students’ ethnicity is not sufficient to support teaching and learning in linguistically diverse classrooms, while teacher training can have a significant influence on teachers’ pedagogical practices. These findings underline the need for teachers to participate in professional development so that they are better equipped to advocate for multilingualism and effectively address the realities of language minority students. === Exploring Inequalities in long-distance learning in Flemish primary schools during the Covid-19 pandemic Marloes Hagenaars Ghent University Peter A.J. Stevens Ghent University This study explores how variations in learning resources and expectations of teachers and parents can produce inequalities in primary schools in Flanders (Belgium) in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Building on a rich tradition of British (Ball, Bowe, & Gewirtz, 1996; Grenfell & James, 2004; Reay, David, & Ball, 2005) and US (Lareau, 1999 (1987); Lareau & Horvat McNamara, 1999) educational research on social and ethnic inequality, this study uses Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field, cultural and social capital to investigate teachers’, parents’ and students’ taken for granted assumptions about their roles and their use of particular resources in meeting challenges associated with long-distance education. An inner-city primary school with students from different socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds were selected to participate. Interviews were conducted with teachers and families: four families for which the school feels that participation with long-distance education went smoothly, and four for which participation was challenging. The teacher who evaluates these families as such and the parents/caretakers were interviewed. In addition, special support teachers were interviewed and involved in the sampling of families (to facilitate access). The names of the participants and the school are made anonymous, participation was based on informed-consent and the collected data will be treated in confidence. A Thematic Analysis (V. Braun & Clarke, 2006; V. Braun & Clarke, 2012) is used to explore the usefulness of Bourdieu’s theoretical concepts in making sense of teacher-family relationships and how variations in learning resources, mutual expectations from teachers and families can produce inequalities. === The role of civil society organisations in the support of people in hidden homelessness: the case of Brussels Harm Deleu Odisee Mieke Schrooten Universiteit Antwerpen Rebecca Thys This paper discusses the preliminary findings of an ongoing research on hidden homelessness in Brussels (Belgium). Hidden homelessness refers to people who become homeless but find a temporary solution by staying with family members or friends, living in squats or other insecure accommodation. The biennial Brussels homeless count suggests that about a fourth of the homeless population lives in such a situation. Nevertheless, their situation and their support seeking strategies have not hitherto been subject to systematic research, and our knowledge of them is therefore uncertain. In our research, we investigate the role of Civil Society Organisations (CSO’s) in the support of people in hidden homelessness. Brussels is a superdiverse city and counts a substantial number of CSO’s, such as voluntary welfare associations, religious communities, migrant associations, squats or negotiated occupancies. To gain a first insight into the role of CSO’s for people in hidden homelessness, we compiled a survey that was answered by 160 CSO’s in the Brussels Capital Region. The results demonstrate that whereas these CSO’s reach out to many different people, the majority of the respondents indicate housing exclusion among their participants. While some CSO’s are well-established structures with state support, others are new, entirely voluntary-based citizen initiatives. The support that is offered by these CSO’s varies strongly, from activities and services in social work, to culture, education, religion and leisure. === Factors influencing the academic self-concept after an ambitious transition to upper-secondary education Markus Kohlmeier Universität Duisburg-Essen Previous research shows that the academic self-concept has a direct effect on school performance, even when controlling for academic ability and previous educational attainment. According to the ‘big-fish-little-pond effect’ (BFLP), on average higher school achievements lower an individual’s academic self-concept. The ‘basking-in-reflected-glory effect’ (BIRG) on the contrary assumes that an as higher perceived school status has a counter-balancing positive effect on individual self-concepts (Marsh et al. 2000). However, as the self-concept is not only affected by performance-related comparisons but also by socio-structural comparisons (Schwarzer et al. 1982) and parental expectations (Frome & Eccles 1998), I expect that the latter influences students’ school performance as well. This paper observes factors influencing the academic self-concept of students who transition at the end of lower secondary schooling to upper secondary school from a vocational track to an academic track. This particularly interesting in context of migration since minority students prefer academic alternatives over vocational alternatives but lack of the subsequent educational success. With regard to ambitious transitions, my research question is, which of these socio-psychological mechanisms predominates, since all mechanisms might have an impact on students’ subsequent academic development. In order to trace different types of challenges which majority and minority students face within processes of educational upward mobility, familial solidarity and relational patterns as well as the school-specific socio-structural composition will be added to the well replicated mechanisms of BFLP- and BIRG-Effects. My empirical analysis is based on data from National Educational Panel Study which observes the German educational system and its outcomes.

author

Peter Stevens

University of Ghent

author

Mieke Schrooten

Odisee University College

author

Harm Daniel Deleu

Odisee

author

Rebecca Thys

author

Marloes Hagenaars

Ghent University

author

Qian Liu

author

Zehra Colak

University of Antwerp

author

Orhan Agirdag

KU Leuven

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Norms & Values 3

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #231 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Patrícia Nabuco Martuscelli

University of São Paulo

Culturally Tailored Healthy Lifestyle Counceling For Immigrants- a focus group study in Finland Maliheh.Nekouei Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland & & Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Hannele.Turunen Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland & Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland Jaana.Lindström Department of Public Health Solutions,Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Pilvikki.Absetz Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland & Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University & Collaborative Care Systems, Finland Introduction: Immigration is one of the determinants of health. Lack of exercise and unhealthy eating habits among immigrants are contributing factors for the incidence of chronic diseases even more than the native population. The study aimed at exploring perspectives of Asian and Russian immigrants on” healthy life” and “healthy lifestyle counseling service” at primary health care in Finland. Method: A qualitative study with eight focus group interviews was conducted for 46 adults (21 Asian, 25 Russian) in different cities across Finland. Data were analyzed with NVivo 11 software and an inductive content analysis approach. Results: Three themes emerged for the concept of healthy life; i) having limited knowledge about healthy life, ii) understanding the impact of culture and community on living healthy, iii) changing lifestyle to healthier after immigration. Although the majority of our participants had no experience of receiving general healthy lifestyle counseling at primary healthcare, we found four themes regarding healthy lifestyle counseling; i) shortcoming in the healthcare for providing the counseling service, ii) influential individual factors for seeking health counseling service, iii) prominent role of other sectors in providing health counseling and iv) positive outcome after receiving health counseling. Discussion: A community-based intervention considering the cultural and linguistic needs of immigrants is key in developing an effective healthy lifestyle counseling program. A reduction in the incidence of chronic diseases and equality of health promotion services are expected for immigrants. === The coping strategies of migrants in Russia during COVID-19 pandemiс Anna Rocheva Group for Migration and Ethnicity Research; RANEPA Evgeni Varshaver Group for Migration and Ethnicity Research; RANEPA Nataliya Ivanova Group for Migration and Ethnicity Research; RANEPA Migrants are one of the vulnerable groups for whom confronting a disaster – such as a hurricane or an epidemic – usually carries particularly high risks that can be mitigated or intensified, depending on the reaction of the group. The literature – which is so far more of an expert judgment than an empirical study – suggests that the situation of migrants in different countries, including Russia, in the face of COVID-19 can be characterized as vulnerable in terms of both epidemiological and economic risks. At the same time, there is scarcity of publications on how exactly migrants in Russia or in other countries reacted to the pandemic. In this presentation, we try to show how pandemic affected migrants in Russia and what strategies were prevalent among them during the spring wave of the coronavirus crisis, based on data from an online survey conducted using targeting in social networking sites among migrants from Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan and non-migrants (N = 2074). We distinguish two variables on the basis of which four strategies are constructed: a high or low level of solidarity and trust or distrust in the Russian state. We show that the strategy implying a low level of solidarity and mistrust in the state is much less prevalent among migrants than among non-migrants while the more prevalent are the strategies implying a high level of solidarity and trust in the state – or at least one of these elements. We hypothesize that it was the prevalence of these strategies that contributed to the fact that migrants in Russia were able to survive the coronavirus crisis with fewer losses than could be expected based on the characteristics of their situation in Russia. === “We’re the same here, but it’s not enough – I want to move on”: The Role of Culture in Syrian Refugee Mobility Aspirations In and Out of Jordan Sarah A Tobin Chr. Michelsen Institute Tamara Al-Yakoub Yarmouk University - Jordan As several scholars have documented in the case of Syrian refugees as well as others, cultural similarity to the host country of refuge prompts deep ambivalences when it comes to onward mobility aspirations. “Cultural similarity” is often glossed as the same language, religion, and political and historical backgrounds. Refugees themselves often express desires to stay in places where they share these aspects of their everyday dealings with the host community. However, when culturally-bounded expectations are expanded to include normative and moral understandings of “the good life”, which includes longevity and health care, access to and equity in merit-based systems for economic activity and livelihoods, rights to religious practice, and freedoms of speech, etc., onward mobility is preferred. Based on 100 semi-structured interviews in northern Jordan, we argue that perceptions and anticipations of localized cultural coherence were fulfilled through more narrow cultural definitions, as Syrians share the same language, religion, and family/kin affiliations, practices, and histories with Jordanians. Despite these similarities, many Syrian refugees sought to move to the EU, UK, or USA and Canada in search of “the better life” and one that more closely cohered with idealized notions of it. This article concludes by challenging simplified explanations of “culture” in migration studies that do not approach mobility aspirations holistically.

author

Maliheh Nekouei

University of Eastern Finland

author

Hannele.Turunen

Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland & Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

author

Jaana Lindström

Department of Public Health Solutions,Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

author

Pilvikki.Absetz

Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland & Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University & Collaborative Care Systems, Finland

author

Anna Rocheva

RANEPA; Group for migration and ethnicity research

author

Evgeni Varshaver

University of Moscow

author

Nataliya Ivanova

Group for Migration and Ethnicity Research; RANEPA

author

Sarah Tobin

CMI

author

Tamara Al-Yakoub

Yarmouk University

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Does privilege travel? Debating class, privilege, and belonging within contemporary forms of mobility and migration (II)

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #232 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

chair

Jennifer McGarrigle

IGOT University of lisbon

chair

Franz Buhr

IGOT-UL

Privileged mobilities rather than representing a marginal stream are embedded in global power asymmetries in what some term a global class system of migration. In their regimes of mobility approach, Glick Schiller and Salazar (2013) expand understandings of class beyond differential access to resources and suggest that holding the right passport and having the ability to travel becomes an aspect of how class and privilege are defined. Such privilege may be inferred by citizenship at higher latitudes, acquired by elites through investor citizenship programmes or harvested under global talent. Looking at the intersection of different forms of privileged mobility provides the opportunity to interrogate class. One such foray might be precisely how well privilege travels as the bearers of passports from economically advanced countries (or so-called lifestyle migrants) may be compelled to migrate for economic reasons due to precarity under advanced capitalism. Furthermore, class might not travel so easily for the middle and elite classes from new areas of accumulation in the Global South, as migrants might be racialised and followed by colonial continuities within Northern destinations. This panel invites contributions that provide fresh perspectives on the social positioning of privileged migrants and their negotiation of privilege in everyday life. We encourage papers that ask how privilege is performed across different social and cultural contexts. What inequalities are experienced or reproduced? How do migrants perceive their own status in their migration destination and position themselves in relation to other migrants and locals? How do intersectionalities and colonial legacies impact their perceptions and experiences? PAPER #1 The Foothold of the Privileged: Diaspora Jews’ Second Homes in Israel AUTHOR(S) Hila Zaban (Kinneret Academic College) ABSTRACT This paper looks at second homes owned by privileged diaspora Jews in Israel as a way for people who are not (yet) interested in fully immigrating to get a foothold in Israel. Second home owners are an in-between category on the tourists—migrants axis. Their financial investment can be emotionally motivated, looking to increase their connection with a particular place. Drawing on fieldwork in the UK and Israel I argue that people’s Jewish identity and their connection with Israel pushes them to pursue a foothold in Israel by owning property there, where they could spend more time and where they could potentially escape to should the need presents itself. Their economic privilege enables them to do this, thus participating in a form of transnational gentrification—gentrification caused by external, not local, actors. While transnational gentrification is economically driven, in the sense of an unequal global division of labour, we need to pay more attention to what motivates people to purchase homes in particular foreign locations and to consider other forms of privilege, such as national and religious belonging. Tying together gentrification and lifestyle migration literatures and using the case study of British Jews with second-homes in Israel, I explore such motivations and connect them with Israel’s ethno-national, political and economic quest to attract diaspora Jews, even as investors, get them connected and gain their support. Israel’s neoliberalisation made it a second-home destination for wealthy Jews, part of the second-homes trend, who favour Israel due to emotional, national and religious ties. PAPER #2 The paradoxical life-worlds of a transitory elite. Creating and negotiating mobile privileges AUTHOR(S) Anna Spiegel (Bielefeld University) ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to advance understandings of particular paradoxes in the emergence of new transnational elites by taking into account both the institutional and the subjective everyday level. How do specific institutions, such as the global mobility policies of MNCs constitute the social positions of expatriate managers in their host countries, facilitate the mobility of privileged and even create privileged? How do they and their families, in turn, negotiate these institutionally shaped privileged positions in their everyday practices? The paper is based on ethnographic data on German and American expatriate managers in China, and American expatriate managers in Germany. The ethnographic data consists of interviews and participant observation in professional, family and leisure spaces of the respective managers and their families. It thus connects organizational and everyday life and forms the empirical basis for the inquiry into structured and structuring features of expatriate agency. The research indicates that global mobility policies endow managers with resources for a temporary elite lifestyle which detaches them from local host country communities. However instead of automatically embracing this institutionally shaped elite position, expatriate managers actively negotiate their social positioning in the host country. They engage in various everyday practices of performing ‘normality’ and ‘undoing’ elite privileges as well as of deconstructing social distance to cultural Others. This research opens up new methodological and empirical vistas on the debates regarding the emergence of a transnational economic elite. It shows the paradox interplay of institutional formation of elite positions and the everyday negotiations of such social positions. PAPER #3 A Passport to Western Lifestyle: Chinese Golden Visa Citizens in Portugal and Hungary AUTHOR(S) Sofia Gaspar (Iscte-Cies) Fanni Beck (Central European University) ABSTRACT Golden Visa Programs have thrived in the EU for a while now, allowing third-national citizens to acquire residence permits or citizenship in exchange for financial investment. Two European countries in which these programs have been recently attracting investors are Portugal (Residence Permit for Investment Activity – since 2012) and Hungary (i.e., Hungarian Residency Bond Program - 2013-2017), despite their semi-peripheral position in the EU and relatively modest ranking within imaginaries of global development hierarchy. Among the main applicants, Chinese citizens are those who benefit most from these programs. Contrary to the view that Golden Visa schemes are mostly determined by financial and economic-led motivations, this paper highlights how Chinese investors in Portugal and Hungary are (also) driven by lifestyle and educational motivations for their children, in asking for these residence permits. Our observation field is multi-sited - Lisbon and Budapest metropolitan areas -, in order to obtain a comparative cross-national approach. Using in-depth interviews to Chinese Golden Visa applicants established in both cities, we explore how their narratives contain non-material ideals, and a desire for a more relaxed and ecological lifestyle, as well as better educational opportunities for their children in cosmopolitan Western countries – yet outside of the Anglophone world. These non-materialist motivations contrast and challenge possible instrumental and economic reasons behind residency through investment programs. We sustain that Chinese citizens can uncover more complex set of motivations applying for Golden Visa schemes, since they search for reproduction of their high-middle class privileges while settling down in better lifestyle environments abroad. PAPER #4 Mobile Privilege, Mobile Inequality: The Maltese Context AUTHOR(S) Lisa Ann Senecal (University of Lisbon) ABSTRACT Privilege can travel; it can also reserve the right to stay. Privilege is highly contextual; it often remains invisible to those who ‘possess’ it. Yet, despite this, privilege can become observable – contextually. The Maltese context reveals that both privileges and inequalities travel with those who migrate to the island state. These privileges and inequalities often define the limitations and limitless potential of differentiated mobilities and circulations in and around Malta – and beyond. Aside from potentiality, concrete consequence of these mobile privileges and inequalities can be found along the differentiated routes migrants travel as well as the means and risks by which migrants take to arrive. Drawing from mobility studies and “mobility justice” (Sheller, 2018) this presentation seeks to orient mobility in relation to structural power within the Maltese context. Cresswell (2010) teases apart six “constituent parts” of mobility: motive force, velocity, rhythm, route, experience and friction. This presentation will focus on the later three – route, experience and friction - with reference to migrants who have arrived (1) extra-legally or (2) through Malta’s citizenship through investment programme. What inequalities and privileges are experienced, where can they be located spatially and how are they experienced temporally? This presentation will delve further into “geographies of citizenship” as they relate to borders, mobility and territory (Cresswell, 2015). It seeks to reveal through reliance upon the Maltese context a stratification, relationality and dependence between the super-citizen and the un-citizen (Nash, 2009), a framework that this presenter will both rely upon, critique and build upon. PAPER #5 Liminal trajectories in privileged migration: Highly-educated migrants in Sao Paulo AUTHOR(S) Helena Hof (University of Zurich) ABSTRACT Highly-educated, middle-class migrants, especially from the Global North, presumably experience frictionless mobility. These migrants’ package of privilege – consisting, next to human capital and economic resources, of other variables such as passport or skin color – often smoothens work and life overseas. This presentation advances research on privileged migration by a qualitative study of a group of migrants with complex characteristics in an under-examined destination: Sao Paulo, Brazil. South America’s business hub is difficult to position within research on North-South migration or post-colonialism, featuring multinational headquarters and a multiethnic population while lacking a notion of foreign residents at the same time. The same goes for the interviewed early-career migrants who do not arrive in Sao Paulo as corporate expatriates but as young foreigners on local – or without any – work contracts. This presentation features fourteen highly-educated, middle-class, predominantly European migrants who strive for professional or personal development in Sao Paulo. They enjoy a set of privileges, including Brazilian citizens’ welcoming attitudes, an implicit assumption of foreign professionals’ accomplishments, and a fairly comfortable lifestyle in Sao Paulo. However, the migrants encounter obstacles to either professional, social, or legal integration that neither nationality, professional qualifications nor (for the majority) white skin color can trump. An intersectional analysis deconstructs these migrants’ categories of difference – which include, besides nationality, class and skin color also age and migration channel – and, by comparing with the findings of a previous study on self-initiated migrants in Singapore and Tokyo, discusses the role of the receiving context for migrants’ privilege to travel.

author

Sofia Gaspar

ISCTE-IUL

discussant

Matthew Hayes

St. Thomas University

author

Hila Zaban

Kinneret Academic College

author

Anna Spiegel

Bielefeld University

author

Fanni Beck

Central European University

author

Lisa Ann Senecal

ICS at ULisboa

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Migrant Legal Status and Access to Healthcare: Reconsidering Vulnerability and Surveillance: SESSION 2

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #233 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Sajida Zareen Ally

School of Global Studies, University of Sussex

chair

Alejandro Goldberg

Anthropological Sciences Institute, National Council of Scientific and Technical Research of the Argentine Republic, University of Buenos Aires

This panel explores the connections between migrant legal status and access to healthcare across the globe and highlights how healthcare can function as a technology of migration control and border enforcement. In destination contexts, migrants and refugees often face juridical barriers to accessing care, arising from financing and health systems that are shaped by residency status and/or nationality, while moral ideas of their ‘deservingness’ to care conflate with gender, racial and class-based inequalities. Some prefer to seek treatment upon return to countries of origin, where migrant healthcare needs are indistinguishable from those of non-returnees and diagnoses can neglect migratory determinants of disease. Policies in the domains of biosecurity, migration enforcement, detention, education and housing can marginalize healthcare, while healthcare policies do not always specify their applicability to migrants across legal statuses – a context further complicated by policy incoherence between origin and destination countries. Covid-19 has magnified pre-existing inequalities, as migrant low-wage and healthcare workers particularly grapple with infection risk and disease transmission amid inadequate care, livelihood loss, heightened surveillance, border closures and ineffective governance. This panel thus examines the legal, social, political and economic dynamics that produce patterns of exclusion and inclusion within migrants’ healthcare and also influence the ‘quality’ of available services. It investigates the effects of discursive ideas, systems and practices of care on migrants’ care-seeking strategies and experiences of distress, illness, wellness, resiliency and recovery. In bringing together scholars in the social science with those also working in public health, social psychology and clinical research, the panel is inter-disciplinary in perspective and seeks to connect conversations occurring across epistemologies and methodologies of migration research. PAPER #1 Vulnerability Assessment as an Exclusion Apparatus for Refugees in Greece’s North-eastern Aegean islands AUTHOR(S) Dr Giorgos Kostakiotis (Faculty of Social History and Social Anthropology, University of the Aegean) Eirini Mylona (The Law School, Democritian University of Thrace) ABSTRACT After the EU-Turkey 2016 Agreement on Refugees, the North-eastern Aegean islands have been designated as special zones in which the concept of vulnerability is crucial for the legal procedure of the examination of asylum requests. According to international legal and humanitarian standards, vulnerability assessment should be a personalized process, aiming to prioritize migrants’ access to medical care and psychosocial support. However, linking vulnerability with the exclusion of the border procedure often functions in practice as a tool to legitimize readmissions to Turkey as a «safe third country». The submission of a relevant medical report is a sine qua non condition for the acknowledgement of vulnerability, while medical examination functions as an additional means to reject the allegations of vulnerability, instead of an alternative to consider its plausibility. Given that vulnerability, apart from medical factors, also includes psychosocial ones that are not always visible from a medical perspective, the assessment should be based on any appropriate means. Nevertheless, in the absence of medical documentation, vulnerability assessment leads to the maintenance of geographical restriction on the island, where the health structures’ incapacity to meet increased healthcare needs results in the deprivation of access to substantial care. This paper approaches the above practice through case studies that follow the administrative treatment, and consequently, the actual pace of the vulnerable asylum applicants in Moria, Lesvos. It contests the possibility of a substantial judgment on vulnerability through a medical approach, while most of its features remain invisible in medical terms. An outline of the medicalization of the vulnerability is attempted, as well as the possible reverse practices developed by the applicants and their representatives, using the above system to improve their legal status and/or living conditions, with the appropriate medical assessments. PAPER #2 Transnational healthcare arrangements of Tunisian migrants in Europe: Diasporic medical returns and community-based responses during the pandemic AUTHOR(S) Carole Wenger (Centre for Ethnic and Migration Studies (CEDEM), Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Liège) ABSTRACT Existing literature on health and migration has been largely concerned with the impact of migration on the health of immigrants. Studies on transnational medical travels on the other hand, have looked at the process by which people seek different health services across borders. The division between these two fields of studies is nor simple nor rigid. In fact, both phenomena are embedded in larger complex dynamics of increasing international mobility, globalization of healthcare governance and societal and political debates around inclusion and/or exclusion of migrants from healthcare entitlements. This paper examines Tunisian migrants’ transnational healthcare arrangements and the barriers and opportunities in accessing healthcare in both their home and host countries by considering how their legal status in some instances constrains or facilitates their access to healthcare. It will explore how Tunisian migrants meet their healthcare needs through the mobilization of transnational resources. In that perspective, transnational ties, networks and flows constitute a useful resource to meet healthcare needs and circumvent the lack of transnational social protection mechanisms. Drawing on literature on diasporic medical mobilities, the paper will primarily address medical returns of Tunisian residing abroad and the construction of transnational ties through the consumption of medical care. Secondly, by considering the role of ‘homeland actors’ towards the health of their co-nationals it explores the emergence of community-based responses to healthcare risks during the pandemic. Drawing on data collected through a multi-sited ethnography and online ethnography, the paper maps the multiple drivers of these transnational healthcare practices. ‘Medical home’ is proposed as a term to describe migrants' attachment and engagement to places in which they seek medical care. PAPER #3 International migration and health in the context of the COVID-19 global pandemic: A comparative ethnographic approach AUTHOR(S) Dr Alejandro Goldberg (Anthropological Sciences Institute, National Council of Scientific and Technical Research of the Argentine Republic, University of Buenos Aires.) ABSTRACT This paper will address the health/illness dimensions of migrants in different types of situations (economic, forced, environmental, displaced, asylum seekers, irregular, refugees) of different geographical and socio-political contexts. Among those, the following stand out: situations of concrete risk to health, linked to traumatic experiences and suffering in precarious lifestyles and violence of different kinds suffered during the migratory trajectory and in the destination society (contexts of social vulnerability), with the possible consequences in the state of physical, mental, emotional health (including their relatives); the material, social, cultural and affective instability in the evolutionary development of the migratory process; and the violation of the right to quality health care, as part of the total violation of their human rights. The eruption of SARS COVID-19 in March 2020, and its – unequal – impact on all levels and spheres of life on the planet in the case of the studied phenomenon, deepened the situations of social fragility among the subordinate sectors of the analyzed societies, generating more precariousness and exclusion. Given the context described, these migrants are particularly exposed to coronavirus infection, with the ailments and consequences that it can cause in the bodies (including death, in some cases), and with the aggravation of the obstacles and barriers that a good part of them face when accessing health care. PAPER #4 Healthcare for undocumented migrants in Switzerland and the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic AUTHOR(S) Marianne Jossen (Prevention & Promotion Section, & Working Group on the Social Impact of Covid-19, Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH), Switzerland) ABSTRACT This paper is primarily based on qualitative research using a grounded theory approach to explore the ways in which undocumented migrants are included or excluded from healthcare in a region in Switzerland. The data was gathered through interviews with patients of a Swiss NGO’s medical ‘Contact Point’, as well as with medical and administrative professionals. The analysis shows that undocumented migrants are mainly included into healthcare by settling in through the Contact Point and its networks or by taking out insurance. Still, their inclusion within the healthcare system remains partial and precarious. This applies to both financial and administrative aspects or within interactions with medical personnel. Important values concerning healthcare for undocumented migrants – such as continuity in care, sensitivity to specific needs and individual autonomy and control over health and healthcare – are not met or are only partially met. Legal status and exclusion from citizenship thus pervades undocumented migrants' health and healthcare in Switzerland. The paper also analyses more recent observations and interviews with healthcare professionals conducted during Covid-19. It demonstrates how the pandemic has impacted undocumented migrants' health and the healthcare provisioned for them, as migrants seek to protect their own health while their working and living conditions worsen, and professionals try to react and adapt their services to mitigate the effects of their exclusion. PAPER #5 COVID-19 pandemic, refugees and asylum seekers in Greece: a tale of health inequities and discrimination AUTHOR(S) Dr Elias Kondilis, Associate Professor of Primary Health Care and Health Policy, School of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki ABSTRACT Background: Mounting evidence suggests that refugees and asylum seekers faced higher risk of infection, worse health outcomes and disproportionate socio-economic consequences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of these adverse effects are related to the neoliberal policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and the lack of focused and timely protective measures especially for the most vulnerable population groups, including refugees and asylum seekers. The aim of the study was to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on the 56,000 refugees and asylum seekers residing in Reception and Identification Centres (RICs) and Reception Sites (RSs) in Greece. Methods: observational study based on policy documents and official surveillance data, analysing the incidence of COVID-19 infection among refugees and asylum seekers residing in RICs and RSs compared to the general Greek population, during the first 9 months of the epidemic in the country. Results: From February to November 2020 we identified twenty-five outbreaks in refugee camps and other facilities in Greek islands and the Greek mainland. Compared to the general population the risk of COVID-19 infection among refugees and asylum seekers in reception facilities was 2.5 to 3 times higher (p-value<0.001). The risk of infection of COVID-19 was particularly high in the RICs in the Greek islands where living conditions are poor, testing and contact tracing strategies are almost absent and overcrowding eliminates the effect of social-distancing interventions. Conclusion: Greek authorities have repeatedly ignored early calls for the immediate decongestion of RICs and RSs, a fact that resulted to avoidable outbreaks and increased COVID-19 incidence among refugees and asylum seekers in Greece. Despite the evidence suggesting the increased risk of infection among these vulnerable population groups, refugees and asylum seekers have not be prioritised in the National COVID-19 Vaccination Programme and still remain unvaccinated and un-protected against the epidemic.

author

carole wenger

Liège university

discussant

Marcia Vera Espinoza

Queen Mary University of London

discussant

Elias Kondilis

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

author

Giorgos Kostakiotis

Faculty of Social History and Social Anthropology, University of the Aegean

author

Eirini Mylona

The Law School, Democritian University of Thrace

author

Marianne Jossen

Bundesamt für Gesundheit

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Migration Politics & Governance 8

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #234 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Gabriela Petre

National School for Political and Administrative Studies

Reinforcing welfare boundaries: marginalised migrants’ access to social provision in Germany Cecilia Bruzelius University of Tübingen Nora Ratzmann IASS Lea Reiss University of Tübingen A growing body of literature examines how international migrants are socially protected and how gaps in social protection are addressed. One strand of research focuses on the role of local governments and civil society in providing basic services for migrants’ lacking access to regular entitlements, arguing that the latter actors regularly collaborate to provide substantive protection for otherwise excluded migrants. This paper contributes to this research by mapping formal social provision available to international migrants’ with very limited or no claim to regular social provision at the local level in Germany. Based on in-depth research across four cities, we find that local government does indeed support many civil society organisations that provide social support for marginalised migrants. However, these services almost never offer any substantive support but are counselling services meant to mediate access into regular service provision. The main strategy to provide support for these groups turns out to be supporting their into a worker or other statuses giving them entitlement. As such, public funds to support the marginalised reinforces the already existing welfare system. This, we argue, can be understood by reference to path-dependency of institutions, the centrality of the worker status in the German welfare state and its tradition of third sector service delivery, as well as particular institutionalised practices of integration policy. === Governing migration through disconnection. A multi-sited study of the detention, relocation and resettlement of Sub-Saharan migrants in Malta Léa Lemaire University of Luxembourg This presentation deals with the government of migration at the borders of the European Union (EU). It focuses on the detention, the relocation and the resettlement of Sub-Saharan migrants in Malta. The focus is twofold. On the one hand, it analyses how migration policies are designed by policy-makers. On the other hand, it examines the way migration policies are experienced by migrants. My aim is to propose an analysis of the understudied disconnection between those who make decision and those who experience them. I argue that migrants are governed through disconnection. The disconnection is central to the functioning of migration policies. Nevertheless, it remains insufficiently thought out so far. Indeed, the analysis of migration policies tends to produce knowledge either on the target populations or on the decision-makers. In doing so, it reproduces implicitly the disconnection between those who govern and those who are governed. In this way, the literature tends to reify the asymmetrical relations that are the basis of migration policy making. As such, it underestimates a fundamentally political dimension of the processes it studies which is the disconnection between the experience lived by migrants and the way in which they are thought about and managed by decision-makers. To the contrary, this disconnection is at the centre of my research. My methodology is based on qualitative and anthropological approaches. I conducted multi-sited fieldwork in Malta and Brussels, which combines ethnographic observations with interviews. Ethnographic observations with migrants were conducted in closed and open centres, as well as in the community. 90 semi-structured interviews were carried out with national and European policy-makers, as well as officials from international and non-governmental organizations in Malta and in Brussels. In fine, it is really through the multi-sited approach that I conceptualise what I call the disconnection of migration policies. === Historical changes in using deportation: The case of Molokans in a Turkısh Border Region Ali Haydar Soysüren University of Ardahan İbrahim Soysüren University of Neuchatel Deportation has been used against different categories of people who are considered as undesirable for various reasons. However, there are still gaps in the social science and historical literatures in this regard. This is especially the case when it comes to Turkey. To address this gap to some extent, we will analyse the case of the Molokans which call themselves as Spiritual Christians. After the 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian War, some of them were settled to the Kars–Ardahan border region, which was taken by Russia. After the Bolshevik Revolution, Russia left. The Turkish administration considered the Molokans as suspected because of their supposedly Bolshevik ideology. Therefore, they were forced to leave the region. Only a small group of the Molokans stayed. In the 1960s, these people wanted to migrate to the Soviet Union. However, this time, the Turkish government tried to stop their migration. It proposed to relocate them to other Turkish regions or asked them to migrate to other countries of the “Free World”. In our paper, after a literature review on the changes in using deportation against different groups and reasons behind this, we will analyse the Molokans’ forced return to Russia in the 1920s and their migration in the 1960s based on historical studies, Turkish administration reports and newspaper articles. In the second section, we will compare their case with the Greeks, which were still considered as a threat to the Turkish national security and were forced to leave Turkey. By comparing these two groups considered as “outsiders” by the Turkish authorities, we aim to show the influence of the Cold War and its limits in the use of deportation. We argue that the Molokans, a tiny group, were not considered as an importance threat to the Turkish national security. Therefore, it was possible for the Turkish administration to put forward considerations related to the Cold War when the Molokans wanted to migrate to the Soviet Union. === Region, religion, resistance: identity politics and the organizational norms of the street-level border protection on the Polish-German border Maryla Klajn Leiden Law School With the progressive criminalization of migration and growing securitization of the border control, migration scholars have noted an exacerbation of a bluntly nationalistic and racist turn in the governance of various borders around the world. Often in a direct contradiction to many constitutional or international anti-discrimination laws, the border police frequently resort to individual biases in evaluating migrants’ status and selecting those who don’t appear to belong. Even the so-called ‘open’ borders, such as those between the countries of the Schengen Agreement, upon a closer inspection reveal themselves as a stage of discriminating migration control processes, systematically targeting certain groups over others. Gender, nationality, skin color, or even religious association prove to play a crucial role in the decisions of the street-level border control officers, who essentially differentiate between those who are granted the permission to belong, the bona-fide travelers, and the ‘crimmigrant others’ – potentially criminal and dangerous suspects of illicit cross-border behaviors. This article, drawing on the data collected during fieldwork with the Polish Border Guard in 2018 on the Polish-German border, looks into the way belonging plays out in these intra-Schengen border zones, and specifically the impact of identity politics on the street-level border control. What characteristics are the major qualifiers in selecting certain travelers over others as the ‘suspects’ perceived more likely to be breaking the law? Who is most likely to be stopped and checked on the Polish-German border at the hand of the Polish Border Guard officers, and how are these decisions justified? === Exploring the national government’s impact on immigrant inclusion efforts in the UK and the US during the Brexit and Trump eras Beth Katz University of Edinburgh In 2016, the Leave campaign in the UK’s Brexit referendum and the Trump presidential campaign in the US politicised the issue of immigration in unprecedented ways by employing explicit anti-immigrant rhetoric as a central feature. Since then, the governing Conservative Party under the premierships of Theresa May and Boris Johnson in the UK and the Trump administration in the US continue to frame immigration as a key issue plaguing their respective countries. Both governments have pursued policies to dramatically reduce immigrant levels, aggressively targeted immigrants with insecure legal status, and decreased the staffing and funding of the immigration system. This has led to accusations that these governments are stoking and exploiting anti-immigrant sentiments and xenophobia for their own political gains; creating a (more) hostile climate for immigrants. My doctoral research surveys those who are active with immigrant inclusion organisations in the UK and US. Using a combination of closed and open-ended questions, the survey captures participant perceptions of the national government’s immigration approach during this period and under the previous national government; documents what information and experiences are shaping their perceptions of this; and explores if/how the national government’s immigration approach is impacting the ways in which they adapt and progress their immigrant inclusion efforts. I will share the data that I have collected so far, outline the next phase of my research based on the data that received to date, and invite feedback on the theory, content and design of my research.

author

Ibrahim Soysüren

University of Neuchatel

author

Beth Katz

University of Edinburgh

author

Cecilia Bruzelius

University of Tübingen

author

Nora Ratzmann

IASS

author

Lea Reiss

University of Tübingen

author

Léa Lemaire

University of Luxembourg, Institute of Geography and Spatial Planning

author

Ali Haydar Soysüren

University of Ardahan

author

Maryla Klajn

Leiden Law School

Access to the session WebEx link and uploaded papers is available for attendees only. Did you register? Check your conference status.

Education & Social Inequality 9

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #235 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Lasha Matiashvili

Do occupational aspirations translate into a successful career? – Migrant higher education graduates‘ entry into the labour market Anna Spexard Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Rafael Warkotsch Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Doreen Weichert Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Research on educational trajectories indicates migrant parents to have higher educational goals for their children than non-migrant parents, also when controlling for educational background and attainment. Even though data for Germany shows that children with migration background transfer less frequently to the Gymnasium, the highest-ranking secondary school in the German education system. Social origin and competence level, however, largely explain the gap between migrant and non-migrant children. A number of publications focusses on the role of migration background regarding educational transitions; only little is known about the entry of higher education graduates into the labour market though. In order to diminish this gap, we conduct a research project on the transition into the labour market with a focus on migration and educational background, thereby taking an intersectional viewpoint. Besides the analysis of quantitative data on German higher education graduates, we conduct supplementary interviews with graduates and staff at career and counseling services. Our research produces results that correspond with the findings on educational transitions: higher education graduates with a migration background show a stronger orientation towards occupational and career goals while being slightly less successful in comparison to their peers. We hope to find explanatory approaches in our qualitative data. === Trajectories of adaptation over the life course: A multidimensional analysis for the children of immigrants Ben Wilson Department of Sociology, Stockholm University Eleonora Mussino Department of Sociology, Stockholm University Caroline Uggla Department of Sociology, Stockholm University Studies of the descendants of immigrants offer a unique opportunity to gain insights about theories of immigrant adaptation. At the same time, it is increasingly recognised that adaptation can only be assessed by taking a long-run perspective, beyond the study of adult immigrants. It is therefore advantageous to study immigrants who migrate as children (G1.5) and the native-born children of immigrants (G2), which can also enable researchers to understand the link between exposure to destination – based on age at arrival or generational status – and adult outcomes. Prior research suggests that age at arrival is a key determinant of adaptation, but it has either focussed on single outcomes or outcomes at one stage in life. By contrast, we seek to establish the link between migration background and life course trajectories across multiple domains of life, including education, work, and family formation. We use latent class analysis, generalised linear models and family fixed effects to analyse administrative data for the whole population of Sweden, giving a study population of more than 80,000 members of G1.5 and G2. Our results suggest that the descendants of immigrants follow broadly one of four different trajectories: ‘high SES’, ‘stable medium SES’, ‘upwardly mobile’ and ‘low SES’. Moreover, increased exposure to Swedish society is associated with increased likelihood of following a higher socio-economic (SES) trajectory, even after controlling for family fixed effects. We discuss the implications of these results, including the most promising directions for future research on the life course. === E-Stories: Pathways to Interculturality in Education with digital storytelling during the COVID-19 Pandemic Isabella Corieri University of Stavanger In a globalizing world with individuals migrating and adapting to new areas, everyone has a story. These narratives not only give agency to an individual but offer community to those that listen. These stories have been shared in different ways, but in today’s technology-driven society, the tales can now be digital, and the audience can now be global. With this in mind, it is important to have a deeper intercultural awareness in educational settings. This paper explores the methodology of digital storytelling and its ability to promote intercultural competence in secondary e-classrooms during the COVID-19 pandemic. With a mixed-method approach of an in-depth literature review as well as a lesson plan on forced migration with critical literacy exercises and a digital storytelling project in a virtual classroom of students at the secondary level, the following research questions will be answered: How can digital storytelling promote interculturality in virtual and hybrid classrooms during the COVID-19 pandemic? What are some of the benefits of digital storytelling in secondary classrooms? This project is significant because previous studies have shown that digital storytelling has the potential to engage students to think critically and build intercultural competence in both virtual and in-person class settings. Especially now, when many things in life are still virtual, individuals need to have knowledge of methods that promote cultural awareness and critical discussion of crucial topics in society, such as migration. Overall, it is the duty of researchers, instructors and policy makers to be proactive, as opposed to reactive, regarding e-learning in the days to come. === School segregation by national origin in Portugal – Tell me your nationality and I we tell you the probability of your school performance. Sílvia Almeida Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences, New University of Lisbon João Firmino NOVA SBE Maria João Hortas CEG-nstitute of Geography and Spatial Planning -University of Lisbon Luís Catela Nunes NOVA SBE The main purpose of this paper was to understand the level of segregation in the third cycle of primary education in Portuguese public schools, and the influence related to the school performance. For the purpose of this study, we exploit an administrative database provided by the Portuguese Ministry of Education, gathering information on students who attended a Portuguese public school, 2016/2017. We intend to look at the school segregation by national origin between and within-school levels, and using a novel dissimilarity index recently proposed in the literature aimed at better capturing systematic segregation (Allen et al., 2015). Our first step was to quantify the level of segregation in the territory and to quantify the difference, in terms of academic performance, between native and non-native students. We decided to investigate whether classroom or school characteristics from the third cycle, specifically related to segregation, could help explain the widening of the gap during that period. With regards to classroom characteristics, we reveal that an increase in the percentage of students with an immigrant background in a class leads to worse academic performances by both native and non-native students in that same class; however, the effect is significantly higher for non-native students. We also conclude that schools with higher levels of segregation for non-native students, measured by the density corrected dissimilarity index of segregation, are associated with higher levels of discrepancy between native and non-native student’s academic performance. There is indeed evidence of segregation in Portuguese public school towards non-native students, and this explains part of the reason why there is a nativity gap in Portugal. Key words: school segregation; students with immigrant background; school performance

author

Ben Wilson

author

Eleonora Mussino

Department of Sociology, Stockholm University

author

Caroline Uggla

Department of Sociology, Stockholm University

author

Anna Spexard

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

author

Rafael Warkotsch

author

Doreen Weichert

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

author

Isabella Lena Corieri

European Masters of Migration and Intercultural Relations

author

Sívia de Almeida

Universidade Nova de Lisboa

author

João Firmino

NOVA SBE

author

Maria João Hortas

IGOT-UL

author

Luís Catela Nunes

NOVA SBE

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Migrant Transnationalism 5

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #236 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Carolin Müller

Technische Universität Dresden

Labour market integration and transnational lived citizenship: Aspirations and belonging among refugees in Germany Prof Tanja R. Müller University of Manchester Transnational lived citizenship has gained prominence as a means to analyse mobility and foreground activist notions of citizenship over legal status. I argue that lived citizenship and transnational movements are strongly connected to aspirations and belonging. I use the material example of labour market integration as the locus of enactments of citizenship and analyse the patterns of belonging those create and contest. I develop my argument through the empirical example of labour market integration of refugees in Germany. I demonstrate how such integration transforms social and economic location and in turn creates complex and often contradictory forms of transnational emotions and value judgements. I ultimately argue that lived citizenship can in important ways advance aspirations of refugees and migrants. At the same time, transnational lives and multiple allegiances are often hindered by state-based citizenship and the rights this confers. Legal status thus remains an important marker of citizenship. === Brexit ripples: transnational families' crises and resilience in the aftermath of the Brexit vote Zana Vathi Edge Hill University Ruxandra Trandafoiu This paper focuses on the intimate aspect of the impact of the Brexit referendum. Family studies have made significant progress in terms of theorisation of family relations and the transnational family is an established concept. Nonetheless, empirical evidence on family relations and resilience in a transnational context is still thin. The findings of a recent study on EU nationals in the North West of the UK show that the family is mobilised in the context of adverse immigration events and sustains or opposes migrants’ coping strategies. A range of experiences are explored encompassing shock and ongoing support upon the announcement of the Brexit referendum results, grief and disapproval of migrants’ decision to gain British citizenship, and more radically, a family reunification in the UK to prevent family life fragmentation upon Brexit. The findings are interpreted in the framework of family and migration theories, aiming to elaborate on the intersection between the public and the intimate in a transnational context. === Time Will Tell: The weekend as disrupted and negotiated time amongst the Palestinian Christian diaspora in Jordan Annabel C. Evans Loughborough University This paper seeks to explore how the weekend, as a form of regular, temporal practice, is used by religious communities in diaspora to articulate and perform notions of identity, belonging and attachment. It does so through the analysis of ethnographic data collected amongst the Palestinian Christian diaspora in Jordan. It endeavours to contribute to ongoing research within geographies of diaspora and religion by arguing for a more integrated theorisation of these inherently geographical concepts. This is not merely due to the fact that many diasporic experiences are shaped by religious belief and practice but also because they both coalesce around and interact with the central tenets of being deeply located whilst highly transcendent to space, place and community. Religion and diaspora can therefore help mutually theorise one another as a simultaneously mobile and rooted phenomena. By addressing the weekend as a regular, rhythmical temporal practice shaped by and playing out in religious-diasporic spaces, timespace will be utilised as a theoretical tool alongside non-representational geographies to best articulate and analyse how everyday practices, performativities and embodiments draw upon the temporal as well as the spatial to establish and maintain a sense of belonging in diaspora. Fundamentally, this paper asks what the weekend, as a form of regular temporal practice, can tell us about identity, belonging and attachment in diaspora as it speaks of disruption and disorientation but also negotiation and navigation in diasporic spaces.

author

Zana Vathi

Ormskirk

author

Annabel Catherine Evans

Loughborough

author

Tanja R. Müller

University of Manchester

author

Ruxandra Trandafoiu

author

Bhupesh Chintamani

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Racism and discrimination in education II: Exclusion and its impact on refugees and (new) immigrants

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #237 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Christine Lang

IMIS

chair

Zehra Colak

University of Antwerp

The differential educational outcomes of immigrant or ethnic and racial minority students and their ‘majority’ counterparts have been extensively documented. Research often focuses on students’ cultural and social capital, cultural background or the social status of their parents in explaining such differences. However, increasingly studies also show the role and impact of discrimination and racism for educational inequalities and minority students’ sense of belonging and well-being. Particularly critical methodologies and theoretical approaches (e.g., critical race theory) emphasize that we have to rethink our approach to understanding ongoing inequalities affecting marginalized categories. They highlight the role of structural power inequities, prevailing norms and institutional structures and processes in explaining discrimination. Also, such methodologies aim at redressing inequities and discrimination in education by centralizing the lived experiences and stories of marginalized individuals. This panel aims at discussing issues of racism and discrimination in education in relation to wider structures of inequality. The contributions will address the following and related questions: How do institutional policies, practices and standards (re-)produce inequalities and discrimination against immigrants and ethnic/racial minorities in education? What forms of interpersonal discrimination are experienced by students with a migration background and ethnic/racial minority students? What is their impact on students? In what ways can critical approaches enhance our understanding of structural inequities and ethnic/racial discrimination in education? What are the implications of adopting concepts of “race” and “whiteness”? How does “race” intersect with other categories of differentiation? What are the coping strategies developed by students of immigrant origin and ethnic/racial minority students in response to racism and discrimination? PAPER #1 From overt discrimination to neglect and assimilationism: How onward Colombian migrant youth cope with the transition from the educational system in Spain to that of London AUTHOR(S) Domiziana Turcatti (COMPAS University of Oxford) ABSTRACT This paper explores the educational experiences of Colombian adolescents who onward migrated from Spain to London since the 2008 crisis. In the UK, Latin American migrants lack institutional recognition. While scholars and Latin American NGOs have commenced research on Latin American migrants, the experiences of their children have been largely neglected. This paper examines how adolescents raised in Spain by Colombian parents experience the transition from the educational system in Spain to that of London. Framed by critical race theory analyses of the English educational system, this paper relies on life history interviews with 12 onward Colombian migrant youth (ages 16-24) and 31 onward Colombian parents; 2 focus groups with onward Latin American students (ages 15-17) and their Colombian teacher; and participant observations in workshops organised by and for Latin American parents. Though more fieldwork will be conducted from January to May 2021, preliminary findings show that onward migrant youth move from a Spanish educational system where they experience overt discrimination to one where discrimination takes the form of neglect and assimilationism. In London, onward migrant youth can spend several months without being offered a place in school, where they are rarely supported in overcoming the material and cultural inequalities faced at home, while being confronted with an assimilationist culture. Yet, onward migrant youth succeed when parents, community members, and educators work in synergy to help youth appreciate their heritage culture and access opportunities. PAPER #2 “Hepimiz insanız:” Syrian refugee students in Turkish universities push back against racism AUTHOR(S) Melissa Hauber-Özer (George Mason University) ABSTRACT Globally, only an estimated 3% of refugee young adults are enrolled in university, the education level with the largest disparity in participation with the host population (UNHCR, 2019). Among the 3.6 million Syrians living under temporary protection in Turkey (DGMM, 2020), 6% of young adults are enrolled in higher education, but this remains well below the rate in pre-war Syria and the Turkish population. Furthermore, Syrians who manage to gain acceptance to university programs encounter ongoing linguistic, social, and financial difficulties as well as racialized marginalization. This presentation, part of a critical ethnography (Carspecken, 1996; Smyth & McInerney, 2013) on Syrian young adults’ experiences accessing higher education in Turkey, documents participants’ experiences of and responses to anti-Syrian sentiment. Drawing on a critical theory lens (Freire, 1972), sociocultural perspectives on language learning (Kramsch, 2013; Vygotsky, 1978, 1986), and Norton’s (2013) investment framework, the study highlights the personal strengths and strategies refugee students employ to overcome numerous barriers and pursue their future goals. The multimodal, multilingual data were collected in 2020 through a questionnaire, in-depth, semi-structured interviews, and photovoice workshops (Wang & Burris, 1997) and analyzed collaboratively with a Syrian key informant using layered ethnographic and narrative inquiry methods (Carspecken, 1996; Riessman, 2007; Webster & Mertova, 2007). The findings reveal participants’ experiences of discrimination on campus and in the community and the ways that they have adapted, pushed back, and proved themselves, offering valuable insights for faculty, administrators, and policymakers committed to supporting marginalized students with migration backgrounds. PAPER #3 Racism and Discrimination among Unaccompanied Refugee Students in High-Income Countries: A Mixed-Methods Review of Resilience Strategies AUTHOR(S) Yousef Khalifa Aleghfeli (University of Oxford) Lucy Hunt (University of Oxford) ABSTRACT There exists extensive evidence for the mental health resilience of unaccompanied refugee students (Fazel, Reed, Panter-Brick, & Stein, 2012; Mitra & Hodes, 2019; O’Higgins, Ott, & Shea, 2018). However, little evidence exists on how these students exercise resilience strategies to address experiences of racism and discrimination in education. The aim of this study is to investigate how unaccompanied refugee students utilize resilience strategies in situations of racism and discrimination at school to overcome them and meet their educational objectives. Methods: A mixed-methods review was conducted to identify quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies on the educational outcomes of unaccompanied refugee students in high-income countries. First, search strategy was conducted in eleven bibliographic databases that returned 4,329 studies, followed by dual-reviewer blind screening (using Rayyan QCRI), to identify the final studies. Second, thematic content analysis and intercoder reliability (using NVivo) was performed to identify elements influencing how unaccompanied refugee students address racism and discrimination. These elements were classified using a socio-ecological approach. Results: Thirteen articles were included in the review, addressing 18 elements influencing how unaccompanied refugee students address racism and discrimination. Elements were identified as a risk factors, resilience factors or both and were related to four ecological levels: student (n=5), home (n=2), school (n=7) and community (n=5). Conclusion: In order to overcome racism and discrimination and meet their educational objectives reveal, unaccompanied refugee students employ meaning-making, future orientation, routines and rituals and giving back to the community. Such findings can be used to inform the development and elaboration of evidence-based educational and school-based interventions that are cognizant of unaccompanied refugee students’ social-ecological context. PAPER #4 Othering of parents with refugee backgrounds in school contexts in Europe AUTHOR(S) Miriam Stock (University of Education Schwäbisch Gmünd) Luise Schimmel (University of Education Schwäbisch Gmünd ) ABSTRACT This paper examines various forms of othering of parents with refugee backgrounds in European school contexts. The aim of this paper is to bring together the perceptions of teachers with the experiences of parents. After 2015, many parents with refugee status entered European school contexts together with their children yet often being marginalized in educational processes. While previous studies have already dealt with the topic of institutional discrimination in the context of school, referring to pedagogical methods including school books, teachers’ expectations and segregation of pupils, few studies have looked at the aspect of racialized parents, their discrimination and the effect on children. This paper will (1) focus on teachers’ perceptions about parents with refugee status as a form of othering, thereby persisting in a double bind of excluding parents by portraying their ‘culture’ as incompatible with European school contexts, yet demanding from parents a greater effort to get involved. (2) The paper will highlight exclusion experiences of parents being confronted with stereotypes as being “uneducated” and “traditional” which have direct impact in regards to their (non-)involvement in parents’ consultation, social events as well as the school performance of the child. The empirical study is based on qualitative interviews and focus groups both with ‘refugee’ parents and teachers in Germany, Italy, Turkey and Sweden. Moreover, participant observation from workshops with Arab speaking school tutors will be included. The empirical material has been collected during the Erasmus Plus project "PARENTable - Communicating with parents of newly migrated children" (ongoing, since 2019) and the Erasmus plus project “Enable – Self-Learning for Arab refugee children. Building a concept with mother-tongue tutors” (2017-2019).

author

Domiziana Turcatti

University of Oxford

discussant

Jens Schneider

IMIS

author

Melissa Hauber-Özer

George Mason University

author

Yousef Khalifa Aleghfeli

University of Oxford

author

Lucy Hunt

University of Oxford

author

Miriam Stock

University of Educatio SChwäbisch Gmünd

author

Luise Schimmel

University of Education Schwaebisch Gmuend

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Reflecting on human and social capital: The role of soft skills for (im)mobility

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #238 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels

University of Kent/ Brussels School of International Studies

Efforts to decenter migration studies from economic and rational explanations have resulted, among others, in calls to abandon rigid concepts, explore how soft skills – i.e. adaptation, social and personal skills, self-learning processes –, hope, imaginaries and the ‘good life’ relate to migration aspirations and the actual move, and in calls to think outside the box and effectively engage with other disciplines. This panel aims to pose questions about how procedural knowledge and soft skills might impact (im)mobility and how social capital helps to mitigate challenges in transit. For this, we adopt a more comprehensive understanding of human capital, highlighting the relevance of inter- and intra-personal and interaction skills for migration, along with strategies and tactics developed and employed by migrants. Indeed, while there is considerable research investigating the two-way relationship between human capital and migration, the former is often defined in terms of formal education achievement and professional competences. This is unfortunate for two reasons. First, a fixed understanding of what human capital is prevents a more profound exploration between emotions, skills, self-learning processes, and mobility dynamics. Second, exploring how formal education is linked to migration disregards the different (soft) skills needed, on the one hand, to engage in distinct forms of migration, and, on the other, to establish different resilience mechanisms to cope with disturbance during the different stages of migration. The panel reflects on the soft skills and abilities necessary to move and the strategies used to adapt while ‘on the move’. We consider how conceptions and expectations shape migration aspiration. Also, we show the specific resilience mechanisms migrants develop while drawing on their social capital. Finally, we reflect how socio-emotional skills may influence the aspiration to move and how these might be part of migration capabilities. PAPER #1 Migration aspirations as emotional resource for ethnic minorities: an Estonian case AUTHOR(S) Carmen Tasser (University of Kent) ABSTRACT This paper examines migration aspirations as an emotional resource for ethnic minorities during young adulthood to explore their human capital independently from their ethnic background. For this purpose, a case study was conducted among final year pupils in Estonia (age 18-19). By investigating the pre-migration period of students from both the Russian minority and the Estonian majority group, I contribute to the research on migration aspirations of ethnic minorities. The role of minority group membership in migration studies is a prevalent topic (Tsuda 2010; Nekby 2006), nevertheless the projected emotional prospects of migration plans for minority group members is rare in the literature. A novum of this research is the data collection during the pre-migration period, which gives an unfiltered view on the expectations and conceptions of prospective migrants. A questionnaire with open- and closed-ended questions was administered to 151 pupils from eight upper secondary schools throughout Estonia, with 73 members of the Russian minority. The data shows that over 60% of the minority pupils express their longing of living in another country, while 35.9% of the majority prefer to remaining in Estonia. Furthermore, the minority group members show a tendency for international migration for educational purpose. My analysis argues that this finding is linked, on the one hand, to negative emotions about the scope and prospects in the current residency in connection to the socialization between the ethnic groups and, on the other, to a strong longing for a “better place” and imaginaries of an emotional resource through migration. PAPER #2 Coping with Securitization: The case of Central American Migrants AUTHOR(S) Rosario Rizzo Lara (University of Kent) ABSTRACT How have undocumented migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America coped with selective and restrictive immigration laws to arrive at the US-Mexico border? This paper proposes the use of “resilience”, a concept developed by Ecology (Folke, 2006), and the concepts of the Autonomy of Migration approach (Casas-Cortés & Cobarrubias, 2020; Mezzadra, 2011) that presents borders as a contestation between the State apparatus that denies migrants’ rights and mobility, and the set of skills, desires, and resources of migrants (Hess, 20 17; Mezzadra, 2020). Given the large-scale arrivals of Central Americans to the US, the US and Mexico created policies and programs to deter undocumented migration. Hence, there a was sharp rise in apprehensions and deportations, as well as physical, emotional, and legal violence experienced by migrants (París Pombo, 2017; Vogt, 2020). To remain invisible vis-à-vis the tougher immigration laws, migrants developed resilience mechanisms. Social resilience is the “ability of human communities to withstand external shocks to their social infrastructure, such as social, economic and political upheaval” (Adger, 2000 in Folke, 2006 p. 259). The concept incorporates the idea of adaptation, resistance, and self-organization (Folke, 2006; Rizzo Lara, 2012). This paper highlights the resilience mechanisms developed by migrants. To cope with securitization, migrants have leveraged their social capital to obtain and share information about the route, shelters, and dangers through technology devices, such as the cellphones. They have also self-organized to form transient communities in transit (Díaz de León, 2020); and have resisted through the formation of the caravans. PAPER #3 Understanding migration capabilities beyond economic lines: The role of soft skills for migration AUTHOR(S) Naiara Rodriguez-Pena (University of Kent) ABSTRACT Migration capabilities are usually defined in an economic fashion, and are often dependent on social connections. More recently, scholars have increasingly paid attention to the role that human capital plays in the development of migration aspirations and the expansion of migration capabilities, particularly in relation to school achievement and professional competences. However, the relation between migration and broader socio-emotional skills, such as goal-achievement attitudes and inter-personal skills, is often overlooked. This article adopts a more comprehensive approach to human capital, understood as a set of complex functions, to emphasize the role that soft skills play for migration decisions. By doing this, I argue that socio-emotional skills are, on the one hand, key to understanding how one mediates life and migration aspirations, primarily when intrinsic and instrumental aspirations are conflicting, and how (im)mobility goals are established. On the other, a broader view on human capital enables exploring (1) the necessary abilities and skills to voice and realize (im)mobility aspirations, and (2) how mental coping mechanisms and adaptation mechanisms relate to soft skills. This article argues, then, the importance of departing from economic-centered views on migration capabilities by introducing emotions and soft skills into migration studies. This perspective approaches migration capabilities as a process that shifts over time, giving room to understand how migration aspirations and capabilities are related to life ambitions, overall aspirations and continuous self-learning processes.

discussant

Simona Vezzoli

Leiden University

author

Carmen Tasser

University of Kent

author

Rosario de la Luz Rizzo Lara

Freie Universität Berlin

author

Naiara Rodriguez Peña

University of Kent

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Migration Politics & Governance 18

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #239 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Eva Fortes

Exploring claims-making on immigration in Sweden and Switzerland: Different reactions in difficult times? Marco Bitschnau University of Neuchâtel Anders Hellström Malmö University Based on the assumption that interpreting migration-related events as 'crises' has a significant impact on how relevant actors approach the issue, this paper explores the politicization of immigration in Sweden and Switzerland. By employing the theoretical concept of claims-making, we analyze statements ('claims') that have been made in major Swedish (Dagens Nyheter) and Swiss (Le Temps/NZZ) newspapers during two critical periods: the 1990s (1991-1999) when a high number of refugees from the war-torn successor states of Communist Yugoslavia arrived in Western Europe; and the 2010s, when the ramifications of the so-called Arab Spring forced once again millions to leave their countries of origin. Despite different positions on multiculturalism, different welfare regimes, and different civic traditions, both Sweden and Switzerland were among the countries most visibly affected by the influx of refugees and the right-wing turn in society that came along with it. Against this backdrop, we want to examine if claims made during these periods differ in terms of (a) the politicization of immigration as such, (b) the com-position of claimants and media formats employed, and (c) the frames said claimants invoke to justify their arguments. Combining insights from the literature on politicization with a comparative approach and original empirical data, we contribute to the debate about representations of migration in Europe and their various discursive and political implications. === The Effect of Visa Restrictions on Migrants’ Well-being: A diff-in-diff approach on Venezuelan displacement Omar Hammoud Gallego The London School of Economics and Political Science This paper analyses the effects of the introduction of visa restrictions on migrants' well-being in the context of mass displacement and porous borders. I study the recent mass displacement of Venezuelan nationals, and compare the cases of Argentina, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, where in June 2019 visa restrictions were introduced, with Colombia, where Venezuelan entry was continuously allowed without the need for a visa. I use a data set of 85 thousand migrants in need of international protection as identified by the UNHCR as part of its monitoring activity of migrants’ well-being in the Latin American region. The dataset contains mostly Venezuelan nationals. Findings suggest that the introduction of visa restrictions increased irregular entry - with no sizeable effect on the number of entries - while also leading to an increase in rates of physical violence suffered by migrants and a change in their priorities, thus slowing their rates of integration in the host country. === The Paradoxes of Remittances inflow to Ghana and How the State Can Change the Narrative Stephen Asafo Agyei University of Lisbon, Geographic Institute and Spatial Planning (IGOT) This study explores a tripartite relationship between the state, diaspora’s remittances, and development within the lens of social inequality. Methodologically, it uses an online survey to gather information on some vital sociological dynamics of remittances from the Ghanaian diaspora. The study first finds a positive correlation between migrants’ ethnicity and the remittances recipient regions in Ghana. Thus, Ghana’s remittances inflow mostly reaches the southern part of the country where most well-off people reside. This evidence suggests that most Ghanaian migrants are not from the deprived regions and that remittance directly increases the social inequality gap. The study then introduces the state’s role in addressing migrants’ unconscious, contributing to social inequality. By this, a hypothesis that migrants would patronise a state-led app for sending money to Ghana where the returns are invested in less-remittances recipient regions (that coincide with the less developed regions) is tested. Using a binary model, the study finds that while generically, most migrants would subscribe to this vision, factors such as; how often migrants send money to Ghana, the cost of charges, and whether migrants have been to Ghana in the last 15years would be the decisive factors. Given that all these factors are highly feasible among diasporans, the study confirms this proposal’s viability and offers plausible recommendations for policymakers. Thus, the study suggests that the state can trigger robust accountability and sustainability of this proposal by setting up a checks and balances system. It could be in the form of showcasing all projects that emanate from the returns of the app on all diaspora platforms. Also, there must be a quarterly briefing on the initiative’s success and challenges and encourage diasporans to offer suggestions whenever necessary.

author

Marco Bitschnau

University of Neuchâtel

author

Anders Hellström

MIM

author

Omar Hammoud Gallego

The London School of Economics and Political Science

author

Stephen Asafo Asafo Agyei

University of Lisbon

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In-between Cultures: Young People with Migratory Experience

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #240 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Dana Bittnerová

Charles Univer

chair

Zuzana Terry

Faculty of Humanities, Charles University, Prague

Crossing borders and connecting cultures are part of young people’s perspectives, whose parents or grandparents migrated. Without young people’s decision, the migration experience stepped into their biographies, practices and knowledge, influencing their norms and values. Growing up in more contexts, in reference to more than one social field represents a specific experience “in-between”, respectively, one of the modalities which establishes cultural hybridity. In the context of life “in-between”, young people are confronted with various normativities, which their surroundings (parents, family, peers, neighbourhood) model, to which they must respond and negotiate their position in relation to them. This can affect both their personal feelings of belonging and their repertoire of their praxis. However, at the same time, their specific migration experience enters the space in which they live. Consequently, specific institutions, imaginaries and practices which leave a mark emerge. Within our panel, we welcome all the contributions that are intended to answer the question of what the life of a young person with migration experience is like. Our interest is to explain how the values they share are connecting with the feelings of belonging to different groups and social fields (or with the feelings of otherness). We ask what their practices are; practices that connect to the country of origin on the one hand and contributes to cultural hybridity on the other. We will also be happy for contributions that focus on institutions, aiming to convey the content and values that place young people in a position “in-between” and making them part of their life experiences crossing borders and connecting cultures. PAPER #1 Soviet War Graves: Educational Activity in the Diaspora as a Tool for Maintaining Transnational Relations AUTHOR(S) Dana Bittnerová (Charles University) ABSTRACT Migration from the former Soviet Union countries continues from the 1990s. It creates Russian-speaking diasporas in Europe and globally, maintaining their relationship with the country of origin, Russian culture, language and memory. I will focus on a specific educational activity of the Russian-speaking diaspora in the Czech Republic (the CR), organised for Russian teenagers by a non-profit organisation led by Russian-speakers with migration experience. The project maps the graves of Soviet army soldiers who died during WWII and are buried in the CRs cemeteries. The activity is to search for graves of specific soldiers, their identification and finding their descendants. The activity aims to connect the place where young people grow up with memory tied to the Russian-speaking space. The activity connects the preferences and initiatives of parents of teenagers, NGOs - diasporas in the CR, the Russian Federation, organisations of countries where the Russian-speaking diasporas live. According to Russian-speaking parents, the activity conveys to children the values they have been socialised (including the language). The project is meaningful for NGOs; it connects many entities (in the CR and abroad) thus increases the relevance of the activity and the organisation. Several Russian Federation organisations' support corresponds partly to their own agenda (support for compatriots, teaching the Russian language, maintaining memory for the Second World War). Besides, organisations from other countries welcome international cooperation. Young descendants from Russian-speaking families are placed in a network of these relationships and expectations. In my paper, I will address how the activity contributes to the feelings of belonging of teenagers with a migratory experience, and how it is involved in maintaining transnational identities; what effect does the activity have on Russian-speaking people's imagination as members of the global diaspora. PAPER #2 Sharing Otherness: Teenagers In-between two Social Spaces and their Need to Meet Together AUTHOR(S) Zuzana Terry (Charles University, Prague) ABSTRACT Anglophone youth migration is privileged. For Anglophone children with migratory experience there are many opportunities to practice their parents' language and share their cultures with peers. However, they live in-between the two cultures and are marked as others in Czech society. My paper describes the teenager’s experience with one of the afterschool activities, the youth theatre. I aim to explain why this afterschool activity seems to give the anglophone migrant teenagers such a strong feeling of belonging, and explain how the afterschool activity with others in similar in-between situation forms their sense of self. The paper is based on ten moths research conducted in anthropological tradition of ethnographic fieldwork; participatory observation of a teenagers class (age 15 – 18) of fifteen pupils during their rehearsals, performances and breaks in youth theatre, and semi-structured interviews with the teenagers, the youth theatre owner and their teachers. Analysing the observations and interviews, I argue: That the youth with migratory experience feel excluded and they need to share their in-between experiences. They fulfil their needs in the youth theatre. They can share their experience because they are all from different spaces and all feel other and because of the youth theatres' environment. With its British including tradition (Hughes, Wilson, 2007), youth theatre offer the anglophone migrant acceptance of otherness and therefore feeling of belonging. The youth theatre brings together children from different in-between families, and at the same time, it offers knowledge that transcends these spaces. These teenagers articulate their appreciation of the place where their feelings of incomplete integration can be shared, a place where their in-between is normativity. PAPER #3 Social Identity and Belonging of Young Muslims in the Czech Republic AUTHOR(S) Zuzana Rendek (Charles University, Prague) ABSTRACT The issue of Islam and Muslims in Czech society is one of the most debated and actual topics, even though Islam has only weakly influenced the Czech Republic throughout history. (Muslims began to associate here based on their religious affiliations only in the 1930s (Mendl, Ostřanský, Rataj, 2008). Compared to the profiles of other Muslim minorities in Europe, young Muslims in the Czech Republic have a high socioeconomic status and university education. Still, they do not form a homogeneous group, but only a few thousand of them practice religion. In Czech society, they are rather an "invisible" minority. My paper aims at young Muslims living in the Czech Republic and study of their social identity, which they negotiate in the context of their membership within various groups and communities. I focus on which groups they understand as important, how they reflect and consider membership negotiations within them, and in relation to which groups they understand their membership as "natural" or conversely, which groups they perceive as "endangered". How they think about the aspects and strategies based on which they defend their membership. Cohen (1982) presents identity as a cultural marker that determines a group's classifications. In this context, I am interested in what repertoire of strategies they apply (reflect) to secure membership in these groups. Their multiple identities refer to various biographies that place them in the "in-between" position.

discussant

Paul Sperneac-Wolfer

University of Vienna, Vienna

author

Zuzana Rendek

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Local impacts, belonging, and citizenship 2

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #241 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

chair

Elina Jonitz

Beyond the ethnic boundaries? The attitudes toward migrants in The Narratives of Charismatic Christians in Poland Maciej Witkowski WSB University Since 2015 the influx of successive waves of refugees to Europe has led to unprecedented debate on the relation between national identity, religious identification and universal human community in Poland (which seems homogeneous as far as religion and ethnicity are concerned). In the years 2016-2020 series of ethnographic studies (in-depth interviews and participant observations) on charismatic Christian communities were conducted. The research included Catholic Poles, Orthodox Poles and Pentecostal Roma. We noticed that the members of very different communities show similarities in their attitudes towards providing help to the foreigners. One of the objectives of our research was determination of the range and patterns of perception of various forms of interpersonal bonds (ethnic, religious, universal). Questions about the attitudes towards receiving and providing help to the foreigners coming to Poland were asked. We were particularly interested in mutual relation of ethnicity and Christian universalism. The interviews explored the potential contradictions and internal conflicts between individual, national, religious and universal aspects of identity. In the spectrum of different types of attitudes the belief that their own ethnic and territorial community should remain open to social distinction dominated. Contradictory to the predictions of macroscale theories none of the analyzed cases showed tendencies towards ethnic exclusivism coexisting with profound religiosity. The research showed that Christian universalism similarly in all the cases broadens the way to understand the ethnic community, making it more inclusive. Our analysis will point to the interpretation of the reasons for divergent results of the macroscale research and ethnographical insight. === The concept of belonging and its development within studies of children and young people Anita Borch Consumption Research Norway (SIFO) The concept of belonging, in short referring to a sense of ‘fitting in’ in our immediate social context – be it people, places ore materials, is increasingly used within the social sciences, humanities and art to explain people’s connection to the world around them. Little is, however, known about the concept’s origin and development within studies of children and young people. Based on a Foucauldian discourse analysis, this paper addresses academic discourses of belonging of children and young people as they come to expression in peer-reviewed journals. Questions are: What characterizes these discourses and their development over time with regards to definitions of belonging, aims of the studies, spokespersons (disciplines of journal and 1th author), groups of children and youth addressed and the presumed impact of belonging for these groups. Special attentions will be paid to academic discourses addressing immigrant children and young people and how these discourses differ from those focusing on other same-aged groups. === A Cosmopolitan Explanation of the Integration Paradox: A Mixed-Methods Approach Nella Geurts Radboud University, Department of Sociology Tine Davids Radboud University, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Development Studies Marcel Lubbers ERCOMER, Utrecht University Niels Spierings Radboud University, Department of Sociology Recent studies have found that higher-educated migrants experience less belonging to the residence country than lower-educated migrants, which has been dubbed the integration paradox. This finding has been considered counterintuitive, as it opposes the assumption of a linear assimilation process. Previous research has not resulted in clear-cut answers on the presence of this paradox, and accordingly the need for underlying mechanisms is stressed. This paper zooms in on the role of cosmopolitanism in the integration paradox. It builds on Ten Teije, Coenders, and Verkuyten (2013) who suggested that higher-educated migrants have a more cosmopolitan worldview than lower-educated migrants which would result in a lower sense of belonging to the residence country. This possible explanation of the paradox has been left untheorized and empirically untested. We explore this mechanism for recent Turkish migrants in the Netherlands. We do so using a mixed-methods triangulation approach. First, we study to what extent the negative effect of education on national belonging is explained by feeling like a world citizen using survey data of the New Immigrants Survey (NIS2NL). Subsequently, we use in-depth interviews with high-skilled Turkish migrants (N=32) purposively sampled from the NIS2NL survey to understand the found results and study whether these results match migrants’ realities. Preliminary results of a moderated mediation model show that world citizenship negatively relates to belonging to the Netherlands when belonging to Turkey is low and in doing so explains the integration paradox. When migrants’ belonging to Turkey is however high, world citizenship relates positively to belonging to the Netherlands as well. In-depth interviews back this finding, illustrating that there are different types of world citizens: some who experience belonging to no place in specific and some who experience belonging to every country, and thus also the Netherlands.

author

Marcel Lubbers

Utrecht University

author

Anita Borch

Consumption Research Norway (SIFO)

author

Maciej Witkowski

WSB University

author

Nella Geurts

Radboud University Nijmegen

author

Tine Davids

Radboud University, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Development Studies

author

Niels Spierings

Radboud University, Department of Sociology

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Migration Politics & Governance 9

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #242 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Phil Martin

Following the refugee relocation scheme: Ideological interpretations of inter­state responsibility in Romania Raluca Bejan Dalhousie University This project presents on preliminary interview data (n=14) that explores how Romanian policy makers and elected representatives interpret the idea of interstate shared responsibility in relation to the EU’s relocation system for internally re­distributing refugees. Following the 2015 levels of irregular migrant entries to Greece, Italy and Hungary, the European Commission (EC) adopted two procedural decisions intended to transfer 120,000 people in need of international protection from the aforementioned ‘burdened’ nations to the least affected Member States. A distribution key was apportioned between the 28 states on several indicators: GDP (40%), population size (40%), unemployment rate (10%) and past numbers of asylum seekers applications (10%) (EC, 2015). The relocation decisions stirred an outspoken political brawl with a pair of states (i.e., Slovakia and Hungary) bringing their complaints to the European Court. The scholarly research on relocation is scarce. Most literature engages with analytical dialogues on responsibility­sharing mechanisms, on various distributive scenarios, or on the norms of fairness grounding these schemes. There is no empirical data on ideological interpretations of intra­EU solidarity efforts as they particularly pertain to the local implementation of the relocation scheme. This paper will discuss how distributive ideas and ideals of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility are understood within the political and legislative context in Romania and will explore what constitutes a fair distributive mechanism in the development of interstate responsibility sharing in matters of asylum and migration management. === Too vulnerable to be resettled? Comparing selection criteria for refugee resettlement in eight countries Erlend Paasche Norwegian Institute for Social Research Jan-Paul Brekke Norwegian Institute for Social Research Less than one percent of the worlds’ refugees are resettled, mostly through the UNHCR. By what criteria do resettlement countries decide to accept or reject candidates for resettlement? Over the past few years, refugee resettlement has in many ways gained in prominence. Commitment to this particular form of refugee protection has been reaffirmed through the 2018 Global Compact on Refugees, the 2019 Global Refugee Forum, the UNHCR’s Three-Year Strategy (2019-2021), and the proposed EU Pact on Migration and Asylum. For the worlds’ refugees, however, it still represents a needle’s eye. In this paper, we comparatively analyse national selection criteria and procedures in Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, Germany and France, empirically based on expert interviews and an international survey. We find that while resettlement states face a similar dilemma between ‘helping those who need it the most’ and not overburdening local administrations with refugees who are ‘too vulnerable’, their approaches differ. Some put more emphasis on humanitarian principles and rely largely on the UNHCR’s eligibility assessments. Others put more emphasis on integration-related concerns. It is therefore important, we argue, to go beyond mere statistics and national ‘quotas’ in this field. In a legal vacuum, it is subject to the discretionary power of the resettlement state not only how many it wishes to resettle but also whom it wishes to resettle. This discretionary power largely explains the political ascendancy of refugee resettlement lately, but it also creates tension between international commitment to humanitarian principles and national pragmatism. === Land, sea and air borders of the EU: human suffering, intervention and externalization Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert PRIO This paper takes the European external borders as a prism to understand EU migration policies, and its continuous move towards externalization of border management. It does so through an empirical study of the spatial dimension of the EU border areas and the security and humanitarian spaces at these borders. How do the different socio-political spheres of land, sea and air borders, that make up the external borders of the EU, create different forms of humanitarian suffering, and different forms of interventions – both to govern mobility and to respond to the humanitarian needs? And how do they in different ways produce an externalization of the EU migration policies? The paper begins by investigating how the EU border regime has reshaped the land borders, from removing physical border checks, to producing new effective borders through technological surveillance, to reintroducing land border controls, first in the wake of the 2015 Refugee reception crisis and then in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Second, it examines the specificity of sea border, from being more risky for the migrants seeking to cross, yet providing for an obligation to search and rescue persons in distress for any vessel at sea. Being more difficult to patrol and control than the physical land border: how has this led to different attempts to externalize the management of these borders, into third countries beyond the EU? Third, the air space has, especially with the advent of the “drone gaze”, become the dimension allowing new forms of overview, and thus potentially both increased control and improved rescue operations. The paper argues that the complex situations of humanitarian suffering and security governance at the external borders of the EU together produce the push towards externalizing border management, yet producing new dilemmas rather than solving the existing ones. === Management of Mobility of Syrian Refugees across Turkey Sezgi Karacan University of Ottawa This paper analyses Syrians’ mobility in Turkey and how borders within and across Turkey vis-à-vis Syrian refugees are negotiated among different actors with a focus on the roles the EU and resettlement mechanisms to Canada play in this process. Responses from the Global South to Global North’s migration policies have become an important area of inquiry in the scholarship on migration and borders. Turkey’s asylum system and border policies cannot be considered independently from the EU’s asylum and border policies that are externalized and practiced outside of its official borders and various international protection mechanisms and channels of resettlement to third countries such as Canada. This research focuses on three areas of asylum policy and border practices that play a role in the governance of Syrians’ mobility between 2011 and 2020, along with the relationships between these three areas: Turkey’s management of Syrians’ mobility and internal borders; EU’s externalization of its borders and migration control to Turkey; resettlement of Syrian refugees to Canada from Turkey. The research design is composed of policy analysis and semi-structured interviews. The policy analysis covers law and regulations of asylum and temporary protection in Turkey, externalization of European border and migration control, and resettlement channels to Canada from Turkey. Semi-structured interviews consist of state, non-state, and international actors in Turkey, and refugees who are resettled to Canada through Turkey. By way of this, this paper inquires their experiences of mobility and negotiating borders, and explore the differences between policy and practice.

author

Raluca Bejan

Dalhousie University

author

Erlend Paasche

Norwegian Institute for Social Research

author

Jan-Paul Brekke

ISF

author

Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert

Peace Research Institute Oslo

author

Sezgi Karacan

University of Ottawa

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The IILME-research agenda (2): future research and other activities

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #243 workshop | SC Immigration, Immigrants and Labour Markets in Europe

organizer

Rinus Penninx

University of Amsterdam

organizer

Anders Neergaard

REMESO

In this final session, the Standing Committee IILME will take stock of what has been presented at the conference, how the research initiative “State policies and the demand for migrant workers pre and post COVID 19” will be developed further, and what other initiatives will be taken.
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Mobility and immobility in the context of protracted displacement in Europe: comparative hints from Italy, Greece and Germany

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #244 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Ferruccio Pastore

FIERI

chair

Emanuela Roman

Forum of International and European Research on Immigration (FIERI)

Discussant: Joris Schapendonk | Radboud University A growing share of migrants and asylum seekers who perilously reached Europe over the last years are in a condition of legal precariousness and socio-economic fragility. Even those who are granted some form of protection often face difficulties to gain a stable legal status and safe and decent living conditions in their country of refuge. In spite of immobilising migration policies in the EU, moving within and across national borders becomes often the only perceived survival strategy. This panel focuses precisely on the tension between mobility and immobility in the lives of migrants living in protracted displacement in Europe. This tension may unfold both within the borders of a country in the form of internal (im)mobility, and across the borders of that country in the form of intra-EU (im)mobility, but also at a more local level, e.g. in daily movements in and out of a city/locality. The panel aims to analyse not only the mechanisms that produce and reproduce mobility and immobility in the lives of migrants, but also the meanings and functions that “moving” and “staying” acquire in their European trajectories in comparison with their previous journeys (Brigden, Mainwaring, 2018; Schapendonk and Steel, 2014). These aspects are investigated from a comparative perspective through an analysis of three case studies – Italy, Greece and Germany – both in urban and rural settings. The comparison may highlight the cleavage between countries of first entry and countries of destination, and the role it plays in exacerbating intra-EU mobility/immobility dynamics. Contributions consider also the Covid-19 pandemic as an additional factor that has come to affect migrants’ mobility and survival strategies, at all levels. The papers presented are based on the findings from fieldwork carried out under the Horizon 2020 TRAFIG project (https://trafig.eu/). PAPER #1 Immobilising policies vs mobility practices: mobility as a resource and a trap in the experience of forced migrants in Italy AUTHOR(S) Milena Belloni (Flanders Research Foundation; FIERI) Pietro Cingolani (Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna; FIERI) Giuseppe Grimaldi (FIERI) Emanuela Roman (FIERI) ABSTRACT This paper examines how the experience of protracted displacement interacts with mobility desires and practices among a diverse population of asylum seekers, refugees and undocumented migrants in Italy. Drawing from expert interviews, biographic interviews with migrants and ethnographic data collected in different localities and among different nationalities in the framework of the Horizon 2020 TRAFIG project, we focus on three main aspects. First, how national and EU policies and regulatory regimes constraining mobility contribute to migrants’ protracted legal and socio-economic precariousness; second, the mobility strategies adopted by migrants to cope with such immobilising policies and to craft a survival strategy despite their “stuckedness” (Brekke and Brochmann, 2014); third, how protracted, circular and fragmented mobility may become a constraint rather than an opportunity. Even if immobilised by current policies and labour mechanisms, migrants in protracted displacement enact agency-in-waiting by keeping alive their translocal connections and potential mobility pathways across Europe. Although these connections provide space for action, migrants also risk being trapped in a loop of movements between different countries without the possibility to achieve durable legal protection and sustainable socio-economic inclusion in any of those. The trajectories of migrants who hold a protection status in Italy, but work and live elsewhere in Europe are an important case in point. PAPER #2 Between movement and stasis: Acting-in-waiting in a context of “permanent temporarity” in Greece AUTHOR(S) Panos Hatziprokopiou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) Eva Papatzani (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) Alexandra Siotou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) Filyra Vlastou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) ABSTRACT “Wait” is among the first words that many asylum seekers and refugees learn in Greek, the meaning of which they come to realise in practice as they navigate through the Greek reception and asylum system. The latter, in the aftermath of the so-called “refugee crisis”, is characterized by a wide range of mechanisms restricting mobility, which along with structural forces and institutional deficiencies result in situations of protracted legal limbo and socio-economic and housing precarity. “Living-in-waiting” is imprinted in the everyday life at the Hotspots on the north-eastern Aegean islands while waiting for a possible lifting of geographical restriction; at the mainland camps while waiting for the asylum decision for more than a year; or in urban accommodation while waiting eviction from the official reception system. Nevertheless, in such situations of immobilization, people come up with various everyday coping strategies, survival practices, crucial mobilities and networks. This paper aims to explore the notion of “waiting” as both an experience and a perception of displaced people in Greece, as a notion between mobility and immobility, movement and stasis. It looks at the ways in which asylum seekers perceive, and most importantly, negotiate and practice waiting, by investigating how they construct everyday practices and tactics, how they mobilize local, translocal or even transnational networks for their own mobility trajectories, and how they enact agency-in-waiting. “Waiting”, and different ways to cope with it, is inscribed in a complex grid of institutional dependency, precarity and autonomy, while living in a context of “permanent temporarity”. PAPER #3 Immobility, mobility practices and connectivity under conditions of protracted displacement in Germany AUTHOR(S) Simone Christ (Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)) Benjamin Etzold (BICC) Gizem Güzelant (BICC; University of Bonn) Philipp Themann (University of Bonn) ABSTRACT The paper focuses on the impact of immobility on everyday life of forced migrants in Germany, many of them experiencing protracted displacement. It asks how forced migrants develop strategies and build on their agency to deal with immobility. Moreover, it looks how mobility and immobility are related to connectivity. The asylum regime constrains the mobility of forced migrants in Germany. Asylum seekers and people with a suspension of deportation must ask the foreigners’ registration office if they want to leave their municipality. Even recognized refugees face mobility restrictions: they are not allowed to move from one federal state to the other within the first three years. For some forced migrants, the mobility restrictions contradict with potential support by their translocal networks. For example, relatives living in other regions sometimes offer support for newly arrived asylum seekers, like housing or helping to find work. On the other hand, there are state policies which explicitly allow mobility, such as family reunification or humanitarian admission programs. Family reunification enables mobility of refugees stuck in countries of first reception or in transit countries by building on familial connectivity. Currently, the pandemic is exacerbating immobility. For example, the German embassies have extensively limited the visa issuing in the context of family reunification. Many families now must endure prolonged separations. The paper is based on empirical fieldwork in the framework of the TRAFIG project. It draws mainly on semi-structured and biographic interviews with forced migrants and expert interviews conducted between September 2020 and February 2021.

author

Milena Belloni

discussant

Joris Schapendonk

Radboud University

author

Pietro Cingolani

FIERI

author

Giuseppe Grimaldi

Università di Verona; FIERI

author

Panos Arion Hatziprokopiou

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

author

Eva (Evangelia) Papatzani

National Technical University of Athens

author

Alexandra Siotou

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

author

Filyra Vlastou - Dimopoulou

National Technical University of Athens & Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (co-direction)

author

Simone Christ

Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)

author

Benjamin Etzold

Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)

author

Gizem Güzelant

BICC - Bonn International Centre for Conversion

author

Philipp Themann

University of Bonn

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MIMY “EMpowerment through liquid Integration of Migrant Youth in vulnerable conditions”: Presentation of first results of an H2020 research project on youth migration in Europe

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #245 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Isabelle A. Albert

University of Luxembourg

chair

Birte Nienaber

University of Luxembourg

Increasing migratory flows of third-country nationals (TCN) to Europe have led EU member states to adopt different national strategies regarding integration. Within ageing societies with labour forces eventually lacking certain professional skills, migrants, of which a large proportion are young people, may represent an important economic contribution. European societies need to address the integration challenges of young TCN and to avoid social exclusion. The H2020 project MIMY involves 13 partners from LU, DE, UK, SE, NO, IT, PO, RO and HU. The general aim is to improve the situation of young migrants throughout Europe by examining the effectiveness of integration policies in an interdisciplinary research endeavour. MIMY is addressing integration processes of young non-EU migrants in vulnerable conditions across 18 case studies, 2 in each of the 9 countries involved in the consortium. Most importantly, MIMY is putting the experiences of young migrants at the centre of its activities by involving them as peer researchers through participatory action research. This panel aims to present the first MIMY findings. The panel is composed of five communications with the following themes: (1) ‘markers and means’ and overarching ‘fields of integration’ focusing on the central domains of ‘politics/participation’, ‘culture’, and ‘services’; (2) overview of macro data on the under-researched theme of labour-market impact of refugees, with a specific focus on young refugees; (3) overview of migrant youth and their vulnerability in Europe using micro-level data of the European Social Survey; (4) evidence of contextual integration indicators in the UK with a focus on challenges posed by a policy shaped by immigration hostility, securitisation, Brexit, and aggressive promotion of ‘British culture’; (5) hurdles and challenges of young migrant integration in Luxembourg drawing on comparative socio-economic indicators and current integration policies. PAPER #1 Nothing to lose but stability? – An explorative analysis of national governmental, NGO and practitioners’ integration debates AUTHOR(S) Skrobanek, Jan (UiB) Dyer Ånensen, Rebecca (UiB) ABSTRACT 12 years ago, Alastair Ager and Alison Strang (2008) published a very influential paper on the normative conception of integration in policy and public debates as well as in resettlement settings. By applying Ager and Strang’s approach and conceptual framework to MIMY’s research field of integration of young migrants in vulnerable conditions, we want to illuminate both understandings and domains of integration in national governmental, NGO and practitioners’ debates. Using data from MIMY partner reports regarding integration debates at the governmental, NGO and practitioner level in each partner country we explore aspects related to ‘markers and means’ (Ager & Strang, 2008: 170) and overarching ‘fields of integration’. In doing so, we combine a theory induced (top-down) and an exploratively induced (bottom-up) identification or reconstruction of the ‘fields’ and related topics. Our analysis reveals additional fields or key issues in the debates not covered by Ager and Strang’s findings and reflections. Most central are domains like ‘politics/participation’, ‘culture’, and ‘services’, though these are not found on all levels of the debates and just in a few countries in focus here. Furthermore, we find that stability, rather than change and reciprocal processual adjustment to the changing needs of young migrants within a changing structural context, is central in the governmental, NGO or practitioner debates reviewed. PAPER #2 IS THERE AN EFFECT OF YOUNG REFUGEES INFLOWS ON THE YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT? EVIDENCE FROM A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AUTHOR(S) Roman, Monica (Bucharest University of Economic Studies) Cimpoeru, Smaranda (Bucharest University of Economic Studies) ABSTRACT Labour-market impact of migration is well documented in the literature, while labour-market impact of refugees or more specifically of young refugees, is under-researched. The aim of the paper is to analyse the effect of young refugee inflows into European countries on the labour market outcomes over the last decade. More than 17 million third country nationals entered Europe between 2010 and 2018, while asylum applications have more than doubled in the same period with a peak in 2015-16. These inflows are unevenly distributed across European countries. The paper relies on macroeconomic data for a sample of 28 European countries and panel data regression models with fixed and random effects. The main outcome is youth unemployment (YU), a most detrimental condition inducing human capital decay. YU is explained using economic environment factors (inflation, income), education (share of the young population having low or medium education level), economic inequality (Gini Index), democracy or demographic structures (share of the young population in total population). Young asylum seekers (YAS) were included in the models in absolute terms or as share of young asylum applicants in young population. Results demonstrate that, while most control variables have expected significant effects on YU, YAS have no significant impacts on YU. Moreover, as a robustness check, the effect of total number of asylum applicants on the general unemployment rate was tested. Results confirm the lack of a significant effect of asylum applicants, suggesting that the costs generated by refugee supply stocks on the European labour markets are limited. PAPER #3 Vulnerable immigrant youth in Europe. A micro-level analysis of factors of vulnerability using European Social Survey data AUTHOR(S) Messing, Vera (Center for Social Sciences, Budapest and Democracy Institute, CEU) Ságvári, Bence (Center for Social Sciences, Budapest) ABSTRACT The paper presents an analysis conducted in the framework of the MIMY project (EMpowerment through liquid integration of vulnerable Youth in Europe) that investigates migrant youth and their vulnerability in Europe using micro (individual) level data of the European Social Survey. It focuses on TCN immigrants below the age of 30 and analyses the main factors likely to increase the chances of living in vulnerable conditions. A composite indicator was used signalling vulnerable conditions on four dimensions of social integration: labour market, education, health and social inclusion. Through the composite indicator the analysis compares migrant and non-migrant youth in vulnerable and non-vulnerable conditions and identifies key determinants of vulnerability. It investigates how destination country, region of origin correlate with the share of vulnerable migrant youth and looks into usual suspects of vulnerability, such demographic characteristics, identity making traits, and family / household conditions. The paper provides evidence that third country national migrant youth are significantly more exposed to vulnerable conditions and especially to multiple vulnerabilities than young people with no immigrant background. It found that low income and low education, and the combination of these two are the most frequent reason for vulnerable conditions for both TCN and native youth. The host country environment affects the likelihood of vulnerable conditions for TCN immigrants differently: they are least likely to be exposed to vulnerability in Germany, Switzerland, Norway and the most likely in Austria, Portugal, Spain but also, the region of origin matters in term of the chances of vulnerable conditions. PAPER #4 Critical intersections: youth, culture and inequality in England’s integration policies AUTHOR(S) Shahrokh, Thea (University of Sheffield ) Kilkey, Majella (University of Sheffield ) Lewis, Hannah (University of Sheffield ) Powell, Ryan (University of Sheffield ) ABSTRACT Young migrants in England are building their lives against a policy backdrop shaped by a hostile immigration environment, securitisation, Brexit, and an increasingly aggressive promotion of ‘British culture’. These discourses intersect with inequalities of outcome in education and employment affecting minority ethnic youth, which have been exacerbated by a decade of austerity. Unprecedented welfare cuts have diminished opportunities for youth, depleted key support services, and fuelled welfare chauvinism. In this paper, we analyse past and present integration debates and policies, and their implications for young migrants in this current context. We argue that embedded in England’s apparent ‘failure of multiculturalism’, and the shift towards ‘cohesion’, currently constructed as ‘social integration’, is a tension connected to ‘culture’. This tension relates to the perceived ‘cultural threat’ of migration identities and continued assumptions about the separation of cultures in society. With a focus on young migrants, we discuss this tension’s symbolic value in shaping integration agendas. We argue that integration debates and policies position young migrants within a web of identities associated with threat and risk. We suggest that young migrants are facing a renewed assimilationism that fails to address structural exclusions and a hostile immigration context, and that elides the complexity of youth transitions and aspirations. We combine a desk-based policy analysis and emerging findings from semi-structured interviews with stakeholders with a role in integration service provision in South Yorkshire, England. In doing so, we present reflections on the emerging implications for integration agendas across different levels of governance. PAPER #5 Young third-country nationals’ integration in Luxembourg: hurdles and challengess AUTHOR(S) Prof. Birte Nienaber Prof. Isabelle Albert Jutta Bissinger José Oliveira ABSTRACT Luxembourg presents a unique migratory landscape: 47.5 % of its current population is composed of foreigners. Hence, one could assume a high prominence of integration policies. Instead, the Luxembourgish integration model was primarily based on labour market integration: assuming that this would automatically lead to social and cultural integration. As the immigrant community grew and foreign workers brought their families, a host of integration issues ensued concerning education, housing, social security, social cohesion and political participation. The multilingual context poses school and work integration challenges and hurdles to migrants; a general lack of affordable housing especially affects migrant families; multi-culturalism and the challenges it poses to social cohesion. For young third-country national migrants, these challenges are illustrated in the following indicators: (1) higher unemployment levels, evidencing heightened school-to-work transition difficulties; (2) lower participation rates in education and training; (3) higher NEET figures; (4) discrimination based on economic or work contractual conditions, and even country of origin or racial discrimination as reported by the FRA survey “Being Black in the EU”; (5) difficult access to affordable housing and higher levels of housing cost overburden. Although Luxembourg has been making continuous efforts, both in terms of public policies and ongoing socio-cultural changes, the challenges to migrant integration remain numerous and complex for social actors, policy makers, the Luxembourgish society in general and specifically for third country nationals. A desk-based policy analysis and first findings from stakeholder interviews on national and local level will evaluate the current integration policies.

author

Majella Kilkey

University of Sheffield

author

Ryan Powell

University of Sheffield, UK

author

Rebecca Dyer Ånensen

University of Bergen

author

Monica Roman

ASE BUCHAREST

author

Smaranda Cimpoeru

Bucharest University of Economic Studies

author

Bence Ságvári

Center for Social Sciences, Budapest

author

Thea Shireen Catherine Shahrokh

University of Sheffield

author

Hannah Lewis

University of Sheffield

discussant

Andrea Membretti

UEF

author

Jan Skrobanek

University of Bergen

author

Vera Messing

(1) Center for Social Sciences; (2) Central European University

author

José Egidio Oliveira

University of Luxembourg

author

Jutta Bissinger

University of Luxembourg

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Doing Historical Research on Migration in the Digital Age: Theories, Concepts and Methods (Reporting on migration)

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #246 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

machteld venken

University of Luxembourg

The so-called ‘Digital Turn’ has implied major changes in scientific communication and methodology, impacting all areas of research to various degrees. For example, in migration studies, today digital data enable new methods through the development and use of digital tools. Accordingly, there is now a wide range of digital approaches that complement or even challenge traditional methodologies of how to do historical research on migration. Moreover, the ever-growing availability of digital data, including digitized repositories and archives, has provided researchers with new perspectives leading them to challenge traditional positions and even explore new questions. The aim of this series of panels is to explore the interaction of those parameters having an impact on the different strategies, critical reflections, digital methodological approaches and tools in historical research on migration. In line with the theme of IMISCOE 2021 ‘Crossing borders, connecting cultures’, this series of panels concentrates on theories, concepts and methods in historical research on migration with a specific focus on ‘the digital’. The series of panels brings together prominent, international researchers in the field of digital migration researching the past, providing fresh insights and methodologies and presenting tools and practices of digital historiography. This first session focuses on the immigrant press, a phenomenon associated with the mass migration to the Americas between the 1880s and 1920s. On the basis of ongoing empirical research, the invited speakers present the immigrant press as a valuable source of data for studying past narratives of migration and share innovative research methodologies helpful to provide new insights on the migrants’ role in the history of modern states. PAPER #1 Human Journeys in the Digital Age AUTHOR(S) Paul Arthur (Edith Cowan University) ABSTRACT Migration and the mass movement and mobility of people across the world has been accelerating rapidly along with the macro processes of globalisation – economic, political, cultural and social – over recent decades. Since the late 20th century these trends have been supported and enabled by parallel developments in information and communications technology (ICT) and computing which have also had a profound influence on historical and cultural research. In the case of migration studies, these digital innovations have led to new data-driven methods and creation of vast online resources, as well as social networks and platforms that have sustained and expanded migrant communities and diasporas. This presentation will foreground the remarkable possibilities being opened up for historical research by ongoing digitisation and documentation of migrant cultural heritage in multiple forms by institutions, individuals and communities, and the creation of digital tools that can be applied to datasets to reveal new patterns and insights. A related aspect of the paper will be a focus on the role of ICT in fostering communities and preserving cultural heritage in home and host lands, so enabling traditional ties to be maintained and strengthened in ways that would otherwise have been impossible. A key emphasis will be on the prospects for data integration and linkage to create richer resources and infrastructure for advanced research and analysis of migrant histories. The many challenges ranging from technical and preservation issues to data curation and sustainability, privacy, security, legal, and policy concerns are further complicated because migration experience is by its nature transnational and hence migration research and resources need identifying and connecting across national and jurisdictional boundaries. PAPER #2 Saḥafa ~ Digitizing Early Arab American Newspapers (1899-1970) AUTHOR(S) Akram Khater (North Carolina State University) ABSTRACT Arabs have largely been ignored in narratives of American history. When they make an appearance, it is almost always as nefarious outsiders. Nineteenth-century Orientalist representations, a century of Hollywood images, US government policies, and decades of militarized encounters in the Middle East have formed and fed this concept of “the Arab'' as “the Other”. Yet, Arab Americans have been citizens of the United States for nearly 150 years, and their experiences are in many ways the very narrative of modern America, and most certainly of its various immigrant populations. The elision of their stories from America’s formative narrative, especially when compared to other immigrant groups, is driven in part by the scarcity and silences of the archive. Specifically, none of the Arabic material in these collections is searchable as digital text. Recognizing this problem through my research on Arab migration and diasporas, I have been spearheading the effort at the Khayrallah Center for Lebanese Diaspora Studies to create Saḥafa, the first searchable digital database of Arabic newspapers and books published in the US between 1899 and 1970. These newspapers constitute a vital source of the intersectional history of the Arab communities across the US. My presentation will discuss this project from its inception as an effort to digitize the widely dispersed extant microfilm or physical copies of early Arab American newspapers, to the subsequent development of an Arabic OCR program that renders these images into searchable text. Beyond the technical aspects of this project, my paper will look at the new research venues that are opened by the Saḥafa project. Specifically, I will explore how this project allows us to map the flow of people, commodities and ideas across the diasporic networks in ways not possible before. PAPER #3 The rise and fall of Italian American Radicalism: A Digital Humanities study, 1898-1920 AUTHOR(S) Lorella Viola (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History ) ABSTRACT At the turn of the twentieth century, Italian radicalism arrived to the United States together with millions of Italian migrants. After a thriving beginning, it became weaker and weaker and eventually disappeared during the interwar period. The deradicalisation of Italian American workers has often been ascribed to a process of assimilation, explained with the so-called ‘Americanization theory’ (Park, 1922). However, a more recent reading suggests a much more complex explanation (Vecoli, 2003). This paper explores the potential advantage of using digital humanities (DH) methods, such as deep learning Named Entity Recognition, network analysis, and Entity Sentiment Analysis, to investigate the Italian American labour experience during the first wave of mass migration, 1880-1920. Specifically, we compare classes of entities such places, people, and organizations, across two Italian immigrant newspapers as collected in the digital heritage collection ChroniclItaly 3.0 (Viola & Fiscarelli, in press): the mainstream L’Italia and the anarchic Cronaca Sovversiva. Starting from the quantitative findings, the aim is to conduct a conceptual, historical analysis of the Italian immigrant labour movement. The results show a diversion from the Americanization theory; rather than relinquishing their ethnic identity in favour of American values, the Italian immigrant labour movement would merge proletarian values with Italian values. Thus, the results align with a more complex reading of the causes of the erosion of the Italian American radicalism which includes a rediscovered interest in the homeland affairs, with the question of the Italian intervention in World War I at the centre of it. They also show the potential of using DH methodologies to test hypotheses when exploring large textual collections. PAPER #4 Studying the 19C Social Network of German-American Migrants through the lens of the German language press in the U.S. AUTHOR(S) Jana Keck (German Historical Institute Washington DC) ABSTRACT While there have been numerous studies on German migration to the United States in the 19th century, research on America’s German-language press can be summarized as relatively limited and limiting. However, immigrant newspapers are vital for the study of migration because they reveal patterns of intersections between multiple migrant networks and elucidate the change and continuity of migration experiences. The recent digitization of newspapers – as well as methods of text migration, mining and classification – mark an inflection point to study news network systems of migrants because “machines” can reveal hidden patterns “precisely because they approach them differently than humans would and have different capacities” (Oberbichler). In this presentation, I will show how I digitized German-language newspapers and deploy text mining techniques to study which news content was obtained, selected and reproduced. I am additionally using machine learning to classify texts into genres such as ads, lists, jokes or poems. The objective is to illustrate how this classification helps in understanding what authors, editors, and readers of the period valued and to make genre-specific datasets available to foster further research in the field. Using computational methods paired with the qualitative analysis of textual data within their historical and cultural contexts delivers insights on the dynamics of knowledge transfer about the culture of origin and departure, the move, and the process of insertion or acculturation into American society. This project – and the digital archive of viral genres – shed light on the theoretical framework of the German immigrant newspaper as the voice and mirror of German ethnic life to show that assimilation and continuing transnational connections are neither incompatible, nor are they binary oppositions (Levitt and Glick Schiller).

discussant

Jaap Verheul

Utrecht University

author

Paul Arthur

author

Akram Khater

North Carolina State University

author

Lorella Viola

University of Luxembourg

author

Jana Keck

German Historical Institute Washington

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Conceptual and theoretical questions about superdiversity in citizenship and migration studies

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #247 workshop | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Wiebke Sievers

ISR

organizer

Daniela Vintila

Center for Ethnic and Migration Studies (CEDEM), University of Liege

organizer

Hassan Bousetta

CEDEM

chair

Marco F Martiniello

CEDEM

This workshop is a joint initiative of the Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation (MIGCITPOL) and Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change (DIVCULT) IMISCOE Standing Committees. In a context of increasing diversification of European societies, the policies adopted by national, supranational, regional and local actors in the field of migration and immigrant integration have started to receive significant academic and societal salience. Superdiversity has become not only a key social process, but also a crucial concept that gained increasing scholarly attention since Steven Vertovec first introduced it. While different layers (race, class, gender, etc.) of diversity exist, the governance of contemporary superdiversity across European democracies still reveals important challenges that add further layers of complexity to the conceptual and theoretical debate on this topic. This Workshop aims to provide a critical conceptual and theoretical reflexion on recent challenges related to superdiversity, by fostering an academic exchange on the (re)definition of the different facets of this notion. The scholars contributing to this Workshop will thus discuss how the concept of superdiversity has gained new meanings, significance and prominence in recent years due to the combined effect of newly emerged realities of “diversification of diversity”, changing institutional responses to the governance of diverse societies, and increasing transnational practices of diversification of migration plans, trajectories and forms of belonging.

participant

Ricard Zapata-Barrero

GRITIM

participant

Tiziana Caponio

University of Turin

participant

Roxana Barbulescu

University of Leeds

participant

Adrian Favell

University of Leeds

participant

Djordje Sredanovic

FNRS/Université Libre de Bruxelles

participant

Anastasia Bermudez

CEDEM

participant

Steven Vertovec

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

participant

Virginie Guiraudon

Sciences Po

participant

Asuncion Fresnoza-Flot

Université libre de Bruxelles

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Knowledge, governance, and co-production with migrants

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #248 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Tamar Todria

Institute for European Studies IES TSU

PAPER #1 Using ‘Go-Alongs’ in Researching Refugees’ Housing Journeys in Ireland AUTHOR(S) Cordula Bieri (School of Social Work & Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin) Paula Mayock (School of Social Work & Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin) ABSTRACT Background 79.5 million people are currently affected by displacement due to violence, conflict and persecution. In Ireland, refugees seeking international protection are accommodated in the Direct Provision system, which has been widely criticised by academics, human rights activists and the residents themselves for creating a system of social exclusion and institutionalisation. Research aims The detrimental effects of the Direct Provision system on the residents’ well-being are well documented. However, much less is known about refugees’ journeys once they have been granted status. This qualitative research project specifically examines refugees’ experiences of transitioning from Direct Provision into independent housing, including any experience of housing precariousness and/or homelessness. Methodology While in-depth interviewing is used to examine research participants’ housing journeys, ‘Go-Alongs’, an ethnographic, person-centred approach involving researcher and research participant walking side by side to places meaningful to the participant, are used to gain further insight into past and current experiences of housing and place. Data collection was interrupted by the first lockdown in March 2020 and in-depth interviewing was consequently moved online. Discussion Combining in-depth interviewing with the ‘Go-Along’ approach has allowed for a deeper understanding of refugees’ housing experiences to emerge, as the material environment encountered during these walks evoked observations, descriptions and memories that were more detailed than the narratives emerging from the in-depth interviews. Furthermore, by deciding what places to show research participants gain more control over the resulting narrative, thereby helping to address any power imbalances between researcher and research participant. PAPER #2 Database of integration project as a unique tool to assess integration activities AUTHOR(S) Ondřej Valenta (Association for Integration and Migration) Marie Jelínková (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University) ABSTRACT The research community in the Czech Republic struggles with the insufficient range, accessibility and quality of data describing the state of affairs in the field of integration of international migrants. The lack of representative data hinders the effort of the research community to thoroughly grasp and reveal the overall picture of integration activities targeted at migrants in the Czech Republic. The consequences are generally two-fold: at first, it prevents the research community to create a solid empirical base, upon which it can formulate and provide tailored advice to policy-makers. Secondly, it also contributes to the inefficiency of integration policies and programmes of public support to migrant integration, as there is an undeveloped system of monitoring and evaluation of these policy tools in this area, generating no data. In order to at least partially remedy the current unfortunate situation, a unique tool providing a new large set of various data was established. The Database of Integration Projects is a source of a rich information about ca 6,700 projects supported from public and private sources which were implemented in the Czech Republic with the aim of supporting the integration of various groups of migrants into Czech society in the time-period 2004-2020. The purpose of the database is to enable and develop a thorough analytical and research approach to migrant integration. At the same time, it allows a systematic evaluation of the implementation of integration policies, programmes and measures at the national, regional and local level. The extent of data it contains and opportunities of utilization make the database a unique tool also in international comparison. PAPER #3 On how developmental changes explain future trends of emigration AUTHOR(S) Zoltan Csanyi (Hungarian Central Statistical Office) ABSTRACT Creating future migration scenarios is the most challenging exercise of population projections. Most national practices involve extrapolations of current migration trends, assumptions on long-term zero net migration and/or expert estimations. Theoretically based projections of migration trends are quite rare. In an attempt to fill this gap, the aim of this paper is to reveal effects of macro level development trends on global patterns of emigration on the short- and medium run. For that, log-linear regressions were carried out on a sample of medium-size and large countries (i.e. with more than 1.5 M inhabitants), using retrospective UN data concerning migration and several aspects of socio-economic development. A distinctive feature of this ongoing research is that instead of examining the impact of absolute measurements of development in a certain point of time, ratios of developmental change of five-year intervals are used to explain changes of emigration rates in the consecutive five-, ten- and fifteen-year time intervals. Change of emigration rates in the reference period were included to deal with the omitted variable bias on the one hand, and to take count of the self-sustaining mechanisms of migration on the other. Preliminary results show that changes in relative GDP per capita (as a share of the world average), FDI inflows, employment in agriculture and previous migration trends have significant effects on posterior changes of emigration rates. However both their significance and estimation parameters change in time, the results provide promising tools to be taken into account when making population projections. PAPER #4 Formal and informal organizations supporting migrants in Greece: A mixed method approach AUTHOR(S) Stefania Kalogeraki (University of Crete, Greece) ABSTRACT During the recent European migrant crisis, Greece became one of the major entry points by the sea of thousands of refugees entering its territory en route to wealthier countries. The unpreparedness of the Greek state and the European Union leaders to deal with the massive migrant flows contributed to the pivotal role that different actors, including among others formal and informal organizations, played to respond to migrants’ needs. The paper based on a mixed method approach and using data collected during the refugee crisis in the context of the EU-funded TransSOL project provides some evidence on the distinct features of informal and formal migrant organizations uncovering their diverse roles in meeting migrants’ needs in Greece. The quantitative findings portray some key aspects (such as organizational structure, activities, ultimate aims and means to achieve them, etc.) of formal and informal migrant organizations operating in the country. The qualitative semi-structured interviews with representatives of these organizations unveil how they frame their solidarity initiatives complementing specific quantitative results. The qualitative findings demonstrate that informal organizations frame their solidarity initiatives in relation to migrants’ mobilization as the only means to claim their rights whereas formal organizations frame their solidarity initiatives in relation to the implementation of adequate policies. The paper contributes to the discussion on the potential diverse roles of civil society actors to support those in need as well as it highlights the value of mixed method designs in providing an enriched understanding of specific facets of the research theme under study. PAPER #5 Using cartography to study mediations of immigrants living in global cities AUTHOR(S) Viviane Riegel ABSTRACT This discussion is based on the methodological approach developed for a doctoral research on immigrants in two global cities and their possible cosmopolitan practices. This study was carried out based on the 'scapes' theory of global culture, proposed by Appadurai (1996), using the cartographic method based on mediations categories by Martin-Barbero (2009). This qualitative approach aimed to understand the complexity of individuals' mobility experiences in the face of global processes. We understand mobility also by the constant possibility of immobility, that is, the structures that facilitate certain movements and prevent others. The empirical-methodological strategy of cartography developed is based on Martin-Barbero's (2002) proposal for a cognitive cartography, which would be appropriate for unstable and constantly changing times. This choice was due to the focus of Martin-Barbero (2018) in the mediation of the cultural mutations of our time. In this perspective, the main elements of mobility are contemporary migrants and communication flows. A cartography was constructed by mapping everyday practices in the socio-communicational spaces of immigrants in the global cities of São Paulo and London. The field research carried out consisted of interviews with 20 individuals in different mobility experiences in each city, and the observation of the practices of individuals in the 16 socio-communicational spaces most mentioned by the interviewees. For the development of the analysis categories, the Martin-Barbero (2009) mapping mediation is considered as a structure. At the center, mobility experiences, and in the two axes, spaces and temporalities, flows and identity. This cartography draws a map in three layers: first, the comparison between different individuals; second, the comparison between different spaces; and third, the different practices of these individuals in these spaces.

author

Paula Mayock

author

Viviane Riegel

ESPM-SP

author

Stefania Kalogeraki

University of Crete

author

Cordula Bieri

Trinity College Dublin

author

Zoltan Csanyi

author

Ondřej Valenta

GEOMIGRACE

author

Marie Jelínková

Charles University Prague

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De-bordering activities and citizenship from below of asylum seekers in Italy. Policies, practices, people

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #249 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Maurizio Ambrosini

university of Milan

chair

Emanuela Abbatecola

University of Genoa

Local policies can be framed as a “battleground” upon which different actors engage. This concept highlights how the migration process is managed not only by national and local political authorities and legislations, but it is also an outcome of power relations between other actors such as migrants themselves and several forces of the civil society. On one side, democratic values enshrined in international conventions and national constitutions hamper the implementation of harsh policies. On the other, pro-migrant actors actively challenge policies of exclusion conducting what could be called a “debordering” campaign. This panel aims at deepening the understanding of the “battleground” frame of the asylum system in Italy highlighting the conflict between local policies of exclusion, de-bordering initiatives by civil societies and practices of “citizenship from below” by asylum seekers and refugees. Virtuous local experiences in which public authorities and civil society cooperate together, and asylum seekers and refugees have been able to exercise practices of active citizenship, will be identified. In this way, the papers of the panels will detect the conditions, investments, networks of actors, specific methods and tools, which have achieved positive results in terms of language learning, social participation and employment. All the papers draw on an ongoing project funded by Italian government which involves four Italian universities. Each unit of research worked on different scopes and with different approaches in relation to the wide framework of the concept of battleground: from the struggles and activities that take place at the borders, to the governance relations in reception policies, the involvement of the social work and the dynamics in regularization implemented during summer 2020 due to pandemic. PAPER #1 The role of civil society actors in the Italian regularization program AUTHOR(S) Paola Bonizzoni (University of Milan) Minke Hajer (University of Milan) ABSTRACT (de)Bordering (ir)Regularity Borders operate as filters drawing distinctions through socio-cultural, legal and administrative constructs of deservingness that extend from the territorial “entry gates” into the “soft inside” of citizenship through status-producing/rights-allocating mechanisms generating a muddle of scattered and uneven assemblages of rights. In this respect, border drawing also pertains to the process by which migrants are categorized into various positions of (ir)regularity according to predefined sets of norms leading to a differentiated set of rights. These categorizations can be upheld, reproduced and challenged by a variety of both state and non-state actors. Using the 2020 regularization of irregular migrant workers in Italy as a case study, this paper explores the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in practices of bordering, reproducing governmental categories, de-bordering, challenging government categories, and re-bordering, creating new categories (Togral Koca, 2019). The study shows how a wide variety of CSOs, including migrant rights organizations, religious or ideological organizations, trade unions, etc; play an essential role in the execution of this government regularization policy. For instance, by organizing the practical infrastructure for the execution of the regularization, providing information and help with the application. However, at the same time, CSOs try to influence this government policy before, during as well as after the regularization, for instance by lobbying politics and public administration. Moreover, by finding ways to circumvent the narrow categories of the regularization policy out of for instance civil disobedience, CSOs can be seen to be between bordering and de-bordering practices. PAPER #2 Solidarity encounters. Gendering agency, routes and border zones AUTHOR(S) Emanuela Abbatecola (University of Genoa) Luca Queirolo Palmas (University of Genoa) ABSTRACT This paper explores the dynamics of solidarity practices in different Italian border zones and the everyday agency of migrants and refugees on the move. A widespread and heterogeneous solidarity network appears as a concrete infrastructure enacting the freedom of movement in the areas addressed by ethnographic research, such as the west border with France, the east border with Slovenia and Sicily as crucial points of entry in EU. The research we are referring to focuses on the way the agency of people on the move, through their family and ethnic ties which organize the primary support for travel, meets with practices and opportunities generated by civil society; a specific attention is devoted to the gendered dimension of routes, border zones and solidarity networks, analyzing specific encounter situations among migrants – mainly, but not only, single young men – and (de)border care workers which involve massively women and families as activists and volunteers. PAPER #3 Re-bordering policies and de-bordering practices in pandemic times: the case of quarantine ships in Italy AUTHOR(S) Chiara Denaro (University of Trento) ABSTRACT The Covid 19 pandemic has brought a number of changes in border and migration management policies. From the “closed harbours” strategy to the “off-shore isolation system” onto “quarantine ships,” we observed a number of re-bordering policies, which resulted in the fragmentation of access pathways to the territory and to asylum procedures in Italy. Keeping as analytic background the so-called hotspot approach - aimed at dividing migrants between “asylum seekers” and “economic migrants” and channeling them through different legal pathways - the aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand it reviews the measures enacted by the Italian government to limit territorial access for seaborne migrants, in order to prevent the diffusion of Covid 19. On the other hand, it explores the impact of the “offshore isolation system” on persons in need of protection. To this purpose, while examining the changing implementation of the hotspot approach, the paper investigates the reactions of migrants themselves and of civil society to such restrictions, as a matter of de-bordering. It does so by drawing on in-depth interviews with institutional and non-governmental stakeholders involved in offshore isolation through quarantine ships, and with experts and migrants who are or have been onboard. As a result, the paper illuminates migrant efforts to break their isolation by means of social media and other communication tools, in order to overcome the limits imposed to their access to asylum and to other fundamental rights, and to prevent deportation. PAPER #4 Citizenship as a battleground: Why local actors implement asylum policies unevenly across north-easter Italy AUTHOR(S) Raffaele Bazurli (University of Venice Ca' Foscari) Francesca Campomori (University of Venice Ca' Foscari) Chiara Marchetti (Ciac Onlus Parma) ABSTRACT While asylum and humanitarian protection are typically seen as prerogatives of nation-states, immigration policies are not evenly implemented across their territorial jurisdiction. Local actors crucially affect the lives of migrants, possibly stretching, countering, or circumventing national provisions. Migrants themselves prove able to reclaim membership by means of ‘acts of citizenship’, regardless of any authorizations to legally belong. Such multi-level dynamics chal-lenge prevalent political theories, which assume the nation-state as the ‘natural’ monopolist in controlling immigration and regulating citizenship. Based on such critical remarks, this paper analyses Italy’s asylum governance as a battleground entailing vast constellations of actors inside and outside the state, located at various spatial scales, and bearing contrasting interests, values, and frames. We theorize and demonstrate that the outcomes of asylum policy-making vary across territorial settings due to a set of driving forces at the local level, notably the political colour of sub-national authorities, their policy legacies in providing wel-fare services, and the robustness of civil society organisations. Empirically, the study focuses on six medi-um-sized localities in north-eastern Italy having very diverse political, administrative, and civic trajecto-ries—Venice, Treviso, Belluno-Feltre, Bologna, Ferrara, and Ravenna. Within a general context of increas-ingly restrictive national asylum policies, we recognize four different patterns of interaction between public officials and civil society organisations at the local level: (1) cooperation aimed at mitigating, or even sub-verting, restrictive national laws; (2) institutional pro-migrant activism opposed by local civil society; (3) pro-migrant initiatives tolerated, but not supported, by local officials; and (4) antagonism between pro-migrant actors and anti-migrant local governments.

discussant

Luca Queirolo Palmas

UNIVERSITY OF GENOA - DISFOR

discussant

Francesca Campomori

University of Venice

author

Paola Bonizzoni

University of Milan

author

Minke Hajer

Università degli studi di Milano

author

Chiara Denaro

University of Trento

author

Raffaele Bazurli

University of Venice Ca' Foscari

author

Chiara Marchetti

University of Milan

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Varieties of Migrant Transnationalism

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #250 workshop | SC Migrant Transnationalism

organizer

Marta Bivand Erdal

Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)

organizer

Brenda Yeoh

National University of Singapore

Transnationalism has become a pervasive feature of the field of migration studies over the last three decades, becoming a marker for the ways in which researchers examine the intricacies of crossing borders and the connecting of cultures. Initially instigated in the ethnographic observation that migrant communities maintain multi-stranded cross-border connections, transnationalism has taken shape as a perspective that challenges methodologically nationalist and positivist accounts of migration while also highlighting the significance of cultural, familial, technological, and political networks in shaping mobility and migrant life. This session seeks to advance understanding of some of the wide variety of uses of transnationalism in migration studies and the ways in which transnational migration studies are becoming interlinked with other fields of study. Drawing from chapters in the forthcoming Handbook of Transnationalism (Yeoh and Collins 2021), presenters will address how the current approaches to studying transnationalism highlight friction and fluidity in cross-border connections, the significance of state, institutional, community, familial and individual transnationalisms, and the significance of a transnational lens in a (post)pandemic world of migration. The session draws out new directions in linking migration and transnationalism studies with the politics of border control and migration management, changing social ties and relationships across space and time, and the impact of new or deepening inequalities on migrant lives.

participant

Nicola Piper

Queen Mary University of London

participant

Parvathi Raghuram

The Open University

participant

Francis L. Collins

University of Waikato

participant

Gracia Liu-Farrer

Waseda University

participant

Anju M. Paul

Yale-NUS College

participant

Juan Zhang

University of Bristol

participant

Matt Withers

Macquarie University

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Norms & Values 4

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #251 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Marina Lazëri

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Comparing values and norms between the school and the mosque: A case study among Muslim youth in the Netherlands Hulya Altinyelken University of Amsterdam Islamic education is intensely debated within Europe due to concerns that it might promote values and norms that might undermine social cohesion and integration. Academic debate mostly focuses on formal Islamic education, yet there are few studies on non-formal Islamic education provided at mosques. Focusing on more than 50 interviews with secondary school students and young adults from four Muslim groups in the Netherlands (Turkish, Moroccan, Pakistani and Egyptian), this study seeks to compare the norms and values learnt at secondary schools and mosques. Data was collected in Amsterdam between February 2017 and May 2018. The majority of the participants confirmed that the values and norms taught at school and mosque differed, and in some cases they in fact contained contradictory messages. The differences varied depending on mosques as they might have different orientations, some being more conservative than the others. Mosque’s teachings were about being a good Muslim, while school was about learning to become a good citizen. The discussions with students and young adults led to the identification of eight domains where the teachings from school and mosque appeared to be dissimilar. These included: origins of humans, contact between the sexes, romantic relationships before marriage, attitudes towards homosexuality, women’s clothing, gender equality, consumption of alcohol, pork and halal food, and relating to authority and critical thinking. The paper will elaborate on these differences and discuss their implications for policy and practice. === Migrants´ human values in the EU countries in the first and second generation Dita Čermáková Geomigrace, Faculty of Science, Charles University Dana Hamplova Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia Dusan Drbohlav Geomigrace, Faculty of Science, Charles University Zdenek Čermák Geomigrace, Faculty of Science, Charles University The aim of the paper is to present a comparative analysis of basic human values among native EU population and non-EU migrants in the first and second generation in the EU states. The research questions are to what extent are the non-EU migrants different in terms of value orientations from the native European population. Further, there is a shift in the value orientations between the first and second generation of these migrants and if so, in what values. Human values play an important role in the organization of migrants’ social and professional life and consequently in the integration process. Therefore it is entirely important to answer the question whether the value orientations of migrants are determined by their sociodemographic characteristic (gender, age, education, job position) and also (or rather) by migratory characteristics (country of origin, length of stay) and possibly how. We use data from European social survey (merged file from rounds 2 to 7) where the basic human values are measured by Portrait Value Questionnaire designed by S. Schwartz. === Ethnic Identity of Migrant Couples in Germany Teresa Freitas Monteiro Humboldt University of Berlin and IAB This study examines the cultural adaptation of first-generation migrant spouses depending on who was the migration driver (tied or lead mover). The challenge that migrants face with regards to their commitment and sense of belonging to a culture and society (ethnic identity) only becomes salient after migration, when origin and host cultures might clash. Particularly, when the migration decision is due to family reasons, individuals might be more likely to experience a loss in the sense of belonging, a deterioration of social relations and missed professional opportunities. Tied and lead movers have different migration motivations (family versus work) and face different constraints (e.g., human capital) and opportunities (e.g., social network through work). This is likely to be reflected in different investment strategies and adjustment patterns in the host country. To study the integration of tied and lead movers, I rely on the IAB-SOEP migration sample, which asks migrant spouses who was the main driver of the migration decision. Using structural equation modelling I look at the determinants of the migration position and I evaluate how it affects the ethnic identity of spouses. Because unobserved factors affecting the migration position might also have an influence on the degree of ethnic identity, I rely on instrumental variables that reflect the bargaining power and the labour market status of each spouse just before migration. Preliminary findings suggest that gender remains a main determinant of who is a tied mover within a couple. Tied movers are more likely to identify themselves with their country of origin than lead movers, even many years after arrival in Germany. Tied movers are less likely to speak German and to want to remain permanently in Germany. Overall, tied movers are more likely to be separated and less likely to be integrated." === Intergenerational transmission of relationships among international immigrants in Italy Rocco Molinari University of Trento Giuseppe Sciortino University of Trento This paper studies intergenerational changes in the structure of interpersonal relationships developed by children of international immigrants into Italy, addressing, more generally, the issue of socio-cultural integration of immigrant descendants. Relational approaches to international migration have proved the effectiveness of migrant networks in providing support on a range of either potential and actual immigrant experiences (migration decision and settlement, entrepreneurial resources, job search and finding, remittances, etc…). However, the structure of immigrant interpersonal relationships, their non-economic functioning and transmission remain under-investigated. The literature on migrant sociability stresses, on the one hand, the decline in social connectedness associated to geographical mobility and, on the other hand, the relevance of interethnic connections. By considering a representative sample of children of immigrants (aged 14-25) living in Italy with their parents obtained by the Social Condition and Integration of Foreign Citizens survey (Istat 2011/12), this study focuses on parental influence of immigrants’ structure of relationships on their descendants’ social connectedness. Firstly, core discussion relationships are classified in terms of isolation (no strong relationships) and family, within-ethnic, or inter-ethnic connections. Secondly, how the parental structure of relationships affects children’s sociability is studied, through multivariate models that account for both individual-level and parental-level characteristics. Results show that the sociability of immigrants and their children differ substantially, the latter being less isolated and much more inclined toward inter-ethnic connections, with relevant changes by migratory generation. Nonetheless, the parental structure of relationships largely affects the sociability of their descendants, both in terms of loneliness and non-familial or outgroup connectedness. === Interviewee Intentions In The Context Of Migration Mohamad Wassim Shbaro Clinical Psychologist Practitioner Rosa Lisa Iannone University of Luxembourg The recent years have shown a worldwide escalation in migration and displacement events. According to the World Migration Report 2020 by the International Organization for Migration (IOM, 2019), the global number of international migrants is around 272 million. Migration is people's movement from one geographic region and settling at another location, temporarily or permanently, searching for safer environments, improved living conditions, or better job opportunities. Nevertheless, migration is a process where individuals experience several obstacles that could provoke a state of distress. Such difficulties include cultural disparities, language issues, trafficking, racism, xenophobia, among others. This paper attempts to investigate the coping strategies that people use to adapt to new cultures and realize their aspirations. Furthermore, we seek to explore to what extent are migrants willing to change or even build a narrative that best fits their needs.

author

Giuseppe Sciortino

Università di Trento

author

Rocco Molinari

author

Hülya Altinyelken

University Amsterdam

author

Dusan Drbohlav

GEOMIGRACE

author

Dita Čermáková

Geomigrace, Faculty of Science, Charles University

author

Dana Hamplova

Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia

author

Zdeněk Čermák

GEOMIGRACE

author

Teresa Freitas Monteiro

Humboldt University of Berlin and IAB

author

Rosa Lisa Iannone

University of Luxembourg

author

Mohamad Wassim Shbaro

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Reflecting on Migration Narratives

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #252 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Phil Martin

PAPER #1 Managing Migrant Lives through Home – a narrative documentary ethnography of immigration and integration policy in Denmark, Sweden and the UK AUTHOR(S) Marta Padovan-Özdemir (Department of Social Education, Research Programme for Society & Diversity, VIA University College, Denmark) Eleonora Narvselius (Center for Languages and Literature (SOL), Lund University, Sweden) Annabelle Wilkins (Kingston School of Art, Kingston University London, UK) ABSTRACT Home and home-making are increasingly regarded as crucial topics within migration research and policy debates, as concepts of home articulate the contested politics of migration, integration and belonging. While much scholarship recognises home as a multi-faceted concept, policy discourses tend to regard it as a singular, nationally bounded space. The analytical ambition of this paper is guided by an interest in how home is narrated in policy-making addressing migrants in Denmark, Sweden and the UK between 2010 and 2020, within which migrant homes and home-making seem to appear as sites of biopolitical intervention and management of migrant lives. This paper also has the ambition to discuss and advance a methodology of approaching documentary policy studies in an ethnographic manner (Padovan-Özdemir 2020; Riles 2006) and by means of a narrative approach. Accordingly, we consider the challenges of reconstructing policy narratives from multiple discursive sources operating within distinctive political landscapes and explore the potential of narrative policy analysis as a methodological tool in migration research. Our research builds upon understandings of narrative as constituted through processes of emplotment, encompassing political visions, problem definitions, solutions and characters, as well as ideographs around which the storytelling (r)evolves (Bansel 2015; Miller 2019). We apply narrative analysis to the policy cycle, examining how narratives of the home-migrant-nexus are sedimented in government platforms, white papers, commissioned reports and legislation. Finally, we discuss the benefits and challenges of working with policy narratives as research object and method in migration research. PAPER #2 “I felt really integrated in Switzerland and all of a sudden I wanted to reconnect with my Russian side.” Considering the role of temporality in the everyday social practice’s changes. AUTHOR(S) Léa Moreau Shmatenko (Global Studies Institute, University of Geneva) ABSTRACT In this paper, I will focus on the role of temporality in the changes in social practices that may occur as a result of migration. The issue of integration has been central to the study of migration since its beginnings and has long been considered in a linear way, with the individual integrating and then assimilating into the society of arrival. However, it is interesting to introduce the aspect of temporality in order to better grasp the changes that may appear in individuals’ social practices, such as leisure or friendship. I will look more particularly at the case of people who did not maintain any social practices linked to their country of origin after they migrated and who decide, after many years and although they feel perfectly integrated, to return to some of these practices. In addition, the relevance of indicators such as leisure activities or friendships with locals, which we find in the list of criteria intended to measure the degree of integration of individuals, will be questioned. Focusing on temporality allows us to better understand the fluidity of identities but also of migratory communities insofar as the sociability choices of individuals are not considered to be static. Based on 25 in-depth interviews conducted in 2020 with Russian-speaking migrants who arrived in Switzerland since the 1990s, this paper will question the aspect of temporality in order to better understand the feelings of integration and belonging of individuals, which can change according to their life course. PAPER #3 Ethics of relational and representational disclosures in qualitative migration research AUTHOR(S) Justyna Bell (Norwegian Social Research, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway) Agnieszka Trąbka (Institute of Applied Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland) Paula Pustulka (Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland) ABSTRACT This article engages with the framework of performativity to unpack ethical challenges of interviewing migrants in the setting of shared ethnic background of researchers and participants. From a temporal perspective of shifting contexts from a shared space of the research process, to the post-research reciprocity management, it focusses on the particular aspect of disclosure. Drawing on several qualitative studies performed by the authors as Polish migrant researchers with Polish migrant communities in Norway, Germany and the United Kingdom, the article documents the ethical challenges that come from a shifting “audience” of the research performance. Specifically, it discusses how the researchers perform their roles in the field with the focus on rapport building (relational disclosure), to then addressing how this performance changes when the dissemination of findings (representational disclosure) begins and continues over time. This article contributes to the long-standing anthropological debate on self-reflection in the field. Also, demythologizing the relations between a researcher and participants, as well as cautioning research by reporting difficulties at different stages of the research process, will likely make it easier for future researchers who may now be better prepared and anticipate the complexities of doing fieldwork. From a temporal perspective, it can also help a broader scientific community avoid pitfalls from presenting unfavourable results prematurely. Thus, the authors hope that this paper may sensitize migration scholars to the possible predicaments in the process of interviewing their co-ethnics. PAPER #4 Please Accept My Friend Request: Using Facebook as a recruitment tool in the COVID-19 era AUTHOR(S) Sophia Iosue (University of Oxford) ABSTRACT I was set to conduct fieldwork for my dissertation with migrant Filipino domestic workers in Milan, Italy in March 2020. This coincided spectacularly with the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns, with Milan becoming an epicentre for Europe’s outbreak. In this paper, I reflect on how the forced switch to internet-mediated research increased the number of research participants I could access and improved the quality of our interviews. I argue that technology is particularly suited to research with specific groups of people, such as Filipino domestic workers. Previous research has examined technology’s role in facilitating communication and intimacy for transnational families (Salazar Parreñas, 2014). Indeed, I contend that specifically because of participants’ familiarity with communication technologies and their reliance on Facebook to communicate with their families, technology was a productive tool for my research. In many ways, using Facebook yielded more interesting results than face-to-face fieldwork would have. In addition, I consider my experience using Facebook as a tool to recruit, build rapport and stay connected with participants. Previous research has noted Facebook’s usefulness in recruiting research participants, especially those who are typically marginalized in society (Baltar and Brunet, 2012). However, before condoning the use of Facebook in research entirely, it is essential for the discipline to consider some of the elements that have not yet been broached, such as how relationships between participants and researchers can and should evolve after the research is completed.

author

Agnieszka Trabka

SWPS University

author

Justyna Bell

NOVA - OsloMet

author

Sophia Iosue

Pamela Steele Associates Ltd

author

Marta Padovan-Özdemir

VIA University College

author

Eleonora Narvselius

Center for Languages and Literature (SOL), Lund University, Sweden

author

Annabelle Wilkins

Kingston University

author

Lea Moreau Shmatenko

University of Geneva, Global Studies Institute

author

Paula Pustulka

Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland

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Education & Social Inequality 7

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #253 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Mariana Rosca

Academy of Science from Moldova, II

International Student Migration: A Driving Force for Development in the Global South? Sascha Krannich Giessen University Uwe Hunger Fulda University of Applied Sciences International students can make essential contributions to the development in the countries where they work after they finished their studies. Therefore, enormous efforts are made to sup-port this group with scholarships for studying in Europe. But who benefits from this growing form of student mobility, only the receiving or also the sending countries? Over decades the answer of this question was quite clear: emigration of highly qualified employees from develop-ing to developed countries is a loss for the economies and societies of developing countries, because emigration of the very best would lead to a reduction of innovation and development. However, recent studies show that migration of highly qualified from the Global South can also have positive aspects to countries of origin due to know-how and capital transfers. In our case study about international students from Colombia, Georgia, Ghana, Indonesia and Palestine studying in Germany, we found out that they are engaged in development processes in their home countries in a variety of ways, either from abroad through transnational networks or through remigration after graduation. Findings are based on an online survey and in-depth inter-views with (former) students and other relevant actors in Germany as well as in the countries of origin. === Coping Strategies of African Incomplete Frontier Migrants with Convivial Disposition in the Age of Digital Mobilities -The Case of African Students in China Lin Chen The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, The Vrije Universiteit Brussel Ching Lin Pang The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Sylvie Gadeyne The Vrije Universiteit Brussel African students are increasingly finding their way to China as destination for higher education in the last two decades. Yet at the everyday life they are facing a manifold of obstacles turning their study period in China into a challenging endeavor. These constraints concern immigration regulations, educational program, access to health care, banking and financial services and the internship-labor market. These systematic hindrances are furthermore aggravated with the additional dimension of discrimination and racism. We also examine the decoupled digital space in China from the Western countries, which exerts a negative impact on the integration and mobility of African students in China. The encountered problems are further explored against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic when these challenges are compounded with communication problems and distance learning. This paper seeks to gain insights in their life world through the theoretical lens of incomplete frontier mobility, conviviality,coping and resilience. Based on data from in-depth interview and ethnography online and offline, this paper investigates the coping strategies of African students when confronted with both systemic and non-systematic restriction and discrimination, their daily life in the real and virtual space prior and during COVID-19 pandemics, especially within the African social network and through the African self-organized news media which located established though China social media platforms. === Portuguese-speaking African students in higher education mobility: What answers of social and academic inclusion have being provided by the Portuguese Higher Education? Ana Raquel Matias ISCTE-IUL; CIES-IUL Paulo Feytor Pinto APEDI; CELGA-ILTEC Vera Rodrigues ISCTE-IUL; CIES-IUL This paper examines the existing answers of social and academic inclusion provided by a Higher Education Institution (HEI) to African international students from Portuguese speaking countries, whose mobility to Portugal dates back to the 1980s. This analysis results from an ongoing action research project called “Trovoada de Ideias - Linguistic and social inclusion of Students from the Portuguese Speaking African Countries (PALOP) in the Portuguese Higher Education (HE)”*, conducted at ISCTE-IUL since 2016. The project was set up on previous focus groups diagnosis focus groups with students and professors in ISCTE-IUL (2016). These discussions highlighted that the sociolinguistic contexts of these students lead to unexpected and ignored situations of miscomprehension among speakers of different varieties of Portuguese, hindering the social inclusion of a significant number of these students and, consequently, their academic performance. Based on this evidence and on the need for ISCTE-IUL to build a frame for improving responses to multicultural challenges implied in the social dynamics of language variation, partnerships were established with two internal services: the Laboratory of Transversal Competences and the Social Action Services. This led to the implementation of the following actions: 1) the creation of a course unit (UC) on transversal skills in academic language; 2) the creation of a team of mediator-mentor students. Additionally, several focus groups were held with African Students Associations and professors from Portuguese HEIs aiming to produce a brochure of pedagogical guidelines for professors from HEIs. Through an in-depth analysis of these actions, we expect to contribute to the linguistic and social inclusion of these students in the academic context of ISCTE-IUL.

author

Sascha Krannich

FokoS University Siegen

author

Uwe Hunger

author

Lin Chen

KU Leuven

author

Ching Lin Pang

The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

author

Sylvie Gadeyne

The Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Ana Raquel Matias

CIES-IUL

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Decolonising gender and Migration. A workshop

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #254 workshop | SC Gender and Sexuality in Migration Research

organizer

Sarah Scuzzarello

University of Sussex

this workshop is to be included as 1/2 of GenSeM's guaranteed slots. This workshop follows on GenSeM first Migration Dialogue – an online event which took place in October 2021. There, we discussed what “decolonizing the field of gender and migration” may mean, how it could be done, by whom, and for whom. In this practical workshop, which complements the work of the IMISCOE Anti-Racism working group, we want to move the dialogue forward. The workshop will engage with ways in which we can conduct reflexive and accountable research in the field of gender and migration (broadly defined) in order to put into practice feminist decolonial principles. In conversation with the participants we will identify ways in which this can be practically achieved, i.e. how to put decoloniality into practice in relation to gender and migration. The workshop is open to all.

participant

Eleonore Kofman

MDX

participant

Laura Morosanu

University of Sussex

participant

Tanja Bastia

Manchester University

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Migration, attitudes, and social cohesion

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #255 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Sebastian Rinken

Institute for Advanced Social Studies (IESA-CSIC)

PAPER #1 Cross-border mapping and social cohesion in border areas AUTHOR(S) Ulla Connor (Universität Luxemburg; UniGR-Center for Border Studies) ABSTRACT Maps of cross-border regions are more and more part of political trans-border cooperation processes within the European Union. Practitioners highlight the benefit of maps in trans-border cooperation in political and administrative processes, such as joint spatial planning in the border area. Several scientific case studies show how mapping contributes to the cross-border region-making process and possibly supports therefore social cohesion in these emerging regions: Gaberell/Debarbieux (2014) depict maps as an important tool for framing cross-border regions and the related cooperation practices. Grosjean (2019) stresses the importance of images and the visibility of the region for these practices. Haude (2017) links cartography and mapping with the question of a possible cross-border regional identity. Despite these approaches to the issue of cross-border region building and mapping, the question of how maps are actually used within cross-border cooperation is underexposed. In my presentation, I would like to address the connection of cross-border maps and political practice through a praxeological approach. Sociological practice theories offer tools to analyze maps as social methods within cross-border cooperation. Based on own ethnographic data from fieldwork in a (anonymized) cross-border region I will follow the cross-border maps as a specific practice: What are the characteristics of cross-border mapping? What forms of cross-border mapping are in use? Along these interrogations, I will address the question on how maps of the cross-border region could contribute to the region-making process. This includes the question whether cross-border mapping supports social cohesion in the border area. PAPER #2 Contacts with migrants as a factor influencing the level of xenophobia: Russian specifics AUTHOR(S) Vera Peshkova (Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences) Natalya Kosmarskaya (Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences) ABSTRACT The problems of negative attitudes towards "newcomers", which are often perceived as ethnically/culturally "others", have remained relevant throughout the post-Soviet period of Russian history. This has been constantly fuelled by large-scale international labor migration from the former republics; the migration crisis in Europe, in the context of the growing terrorist threat; recurrent economic crises; and finally, the socio-economic consequences of the current COVID-19 pandemic. In other words, it is no coincidence the most "popular" form of xenophobia is often migrantophobia. At the same time, over the years of large-scale migration, certain practices of interaction between "locals" and "newcomers" have already came into existence in Russia – and they are not necessarily negative. It is increasingly important to analyze the variety of these practices. We intent to focus at the scope, formats and difficulties of interaction of the host population with "ethnically visible" migrants in different social contexts (an example of Moscow metropolitan area), as well as probing the readiness for establish such contacts, and their perceptions of possible/desirable results of such communication. Special attention will be paid to communication of neighbors, good neighborliness, communication by necessity, collaboration at work, use of services without warm relations, and typologization of the main contact zones between residents and "ethnically visible" migrants. Finally, the possibilities of applying the "contact theory" to reveal the nature of the impact on the level of xenophobia of contacts between the host population and migrants will be considered. It differs from other Russian studies the way that it is based on complex analysis both sociological survey, interviews with ordinary Muscovites and a series of expert interviews. PAPER #3 Local hostility effect on immigrants’ wellbeing: Does population composition in neighbourhood and neighbourhood contact matter? AUTHOR(S) Michaela Šedovič (London School of Economics and Political Science) ABSTRACT Current research suggests that contact of migrants with the native population can affect their wellbeing both positively and negatively. Similarly, studies show that individuals perceiving discrimination score lower on life satisfaction scales. One potential but under-researched driver of this effect is the native population’s attitudes towards immigrants (ATI). My paper uniquely employs ATI as an explanatory measure to explores the effect of hostility towards immigrants in the lived environment on migrants’ life satisfaction in England and Wales. Using individual data from wave 3 of the UK Household Longitudinal Study including measures of neighbourhood interactions, matched to aggregate data on attitudes to immigrants derived from the Citizenship Survey (2010/2011) I focus on attitudes at the small area level of LSOAs (areas containing around 1500 households). Controlling for neighbourhood level characteristics, which may be associated with attitudes towards immigrants (such as unemployment rates) and for individual level characteristics related to life satisfaction, I estimate the relationship between neighbourhood ATI and individual life satisfaction. Additionally, I explore the moderating effect of neighbourhood ethnic composition, close ties in neighbourhood, and neighbourhood interethnic mixing on this association. By exploiting measures of both contact with and exposure to other ethnic groups (i.e. neighbourhood ethnic composition, neighbourhood mixing, interethnic friendships), I am better able to identify the mechanisms linking environmental attitudes to wellbeing. Specifically, I test the claims from cultural threat theory, neighbourhood effect theory, and intergroup contact theory. I thereby shed further light on heterogeneity in the life satisfaction of immigrants. PAPER #4 Education and Social Desirability Bias: the case of Muslim newcomers to Norway AUTHOR(S) Natalia C. Malancu (InCite- University of Geneva) Mathew J. Creighton (University College Dublin) ABSTRACT Cross-sectional studies in the Western world almost unanimously highlight the beneficial impact of higher education on tolerance towards foreign residents (outgroup). We challenge this status quo by nuancing the understanding of the outgroup and addressing the pervasive social desirability bias (SDB) across time. In this repeat cross-sectional study, we use 2015 and 2017 Norwegian Citizen Panel data. We analyze the responses given to an embedded 'list experiment' design targeting attitudes towards (in order of outgroup salience) Muslim people, Muslim immigrants, and Muslim refugees. This design allows us to compare directly and anonymously expressed attitudes while assessing whether differently educated respondents meet the expectations on the expression of intolerance. We note a consistent education differential in Muslim immigrants-related SDB, yet find a time-variant one for the other two treatments. We uncover that the positive gap between the Muslim immigrants-related and Muslim refugees-related SDB expressed by the highly educated is consistent across time. Distinctly, the negative gap between the Muslim people-related and Muslim immigrants-related SDB halves across time. This study bolsters arguments about distinctly educated individuals exhibiting both similar and dissimilar SDB depending on the perceived sensitivity to the outgroup, thus ultimately questioning the blanket solution of educational expansion to appease social cleavages. PAPER #5 Drawing (across) borders: Reflections on the use of creative visual communication in ethnographic research with/for young refugees AUTHOR(S) Lucy Hunt (University of Oxford) ABSTRACT This paper argues for greater engagement with ‘visuality’ and creative communication in research with/for linguistically and culturally diverse groups of young people, such as those who have been forcibly displaced across borders. It is based on eight months of ethnographic fieldwork with displaced youth in Thessaloniki, Greece, during which I aimed to better understand their educational decision-making and the symbolic borders within/around their learning spaces. This involved participant observation as a volunteer teacher in various educational spaces (including language classes and arts workshops); focus group discussions with youth aged 15-25, involving creative methods (namely, drawing pathways to one's future and the barriers and supports along it); and interviews with educational ‘stakeholders’ such as teachers, parents and coordinators. The paper addresses two ways in which visual communication (and more specifically, drawing) became a part of this project - as both a method and a form of dissemination - and reflects on its associated challenges and possibilities. Firstly, it describes how the ‘visual’ was incorporated into the process of data generation and analysis - from pictorial consent forms and creative methods to the researcher’s reflective sketches and photographs - and the ethical and practical implications of this. Secondly, it makes the case for creating a visual product of research with/for refugees, to enable youth to share their lives in colour, rather than as another bureaucratic or academic text. It concludes with a call for researchers to engage an audience beyond academia in their stories, while paying attention to their role in constructing generalised visual narratives. As such, it argues that visual communication - when done with critical reflection and flexibility - has the potential to transgress borders among youth, researchers and the wider public.

author

Lucy Hunt

University of Oxford

author

Mathew J Creighton

University College Dublin

author

natalia c. malancu

author

Ulla Connor

Universität Luxemburg

author

Vera Peshkova

Institute of Sociology Russian Academy of Sciences

author

Natalya Kosmarskaya

Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences

author

Michaela Sedovic

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

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Refugee parents’ engagement with education: Part 2

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #256 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Elif Keskiner

EUR-CIMIC

chair

Nubin Ciziri

Uppsala University

Forced migration has become an increasingly hot topic in migration studies over recent years, due to increases in human mobility resulting from political, economic, and environmental crises and conflict. The academic field has tackled migration and its connection to education and social inequality in different ways and across various disciplines. As such, the experiences of the children of migrants and the role of migrant parents in their educational pathways have received considerable attention. However, there is only a small volume of literature available on the schooling experiences of refugee children in particular, and even less so on their families’ engagement with education. In this panel, we bring together early-career and senior scholars to present case studies on the ways in which asylum-seeker and refugee parents - and families more broadly - engage with education. It specifically addresses refugee parents’ and families’ challenges and opportunities in engaging in the education of their children in formal and non-formal settings in Germany, Turkey, and the UK; and the outcomes of this engagement for their own and their children’s inclusion, sense of belonging and/or well-being. The selected papers, garnered during an open call in November 2020, represent a range of disciplines, a wide geographical area, and the work of both early-career and more established scholars. The panel is the second of two proposed on this topic, due to an overwhelming response to the Standing Committee EduSoc’s call and abundance of high-quality submissions. While the first panel selected comparative empirical studies, the papers in this panel are in-depth case studies uncovering the distinct experiences of refugee parents with distinct settings. Further details on those selected are provided in the summary and list of abstracts below. PAPER #1 Biographical experiences of parental engagement with education among Iranian refugees in Germany AUTHOR(S) Niels Uhlendorf (Humboldt University of Berlin) Susanne Benzel (Sigmund Freud Institute) ABSTRACT Many studies on (forced) migration proof the significance of education for the social advancement in the countries of arrival (Papademetriou et al.,2009).This is reflected in the fact that education is attributed a high value in many migrant families especially arriving in Western societies (Salikutluk,2013; Hadjar &Scharf,2019).However, at least in Germany a high number of migrants remain comparatively unsuccessful in schools due to a lack of knowledge on the educational system, language barriers, and institutionalized discrimination (Gilborn et al.,2013; King et al.,2013).A migrant group in Germany that is nevertheless known for high educational aspirations and successes are refugees from Iran (Woellert&Klingholz, 2014).Although many parents experienced a devaluation of their qualifications, a high percentage of their children were able to advance through education in the German school system (ibid.).At the same time, there is a lack of knowledge on the biographical experiences with parental expectations and their engagement on the one hand, and experiences with educational institutions on the other.In this paper, therefore, the experiences of educationally successful refugees will be reconstructed, all of whom were born in Iran and migrated to Germany with their families during childhood or youth.In particular, the focus will be on the intergenerational constellations in families (cf. Alba&Waters,2011; Foner, 2009; King,2018).Autobiographical interviews (Schütze,2016) were conducted and analyzed following Grounded Theory (Corbin&Strauss,2015).For this presentation, two cases representing two contrasting ideal types will be discussed.In this context, the descriptions of parental practices and expectations are analysed on the one hand and the individual responses, appropriations and coping strategies on the other.This will lead to a final discussion on the significance of parental engagement in the context of exclusive practices in educational settings. PAPER #2 Syrian parents’ educational decisions in uncertain environment: The case of primary school aged Syrian children in Turkey AUTHOR(S) Dilara Karaagac (University of Groningen) Basak Bilecen (University of Groningen) ABSTRACT Around a million school aged minors from Syria have been living in Turkey with temporary protection status (TPS), which is specifically introduced for Syrians. TPS has no predetermined time limit in Turkey and is not a universally regulated status like the UN Refugee Convention. This permanent temporariness leads to uncertainties and unpredictabilities for Syrian families in Turkey and poses the risk of ‘lost generation’. Turkish authorities have changed their primary education policies over the years for Syrian children in parallel with the domestic migration policy while following the UN recommendations on inclusion of refugee children into the national education systems. Due to the TPS and changing education policies, Syrian refugees have been raising their children in the context of legal and educational uncertainties since they arrived. Refugee parents’ decisions on their children’s primary education play an important role. Furthermore, lack of Turkish language is a major barrier and strongly influence Syrian children’s educational performance and their relationships with classmates and the teachers. Drawing on 20 in-depth interviews with Syrian parents, this study examines the ways in which legal status of Syrian parents shape parental decisions on minors’ education that have long-term consequences. The findings indicate that uncertainties play a key role on shaping educational decisions of Syrian parents particularly on their children’s Turkish language acquisition and educational performance. It further finds that when uncertainties are reduced with obtaining citizenship or socio-economic background, the parental decisions may change. Thus, this study not only fills the gap in understanding the effects of uncertainties in parental educational decisions emanated from a prolonged temporariness, but also argues that living in an uncertain context causes hurdles in language acquisition, that has major educational and social consequences for minors.

discussant

Christine Lang

IMIS

discussant

Ozge Biner

École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)

author

Niels Uhlendorf

Humboldt-University of Berlin

author

Susanne Benzel

Sigmund-Freud-Institut

author

Dilara Karaagac (Yurtseven)

University of Groningen

author

Basak Bilecen

University of Bielefeld

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Reflexive Migration Studies 8

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #257 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Devyani Gajjar

Actualizing the virtual: Deleuze’s philosophy as horizon of understanding privileged migrants' narratives Kerstin Martel Copenhagen Business School This paper discusses ontological alternatives for a deeper understanding and interpretation of individual mobility narratives in a hypermodern context of migration. In reference to Deleuze’s philosophy of the continuity of becoming, I investigate how repeated detaching from one environment and settling into another affects the “actualisation of the virtual”, the non-linear process of resonating and becoming. This allows to understand situations and experiences of international or professional mobility as events and entanglements throughout a life course, instead of considering the individual as an isolated entity at a specific point in time. It further encourages discussions from a societal perspective about considering migration and mobility not merely as a means nor as a constraint, but as a process of creation and “different/ciation”. Deleuze’s theorizing of movement and rest goes beyond is conceiving them together: movement appears as a form of rest and rest as a form of movement… This is the underlying frame for the interpretation of narratives amongst privileged migrants: instead of defining themselves as internationals or as migrants, they narrate their ties with places, with people or with situations. My explorations thereby demonstrate that international migration is not necessarily precarious. It can provide sense, stability and purpose. The multiplicity of rapports, the intensity of events and the tension created through separations across physical distances can be comprehended as catalysts of a process of ‘becoming’, rather than merely as signifiers of a state of ‘being’. Mobilities can transcend fixed identities by opening spaces of creativeness and societal participation. === Immobility: Empirical analysis of why people don't move Alix Debray UNU-CRIS, Ghent University Ilse Ruyssen UNU-CRIS, Ghent University Kerilyn Schewel University of Amsterdam In the last decade, there has been a growing interest from both policy and academic communities in aspirations to migrate, their determinants, and the extent to which they translate into actual migration. There is a shift from a focus on the drivers of migration, i.e. the forces that lead to the initiation and perpetuation of migration flows, to one that aims to improve our understanding of how migration decisions come about (de Haas, 2010; Carling and Schewel, 2018). The focus, however, remains biased towards understanding mobility, while the structural and personal forces that restrict or resist the drivers of migration, leading to different immobility outcomes, are much less understood (Schewel, 2019). This paper contributes to fill this gap in the literature by empirically estimating the role of different determinants of aspirations to stay put. We make use of the unique Gallup World Polls which provide information on aspirations to stay (as opposed to migrating abroad) as well as on individual characteristics and opinions for about 150 countries worldwide between 2007-2016. We show that the aspiration to stay is widespread and uncover important retaining factors - including family ties, socioeconomic embeddedness or place attachment – that are often overlooked in migration research. We also explore the heterogeneity of immobility types and experiences around the globe and find that retaining factors vary across different social groups. === The role of the neighborhood and of the local community in shaping the subjective well-being of immigrants and natives in Europe Angela Paparusso Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies (IRPPS-CNR) Elena Ambrosetti Sapienza University of Rome Although the measure of quality of life can be understood in objective terms, based on indicators related to health, educational attainment or economic status, subjective results, such as subjective quality of life or subjective well-being (SWB) are also important. SWB refers to how people feel about their experiences and evaluate their lives and specific domains and activities in their lives. SWB is a good proxy of immigrants’ conditions and can integrate objective indicators of well-being in increasing multicultural societies. Subjective well-being is associated to several factors, both individual and contextual. Among those factors, the community and the subjective perceptions of the quality of the societies, play an important role in shaping life satisfaction. Therefore, we aim to analyze the association between self-reported life satisfaction and the local environment where people do live, controlling for socio-demographic, human capital and immigration variables. Data stem from the European Quality of Life Surveys (EQLS) of 2016 that includes 28 European Union Member states and five candidate countries. We use ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to measure how the individual factors considered are associated with self-reported life satisfaction. The preliminary results show that both socio-demographic, human capital, immigration and self-perceived quality of life indicators are fundamental in explaining life satisfaction for both natives and immigrants. Self-perceived quality of life indicators are strongly associated with subjective well-being. In particular, self-perceived health, economic and institutional context together with safety in the neighborhood of residence are important predictors of satisfaction with life. === Critically evaluating the use of social networks in migration research. Lyndsey Kramer University of York This paper analyses the use, if any, of social networks by Latvian EU workers moving to West Yorkshire. It enquires into how, why and if social networks are formed, and if they aid Latvian embeddedness into the locale. Embeddedness is used by Ryan (2018) to describe the extent of investment: personal, social and economic, that migrants have in a new area. The idea that embeddedness occurs is not the same as suggesting a social network exists or is created. This research is a case study of a group that has moved to an area, Latvian EU workers to West Yorkshire, and by establishing the extent of their interconnectivity with others and the type and form of their relationships, it examines their embeddedness vis-à-vis any network use or establishment thereof. Theories and concepts which embrace the notion of social networks as predicated upon social capital but not on cultural or economic capital are questioned with reference to the empirical data. Habitus is considered here as the physical embodiment of cultural, social and economic capital, and recognisable in the habits and dispositions that enable successful interaction. With the application of Bourdieu’s (1985) concepts of cultural, economic and social capital here there is a focus on how embeddedness occurs. This paper is part of an ongoing project based on empirical data gathered from 22 in depth interviews with Latvian EU workers who moved to West Yorkshire and work there.

author

Kerilyn Schewel

International Migration Institute

author

Kerstin Martel

CBS - Copenhagen Business School

author

Angela Paparusso

author

Elena Ambrosetti

Sapienza University of Rome

author

Alix DEBRAY

UNU-CRIS & Ghent University

author

Ilse Ruyssen

Ghent University

author

Lyndsey Kramer

University of York

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Asserting and resisting borders: state and non-state actors perspectives and strategies

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #258 panel | RI Revisiting Return Migration in Shifting Geopolitics

chair

Zana Vathi

Ormskirk

This panel advances scholarship in the field of return migration, engaging with border crossings from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Engaging with a multitude of actors, geographical locations, and scenarios, it ultimately asks whether and how borders are engaged with, rather than taken as a given, in the politics and practices of return. Theoretical reflections on the (ir)relevance of borders, as key constitutive features of nation-states, to migrants in the context of return are discussed (Ruspini). The papers cover a spectrum of formality and level of negotiation, varying from informal border crossings and state’s attempts to supress these (Riano) to multi-actor and high-level political stakeholders (such as the EU) enforcement of deportations to the country of origin (Jorge). Another key actor, mostly overlooked in return migration studies – the country of origin – is brought in as a stakeholder in the deportation corridors in asserting sovereignty through domestic policy tools (Zanker and Altrogge). The set are a diverse collection of accounts which together raise important questions of power positionality and agency in the shifting geopolitics of return migration. PAPER #1 European Union Readmission Agreements’ Necropolitical Mechanisms and Terminologies: An Analysis of the Joint Way Forward Declaration between the EU and Afghanistan. AUTHOR(S) Manuela (Queen Mary, London) ABSTRACT In December 2016, against the backdrop of the so-called “refugee crisis”, the European Union (EU) and the Afghan government signed the Joint Way Forward Declaration (JWF), a document similar to an EU readmission agreement, which aimed to return unlimited numbers of ‘refused’ asylum seekers and ‘irregular’ Afghan migrants from Europe to Afghanistan over four years (2016-2020). Research that investigates removal policies terminology combined with policies’ sub-sequent implementation remains scarce. Hence, by borrowing conceptual tools from the rich literature in post-colonial studies, particularly Achille Mbembe’s necropolitics and its constitution of death worlds, otherness and coloniality, I will argue that declarations such as the JWF are a clear example of the EU’s exercise of necropower. As much as necropolitics is about death, I contend that it also captures the allowance of returnees’ social and political deaths. Although different from direct killing and subsequent death, this means that the application of necropolitics to the study of removal policies helps us to think of necropower in terms of what is barely seen, especially when policies such as the JWF are crafted and implemented within the law and orchestrated through policy narratives and terminologies that legitimise operations of removals. Through a necropolitical lens, my paper will analyse the JWF Declaration, where I will argue that the use of narratives and terms such as return to describe deportation deflect attention away from the act of expulsion and its devastating implications for those who are ‘returned’, illustrating the EU’s exercise of necropower PAPER #2 Migrants unbound? Theorizing transnational and return migration AUTHOR(S) Paolo Ruspini (University of Geneva, Institute of Sociological Research (IRS)) ABSTRACT The contemporary features of international migration have resulted into an increasingly blurred distinction between migrants’ countries of origin, transit and destination. Circular and return patterns of migration and mobility have a leverage on integration practices and pose several challenges for migration scholars and stakeholders. In this regard, the introduction of a transnational approach allows to go beyond an essentialist and/or purely ethnic perspective on return migration. The transnational perspective does view return not at the end of migration cycle but with return the migration process continues. The binary structuralist vision of cross border movements is thus questioned, taking into account the circularity of migration movements, which facilitates migrants’ mobility (Chapman and Prothero, 1983-84). Time-space compression is what make “communities without propinquity” possible (Faist, 2000). These spatial configurations are a paramount feature of the current era if compared with the unidirectional and permanent migration of the former centuries. They do possibly allow migrant rights and identity negotiation and re-negotiation across borders. Pertinent research questions include the following: First, what is the unique contribution of transnationalism and social networks to comprehend return migration? Secondly, do the current spatial configurations make the contemporary “migrants unbound”? (Ruspini, 2019). At last, what migration theory can learn from empirical research? This paper aims at elucidating some of these aspects by linking migration theory with relevant examples from fieldwork on return and transnational migration. PAPER #3 Resisting Closed Borders: Informal Cross-Border Mobilities of Returnees Living between Colombia and Venezuela AUTHOR(S) Yvonne Riano (Institute of Geography and nccr - on the move University of Neuchatel ) ABSTRACT The cities of Cúcuta and San Antonio are separated by the 300 m. long Simon Bolívar bridge, stretched over the Táchira river. The first city is in Colombian territory and the second in V enezuelan territory . During decades, the inhabitants of these two cities wove close ties of friendship, kinship, trade, circulation, habitation, and study. A transnational social space connecting the two cities has thus emerged where the political border has little relevance. However, in recent years the Venezuelan government has exercised its territorial powers to prohibit cross-border crossings along the bridge to include or exclude 'desirable' or 'undesirable' populations. In 2005, Colombians living in San Antonio were deported, accused of being paramilitaries threatening the public order in Venezuela. Thousands of Colombian families were violently expelled from their homes and forced to return to Colombia. Subsequently, the international Simon Bolívar bridge connecting Colombia and Venezuela was closed. However, many Colombians returned later to San Antonio where they own homes in a squatter settlement. They sleep there but work, buy, trade, study and receive medical services in Colombia. Since the border is still closed because of the Covid pandemic, they cross the trocha daily, an informal path dug into the jungle to satisfy basic needs in Colombia. This paper discusses how dominant forms of territoriality are contested by the informal cross-border mobilities of Colombians, and discusses implications in terms of survival and human rights. It is based on ethnographic work, participatory Minga workshops, mental maps, and biographical interviews with 30 cross-borders. PAPER #4 Reinterpretation of a Moratorium: The Gambian Ban on Deportations and the question of State Sovereignty AUTHOR(S) Franzisca Zanker (Arnold-Bergstraesser Institut (ABI) Freiburg ) Judith Altrogge ( IMIS/University of Osnabrück) ABSTRACT In 2019, the tiny West African country of The Gambia imposed a moratorium on all deportation flights from the EU. This caused an uproar amongst European policy circles. Though West African countries are infamously reluctant to cooperate on forced returns, the moratorium was a yet unheard-of instrument. Thus far, deportation moratoriums have only been applied as humanitarian foreign policy tool by deporting states like South Africa who imposed a brief moratorium on deportations to Zimbabwe in 2008 in light of a cholera epidemic in the origin country. Though the Gambian moratorium was eventually lifted again, so far the modus-operandi of future deportation cooperation that is acceptable for both sides has not been found. Whilst political philosophers have increasingly discussed the meaning of state legitimacy for migration cooperation, deportation studies have argued that states use deportation as an act of showing their sovereignty towards their own population. But what about the states who receive deportees and (have to) cooperate with deportations? This paper argues that the Gambian moratorium on deportations was a domestic policy tool, related to the importance of the migration issue for the Gambian government, as well as the political-influential returnees and diaspora and political unrest in the country more generally. Though the moratorium ultimately jeopardized the country’s diplomatic standing, it was arguably an inverse display of sovereignty towards their own citizens and a form of top-down anti-deportation activism. In concluding, the paper will discuss the implications of such sovereignty assertion in terms of migration as a decolonial right.

discussant

Yvonne Riaño

SFM Neuchâtel and nccr - on the move

author

MANUELA DA ROSA JORGE

QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

author

Paolo Ruspini

author

Franzisca Zanker

Arnold Bergstraesser Institute

author

Judith Altrogge

University of Osnabrueck

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Migrant Transnationalism 13

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #259 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Patrícia Nabuco Martuscelli

University of São Paulo

Immigrants’ Cultural Integration Patterns in Spain, Germany, and the UK: Tweets as Expressions of Context Sofia Gil-Clavel The rapid increase in migrants diversity in backgrounds, and their development of transnational identities have created new challenges for the study of their integration patterns. At the same time, the rapid expansion of Twitter usage worldwide has created new opportunities to study migrants’ cultural integration and transnationalism. In this paper, I study language and topic changes in immigrants’ tweets over time, specifically immigrants whose host-countries were Spain, Germany, or the UK between 2012 and 2016. My analysis focuses on (1) the use of the host language and (2) similarity of topics discussed on Twitter between the origin- or host-country. These behaviors serve as proxies of language proficiency and identification with the host-culture, respectively. To classify migrants’ conversations and to uncover integration patterns, I built a corpus of geo-located tweets generated between 2012 and 2016 from 176 countries. Based on this corpus, I trained a Deep Structure Semantic Model to classify the language and the most likely conversation-country, country of either origin or destination, based on migrants’ tweets. Preliminary results show that migrants – users that tweeted 50% from one country and 30% from Spain, Germany, or the UK – keep tweeting in their origin-language and keep discussing topics classified as from the origin-country. This pattern is observed regardless of the number of years they have lived in the host-country. Therefore, this work supports the transnational notion that migrants now live in continuum space, where the borders between the country of origin and destination are not clear anymore. === The “myth of return”: Returnees to Bosnia and Herzegovina as outsiders here, outsiders there and transnational “inbetweeners” Aida Ibričević Center for Diaspora Studies - Sarajevo School of Science and Technology/Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) - Global Fellowship Program The “myth of return” can be conceptualized in at least two different ways (Carling et al., 2015). Migrants, while living abroad, often continue to nurture their “homeland orientation” even as their actual connections with the host state grow stronger and those with the home state weaker, making physical return less and less possible or even attractive. A second way of thinking about the “myth of return” is to perceive the idea of “return migration as a clear-cut concept” (Carling et al., 2015, p.3) as mythical. Increasing the complexity of return and reintegration is a process of boundary-making, focused on creating lines of separation between an “us” and a “them” (Yuval-Davis, 2006), running parallel in both the host and home states. To create a clear dividing line between place-belongingness and the politics of belonging expressed through processes of boundary-making is to view the former as stemming from the individual internally, while the latter is placed upon the individual externally. Based on thematic analysis of 35 interviews with returnees to Bosnia and Herzegovina, this paper argues that, although the politics of belonging formulate different requirements of belonging at home from those abroad, the returnees are often left feeling as “outsiders here and outsiders there.” On the other hand, the returnees’ place-belongingness often implies multiple belonging, belonging both here and there, while maintaining transnational ties becomes a distinct reintegration strategy. === Exploring Climate and Migration Dynamics in Western African Rural Regions: the Central Basin of the Senegal River Alessandrini Alfredo Joint Research Centre European Commission Ghio Daniela Joint Research Centre European Commission Migali Silvia Joint Research Centre European Commission A large literature focuses on relationships between environmental change and induced migration, as both regional mobility and international migration. However, analyses with a focus on the Western African regions suffer from data limitations because of incomplete time series and the lack of comparability across datasets, covering limited population targets over fragmented periods. We rely on the Joint Research Centre datasets, recent released to provide world estimates of net-migration at high spatial resolution, for modelling long-term climatic and net migration trends in the central basin of the Senegal River. Using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which combines information on temperature variability and precipitation, we assess the severity of drought by 56-km. We find that, during 5-year interval from 1975-2015, improved water balance conditions (one unit SPEI increase) have enhanced the attractiveness of territories. Detangling effects by indicator, increase in the mean of minimum temperature has motivated a negative change in net migration, whereas increase in the mean of precipitations has motivated a positive change in net migration. When excluding the urban centre of Bamako, rural population mobility remains higher from drier gridded areas. Our case study gives insights on resilience of populations living in the region: when vulnerability increases, migration becomes a community strategy to cope with environmental threats. We discuss policy implications arguing how population capacity to deal with climatic adversities has shaped regional mobility paths and international migration networks over time. Qualifying predictable net migration dynamics, the study intends to serve appropriate governance of population and environmental challenges === Mundane Transnational Social Spaces of Ordinary Cities: From an Immigrant Shop to a Transnational Supermarket Chain Tetiana Havlin University of Siegen In my talk I focus on immigrant agency through the entrepreneurship lens. By tracking the entrepreneurial activities of the selected immigrant businesses in Germany, I address a newly establishing Mix-Markt supermarket chain (MMS) with ties and connections to Eastern Europe as well as Asia. It reveals a network of interconnected stores across the EU, predominantly operated from German small and mid-sized cities, outlining mundane transnational social spaces of ordinary cities. In analyzing the Mix-Markt phenomenon, the existing analytical frames on ethnic entrepreneurship are contrasted with the flexible boundary-making approach (Wimmer) and the theory of immigrant collective agency (Havlin). The historical perspective allows me to follow the stages of the MMS development as well as look into the family and co-migrants’ ties with their involvement in the business establishment. Further I examine the East-European ethno-food concept promoted by MMS businesses and how immigrants from the post-Soviet space based in Germany express their collective agency by integrating East-European immigrant networks across Europe. I rely on the empirical data obtained by means of ethnography (two MMS in two mid-sized German cities) and data generated for the MMS database (N=249). The ethnography allowed me to make conclusions about business activities and family involvement, about the shop’s role in the local community and about the local community needs (ethno-food marketing, memory of food, memory and identity). The Database made it possible to reflect on the place of selected businesses in the German and European contexts, to trace how the network and the Russian-speaking community spreads, interacts and operates. === Senegalese Collective Imaginaries about Migration – Production and Reproduction in the Country of Origin and Implications Julia Stier WZB Berlin Social Science Center Collective imaginaries about migration have implications for the mobility behavior of people in the countries of origin but also on migrants’ lives. Imaginaries are meaning-systems that are collectively shared in society and are used by people to make sense of the world. They are historically and culturally embedded and change over time. This article examines the production and reproduction of collective imaginaries about migration and migrants’ lives in a transnational space and their implications by looking at the example of the West African state Senegal. Senegal has a long migratory history with Europe that is strongly shaped by its colonial past and an ongoing migration to various European and African countries. Collective imaginaries about migration in Senegal are historically rooted in society. The analysis is based on 41 semi-structured interviews conducted in Senegal’s capital Dakar and the Casamance region with family members and friends of migrants, returned migrants and experts. The research particularly focusses on the impact of visible artefacts of migratory success, such as new constructions in the place of origin and migrant’s auto-representations on Social Media, in the (re-)production of imaginaries. The article argues that collective imaginaries play an important role in shaping the transnational relations between migrants and their families and friends in the country of origin, not only on a personal level but also concerning remittances and the transfer of knowledge and information.

author

Julia Stier

Berlin Social Science Center (WZB)

author

Aida Ibričević

author

Sofia Gil-Clavel

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research

author

Alessandrini Alfredo

Joint Research Centre European Commission

author

Daniela Ghio

Joint Research Centre European Commission

author

Silvia Migali

European Commission's Joint Research Centre

author

Tetiana Havlin

Universität Siegen

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Mobility, social policy, and migrants' access to public services

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #260 panel | RI Privileged Mobilities local impacts, belonging and citizenship

chair

Javier Gutiérrez Espinosa

South Asian migrants’ in Saudi Arabia: Experiences of exclusions and aspirations of permanent settlement Areej Jamal UCL Social Research Institute Saudi Arabia is the third largest international migrant receiving country in the world and yet there is paucity in the literature about migrants lived experiences in the country. This research focuses on Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis who together form the largest South Asian migrant group in the country i.e. almost 45% of migrant population. Migrants in Saudi Arabia do not have access to citizenship or naturalisation rights and so their residence rights are tied to work contracts and a restrictive Kafala (sponsorship) system. The country is based on a rigid segregation between citizen and multi-ethnic non-citizen groups (by law and in practice) which results into an ethnic fragmentated labour market sustained by specific policies. However, despite their exclusion from citizenship rights and welfare benefits, many long-term migrants reside in the country. The paper is a part of a mixed method research study employing an online survey and narrative interviews with South Asian migrant families in Saudi Arabia. Drawing from the ongoing online survey, this paper will focus on some migrants’ experiences and reflections on the divisions between Saudi Arabia’s citizen and non-citizen. Further, the paper will discuss how despite the exclusive policies and racial segregation some of these migrants would still consider a permanent residency or citizenship option if the country made it accessible for them. === Nordic Welfare Chauvinism: A Comparative Analysis of Welfare Chauvinism in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland David Andreas Bell Norwegian University of Science and Technology Marko Valenta Norwegian University of Science and Technology Zan Strabac Norwegian University of Science and Technology Using data from the European Social Survey collected in 2016/2017, we analyze welfare chauvinist attitudes in what is often maintained to be the most generous welfare states; Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland. Welfare chauvinism is often understood as maintaining that the benefits provided by the welfare state should primarily be given to the native population, while immigrants are to be excluded from these benefits. We find that the attitude of wanting immigrants to never get equal rights to social benefits is near non-existent in the four Nordic countries. However, Finland, Norway and to some degree Sweden are in the top tier in Europe when it comes to respondents maintaining that immigrants need to obtain citizenship before they are to be given equal rights to social benefits and services. We further analyze these welfare chauvinist attitudes by exploring how attitudes towards welfare benefits, satisfaction towards these benefits and different forms of anti-immigrant attitudes may relate to welfare chauvinist attitudes in the four countries. === The ‘Market Insider’: Market-Citizenship and Economic Exclusion in the EU Moritz Jesse University of Leiden Daniel Carter University of Leiden This paper will show how political decisions and convictions that shaped the Citizens' Directive 2004/38 eventually led to an interpretation and application of this Directive which excludes economically weak and economically non-active EU Citizens, which seek to rely on EU free movement rights from equal treatment with nationals of the Member State where they reside. This will have a profound impact on the self-awareness of these individuals as EU Citizens. No longer will they feel equal and protected as individuals who relied on free-movement rights. In short, these individuals will no longer experience free movement within the EU as an open system but as a closed system of immigration control that seeks to exclude them from membership. After a series of decisions, the Court of Justice of the European Union has been accused of undermining the value of Union Citizenship as a tool to overcome the confines of ‘market citizenship’. It will be argued that the Court had to adapt its approach following the adoption of Directive 2004/38. In this regard, the Court treats residence and equal treatment rights under the Directive as a closed system, with lawful residence under Article 7 of the Directive being the gateway to citizenship rights. Whilst this approach is legally coherent, a strict reliance on the Directive is liable to create problems for Union Citizens, particularly low-wage workers and the economically inactive, when (i) Member States systematic check the individual’s residence status when assessing social assistance claims; (ii) the individual applies for permanent residence status and must prove lawful residence for a continuous period of 5 years, and, (iii) when returning to their home Member State with family following a period of residence in a host Member State.

author

Moritz Jesse

Leiden Law School

author

Areej Jamal

UCL Social Research Institute

author

David Andreas Bell

Norwegian University of Science and Technology

author

Marko Valenta

Norwegian University of Science and Technology

author

Zan Strabac

Norwegian University of Science and Technology

author

Daniel Carter

University of Leiden

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Reflexive Migration Studies 4

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #261 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Cristina Navarrete

COVID-19 PANDEMIC CRISIS AND ITS IMPACTS ON IMMIGRANT HEALTH Joana Topa ISMAI/CIEG-ISCSP ULisboa As a result of the pandemic crisis by COVID-19, Portugal declared state of national emergency on March 19 implementing several measures in favor of public health. For the first time in history, everything and everyone was stopped: services, schools, workplaces, events, among others. The same happened with the National Health System (SNS), which was directed to respond to the pandemic and to avoid its proliferation within health institutions, thus "protecting" its users. The implemented measures brought about major humanitarian challenges with multiple impacts in the different spheres of society, such as economy, social relations and health (Nicola, Alsafi, Sohrabi, Kerwan, Al-Jabir, Iosifidis & Agha, 2020). All people are being affected by this crisis in a particular way (IOM, 2020). However, it is clear that the crisis of COVID-19 establishes marked power disparities, exposing the magnitude of existing inequalities in societies (European Commission, 2020). Thus, the vulnerability of the least protected people in societies has been aggravated mainly by immigrants, refugees, prisoners, LGBTIs, the homeless and the elderly (IOM, 2020; UN, 2020a). The qualitative study presented here intends to contribute to the increase of knowledge on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis on the health of immigrant communities. The results show the association between structural conditions of social inequality and vulnerability in crisis situations, as well as point out new avenues for reflection/action sensitive to the diversity of immigrant people. === Mental well-being and social integration of Syrian refugees in Austria Christina Khoury Danube University This paper examines the links between young Syrian refugees’ social participation, sense of belonging and their mental well-being in Austria and the role various actors play in influencing this relationship. Previous research has shown that refugees report high rates of pre-migration trauma and mental health problems which may limit refugees’ social integration. Scholars have underlined how post-migration challenges, such as socio-economic and cultural inequalities, significantly influence the health status and well-being of young refugees, particularly their mental health. Mental well-being of refugees is an understudied area for two reasons: first, while mental health is a sensitive issue in many contexts, there is particular stigma associated to mental issues in the Middle East and the topic thus not one that is readily talked about with others. Second, language barriers between researchers and respondents have hampered in-depth research with respondents that would allow them to express themselves in a language they can fully express themselves and with which they are comfortable. This paper aims to contribute to filling this gap, by presenting the voices of young Syrians (18-29) who have recently settled as refugees (between 2016 – 2019). This paper is based on data from the ReHIS Survey, our own designed cross-sectional survey (distributed among young Syrians in Austria, roughly 150 participants), as well as interviews with experts in the field. Results indicate that increased social capital and sense of belonging among young Syrian refugees in Austria has a positive impact on their mental well-being and in turn their overall social integration into host societies. === “People from two social worlds meeting in the French National Court of Asylum : Migrants, Refugees and Asylum Judges” Jean-Luc RICHARD University of Rennes 1 (France) Romane SABRIE University of Paris Nanterre (France) The National Court of Asylum (CNDA) is a Specialized Court which reviews the decisions taken by the French Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless People (OFPRA,a public institution) against which an appeal might be lodged for having denied the refugee status or subsidiary protection to an applicant. The Court has original characteristics worth mentioning: -In panel hearings, the college of three judges is composed by a full-time judge who shall preside it, a judge appointed by the UNHCR and an expert selected by a jury of the State Council (the Administrative Supreme Court in France) -the Court is the French jurisdiction that issues the highest amount of judgments in France. The caseload has increased significantly from 22,676 appeals registered in 2007 to 58,671 in 2018. Trips towards France are lasting more and more for many applicants -But, in spite of the growing number of asylum seekers (more applicants after being not recognized as a refugee in an other European country), both numbers of protected people and protection rates have been increasing each of the last years. The 2007 and 2015 law reforms served to recruit permanent judges (2007) and better qualified assessors (2015). In that context, a sociological ethnography of the judges, using both quantitative approach and qualitative material is of a great interest (data 170 assessors judges, and 28 interviews, cf Fig 1,2) to understand why they chose to be asylum judges and how they do exercise these fonctions & missions. Guild E, Garlick M, Refugee Protection, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 29,4,2010. Hambly, J. and Gill, N. (2020) ‘Law and Speed: Asylum Appeals and the Techniques and Consequences of Legal Quickening’,Journal of Law and Society -Kobelinsky C, “The ‘Inner Belief’ of French Asylum Judges”,in Gill N, Good A (eds.), Asylum Determination in Europe, Palgrave,2018 -Laacher S, Croire à l'incroyable: Un sociologue à la Cour nationale du droit d'asile,Gallimard,2018 === Wither Securitization? Rethinking the Securitization of Migrants or When Were Migrants Not Considered a Security Threat Sabrina Axster JHU Migration scholars largely agree that migration has been securitized. Building on the Copenhagen School, the concept of securitization is used to explain how migration has moved into the realm of national security and out of regular politics. This seemingly justifies a politics of exception with a disregard for liberal and humanitarian norms and an increased use of military and security equipment and personnel to respond to the movement of people. Existing research suggests that this securitization began in the early 1990s and then took off after 9/11 and subsequent terrorist attacks in Europe. What this ignores is that there has never been a time when at least some groups of migrants were not considered a potential security threat. It also suggests that securitization occurs through specific speech acts by securitizing agents rather than placing the origin of securitization practices within the constitution of immigration law. Drawing on insights from prison scholarship and racial capitalism, I do two things: One, I provide a historical analysis of migration law in the modern United States to showcase how different groups of migrants have been securitized and how these trends of securitization are intertwined with larger changes in American economic growth and employment. I further show that in erasing this long history of the framing of migrants, securitization scholars assume a liberal world order prior to the 1990s. Secondly, I underscore the importance of studying the processes of racialization and their evolution over time when examining trajectories of securitization.

author

Joana Topa

ISMAI/CIEG-ISCSP ULisboa

author

Christina Khoury

Danube University Krems

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Jean-Luc RICHARD

ARENES - Centre de recherches sur l'action politique en Europe

author

Sabrina Axster

Johns Hopkins University

author

Romane Sabrié

Université Paris Nanterre / France terre d'asile

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Migration, citizenship and political participation 3

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #262 panel | SC Migration, Citizenship and Political Participation

chair

Umut Mişe

Migrants Trust in the Swedish Migration Agency - Exploring influencing factors through large scale survey data Carolin Schütze Copenhagen Business School "Trust in institutions is an important dimension of having trust in the society one lives in. For most migrants, the first institution of a new host country they are in contact with is the Migration Agency (MA). Yet, there are only a few studies that examine migrants trust towards the MA. Especially studies making use of directly surveying migrant populations on a large scale are missing. Therefore, this study aims to investigate factors that are associated with having trust in the Swedish MA. To this end, original data was examined from a nationwide survey of all migrants receiving a decision to their application from the Swedish MA between March 2019 and March 2020 (N=22.659). Hierarchical OLS regression was applied, resulting in the identification of three major influencing factors. First, respondents coming from the Middle East and East Asia reported having less trust in the MA than respondents from Western Countries, indicating that institutional trust depends on heritage from the country. Second, less trust was found among respondents that applied for asylum. Lastly, respondents that experienced their recent contact with the MA as positive reported more trust in the MA, suggesting that confidence in the MA is depending on the perception of institutional performance. This paper argues for the importance of examining migrants trust in the MA since their view towards this institution can influence their overall perception of their new host society. With a unique data set, a broader understanding of migrants’ trust in the MA is offered. " === Heterogenous electorates? Immigrant and native policy preferences and vote choice compared Anna-Lena Nadler University of Geneva Important foreign populations represent a major challenge in most Western European democracies. Especially when combined with an expansion of suffrage to non-citizens, significant immigrant populations contain the potential of shifting the socio-political landscape in Europe. Against this background, surprising little is known about immigrants’ political positions and how they relate to their voting behavior. In this paper, I argue that not only do political preferences differ between immigrants and natives when looking at three policy dimensions but that immigrant vote choice is differently motivated than native electoral behavior. Using data from the European Social Survey across 16 European democracies, I find evidence that spatial voting theory seems to apply differently to minority voters compared to natives. Contrarily to native voters, immigrants' attitudes in the immigration dimension trumps their attitudes on economic and cultural policies in terms of importance for vote choice. I contend that these differences in the link between attitudes and vote choice raise important questions about parties’ mobilization strategies of such heterogeneous electorates and, consequently, their political program. === Migration intentions of youth with and without a migrant background: a Russian case Anna Rocheva Group for Migration and Ethnicity Research; RANEPA Evgeni Varshaver Group for Migration and Ethnicity Research; RANEPA A favorable demographic situation in a country implies that the newly arrived migrants are willing to stay and the local population does not intend to leave. A recent poll of the Russian youth showed that about a half of them are willing to emigrate and this figure is more prominent on the background of anti-migrant sentiments which imply a substitution of Russians with migrants. The presentation attempts to assess the perception of Russia as a place of living by different groups of youth aged 18-30 with a migrant background and without it, namely (1) labour migrants, (2) foreign students, (3) the second and one-and-a-half generation migrants from the Central Asia, and (4) local youth. Based on a survey (N=1143) conducted using targeting on the most popular Russian social networking site Vkontakte in 2020, the authors examine, firstly, the migration intentions of different groups of young people in a five-year perspective, secondly, the factors related to the plans to live in Russia or another country in five years, thirdly, the conditions under which those not planning to live in Russia in five years would change their plans. About half of foreign students, working migrants and local youth as well as two thirds of migrants of the second and oneand-a-half generations are going to live in Russia. The results of the study prove the assumption that objective economic well-being indicators, i.e. salary, are less likely to be an important factor behind migration plans of young people than the subjective indicators, such as satisfaction with income, economic situation or with a job in general. A sense of legal insecurity is the factor that pushes young people out of Russia regardless of their occupation or migration background. Besides that, we discuss factors crucial for specific groups of youth. === Inclusive Electoral Institutions and Political Efficacy of Immigrants in Diverse Democracies Elif Naz Kayran Leiden University Anna-Lena Nadler University of Geneva Immigrant political integration is at the forefront of the policy agenda in European democracies. While immigrants demonstrably participate at much lower rates in the politics of the host societies, the contextual and attitudinal determinants of this discrepancy are still not well understood. To remedy this, we concentrate on the link between immigrants’ political efficacy and inclusive electoral institutions, i.e. alien enfranchisement. We argue that more inclusive contexts positively shape the efficacy of immigrants in host democracies. Living in an electorally inclusive context which extends voting rights to all long-term residents relates to higher internal and external efficacy, arguably, through a logic of perceived equal treatment and acceptance. To test this, first, we focus on the case of Switzerland and exploit the sub-national variation in electoral institutions using longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel from 1999 to 2016. Next, we triangulate this evidence using a cross-sectional design and with data from European Social Survey, World Values Survey, and International Soscial Survey Programme investigating efficacy differences amongst immigrants and natives citizens due to electoral inclusiveness at the national level across advanced democracies. The paper contributes to ongoing debates by proposing a relatively little-acknowledged potential explanation for understanding the political underrepresentation of citizens with an immigration background in host societies. Next, we bring forward evidence addressing the political consequences of alien enfranchisement policies. Finally, we suggest that immigrants’ political integration is not only a function of their cultural and social capital but may also be related to the contexts in which they are received in the host democracies.

author

Carolin Schütze

Copenhagen Business School

author

Anna-Lena Nadler

University of Geneva

author

Anna Rocheva

RANEPA; Group for migration and ethnicity research

author

Evgeni Varshaver

University of Moscow

author

Elif Naz Kayran

Leiden University

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Migration, age & family

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #263 panel | SC Older Migrants

chair

Adham Aly

Provision of home-based care for elderly immigrants in Sweden Patricia Yocie Hierofani Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University Micheline van Riemsdijk Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University Elderly immigrants share similar care needs with the elderly in general, but their migration background adds a complexity and diversity to these needs. Factors such as migrant trajectories, age at the point of migration, gender, socioeconomic status and psychosocial circumstances shape the care needs of elderly immigrants. Social and economic exclusion hinders some elderly immigrants from seeking public social services. They hence rely on care provision by their family members. Elderly immigrants often rely on their spouse, children and extended family as the main caregivers. Care givers for immigrant parents are proportionately younger (in their 20s and 30s) in comparison to general care givers (who tend to be in their 40s). Elder care responsibility can therefore limit the social and economic integration of immigrant care givers in the host society. Most scholarly attention has been directed to the high proportion of Covid-19 cases in elderly homes and the challenges faced by public care services for the elderly. With increasing cutbacks for public eldercare services, family care become more common. How the pandemic has affected home-based care provisions by family members thus warrants more attention. Based on 20 semi-structured interviews with elderly immigrants and their caregiving relatives, the presentation analyses their experiences with home-based care. The presentation also examines how the current pandemic has affected the home-based care provision for elderly immigrants in Sweden. The presentation contributes to the scholarly discussion on care provision for elderly immigrants by bringing up family perspectives in the context of a global pandemic. === The Happiness-Integration Nexus: The case of Transnational Families Roxane Gerber Institute of Demography and Socio-economy IDESO, University of Geneva, nccr - on the move Laura Ravazzini Institute of Sociology, University of Neuchatel, nccr - on the move Switzerland has one of the highest levels of subjective well-being and happiness score in the world. However, ambivalently, immigrants in Switzerland show a low level of well-being in comparison with immigrant population in other European host countries. This ambivalence might be because projects regarding family life are often hardly compatible with migration plans. It is commonly believed that migration is associated with an increase of well-being and a better life in the host country. However, migration is a strenuous process that involves not only economic, but also mental and affective costs, especially in the case of involuntary migration and separation of the family. In line with globalization, increasing mobility and the development of new ways of communication, in the last decades, new forms of family configuration have emerged, and one of them is the “transnational family”. This paper focuses on the life satisfaction of immigrants living in Switzerland, and in particular, of those who live long-distance transnational relationships with other family members. We investigate the nexus between self-reported life satisfaction and integration using the Migration-Mobility Survey (MMS). This new data allows accessing information on recently arrived immigrants and their family relationships, even across borders. We apply longitudinal analyses over two waves of the MMS to establish in which way the relationship between integration and subjective well-being goes for recently arrived migrants in general and for migrants living in transnational arrangements in particular. nccr – on the move. The Migration-Mobility Survey (MMS). https://nccr-onthemove.ch/research/migration-mobility-survey/ === Independent Child Migrants and East-West Migration: Young people from Ukraine and Their Individualized Migration Route Luděk Jirka University of Hradec Králové Independent child migrants and unaccompanied minors are studied as young people from Africa or Latin America (but from other places as well) who move independently of parents. They could be sent by parents as part of family strategy, but they also could deceive parents and run away without parental awareness. Important is their social agency and realizing their own economic, social and other objectives and interests different from those of parents which brings out conflicts within the household before migration. However, after migration, parents often expect remittances from their children. This paper follows research of independent child migrants, but within the East-West migration and concretely within the context of Ukraine (country of origin) and the Czech Republic (country of immigration). Contribution is based on anthropological empirical qualitative research. It was found out that young Ukrainians also experience differentiation from parents before migration according to economic and social objectives which also led to conflicts within the households, but there are also significant differences. Unaccompanied migration of young Ukrainians couldn´t be considered as part of family strategy, Ukraine is impoverished country and family issue is important, but this kind of independent child migration is based on individualized strategy. === Syrian Youths’ Future Aspiration with holding Turkish Citizenship: Move on from Turkey or stay in Turkey? Begüm Dereli Universitat Pompeu Fabra The exceptional citizenship option in the Turkish Citizenship Law has opened the door to citizenship for Syrians who live under temporary protection and have either economic or cultural capital. The population of this study is Syrian youths who continue higher education in Turkey; they are one of the main groups to be addressed with the new regulations to whom can acquire Turkish citizenship. This study contributes to the literature on the acquisition of Turkish citizenship with carrying the perspective of refugee youths. This article uses a ‘bottom-up’ strategy and focuses on the meaning of citizenship from refugees’ perspective and its relation to their future prospects. This paper asks to what extent having Turkish citizenship shapes the future aspirations of Syrian youths regarding their intentions to stay in Turkey or to move from Turkey. It is based on a qualitative case study conducted in Gaziantep during the fall of 2019. The aim of this paper is to delineate the variety of the future aspirations of highly educated Syrian refugee youths in the case of having Turkish citizenship. On one hand, the findings suggest that Turkish citizenship is seen as a more valuable passport that gives the possibility of moving on from Turkey (generally to Europe) through regular means, such as studying a postgraduate degree, on the other hand it is seen as a source of stability, security and more employment opportunities within Turkey. My findings suggest that even though going to Europe through regular means becomes a real option, in general the first intention is to settle in Turkey, and second is to go abroad to study temporarily with intentions to coming back.

author

Iuna Dones

University of Geneva

author

Micheline van Riemsdijk

author

Roxane Gerber

University of Geneva, nccr on the move

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Laura Ravazzini

Institute of Sociology, University of Neuchatel, nccr - on the move

author

Ludek Jirka

Charles University Prague

author

Begüm Dereli

Universitat Pompeu Fabra

author

Patricia Yocie Hierofani

Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University

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