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Migrant Legal Status and Access to Healthcare: Reconsidering Vulnerability and Surveillance - SESSION 1

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #9 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Sajida Zareen Ally

School of Global Studies, University of Sussex

chair

Alejandro Goldberg

Anthropological Sciences Institute, National Council of Scientific and Technical Research of the Argentine Republic, University of Buenos Aires

This panel explores the connections between migrant legal status and access to healthcare across the globe and highlights how healthcare can function as a technology of migration control and border enforcement. In destination contexts, migrants and refugees often face juridical barriers to accessing care, arising from financing and health systems that are shaped by residency status and/or nationality, while moral ideas of their ‘deservingness’ to care conflate with gender, racial and class-based inequalities. Some prefer to seek treatment upon return to countries of origin, where migrant healthcare needs are indistinguishable from those of non-returnees and diagnoses can neglect migratory determinants of disease. Policies in the domains of biosecurity, migration enforcement, detention, education and housing can marginalize healthcare, while healthcare policies do not always specify their applicability to migrants across legal statuses – a context further complicated by policy incoherence between origin and destination countries. Covid-19 has magnified pre-existing inequalities, as migrant low-wage and healthcare workers particularly grapple with infection risk and disease transmission amid inadequate care, livelihood loss, heightened surveillance, border closures and ineffective governance. This panel thus examines the legal, social, political and economic dynamics that produce patterns of exclusion and inclusion within migrants’ healthcare and also influence the ‘quality’ of available services. It investigates the effects of discursive ideas, systems and practices of care on migrants’ care-seeking strategies and experiences of distress, illness, wellness, resiliency and recovery. In bringing together scholars in the social science with those also working in public health, social psychology and clinical research, the panel is inter-disciplinary in perspective and seeks to connect conversations occurring across epistemologies and methodologies of migration research. PAPER #1 Pre-entry screening for tuberculosis: “it's kind of making mark for like all the Asian” AUTHOR(S) Dr Jessica L. Potter (North Middlesex University Hospital ) ABSTRACT The securitisation of borders against the threat of invading microbes, carried by immigrant bodies, is not a new phenomenon. The recent COVID-19 global pandemic has strengthened the global health security agenda, re-focussing attentions on border control. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease transmitted through coughing. Countries with a low incidence of TB, including the UK, screen people prior to planned migration from countries with higher burdens of disease. This ethnographic study explored how people migrating to the UK from India experienced pre-entry screening for TB. A focused ethnography of a pre-entry TB screening centre in India was conducted in 2017 over 4 weeks. This included 180 hours of field work, photographs and interviews with clients and staff. Over 1000 individuals were screened for active pulmonary TB as part of their visa application during this period. Additional data from 14 in-depth interviews conducted with migrants diagnosed with TB in the UK and 10 key professionals involved in healthcare delivery and policy-making were included in the final analysis. Foucault’s concept ‘governmentality’ and sociological theories of bordering were used alongside thematic analysis to interpret the data. Individuals revealed previously undocumented harms associated with their experiences of pre-entry screening for TB. My analysis reveals how through the ‘biosecuritisation’ of some, but not all, off-shore bodies; some, but not all, off-shore TB; some, but not all, infectious diseases; pre-entry screening becomes a border force, reinforcing global inequities and racialised hierarchies. In this context, I argue pre-entry screening makes UK citizens live while letting ‘others’ die. PAPER #2 Migrants’ legal status and transnational ‘access’ to healthcare AUTHOR(S) Dr Sajida Z. Ally (Department of Anthropology, School of Global Studies, University of Sussex) ABSTRACT Ongoing reforms in sponsorship policies, protective legislation and healthcare function as technologies of migrants’ healthcare access in Kuwait, while Sri Lankan state emigration policies have not always prioritized their citizens’ health in the migration process. This paper juxtaposes the discourses surrounding these changes against Sri Lankan migrants’ on-the-ground experiences of using public and private healthcare services across transnational contexts. Drawing on ethnographic research among Sri Lankans in Kuwait’s urban areas, as well as in villages of origin in Sri Lanka, I elaborate migrants’ feelings of satisfaction or dis-incentivization to use services and the meanings that underlie their choices to undergo treatment in particular places. While the everyday politics of accessing care has been radically re-shaped by Covid-19, long-term ethnographic engagement demonstrates migrants’ accumulated experiences of varied opportunities and obstacles to healthcare over time. Rather than to view their self-treatment and visits to private services – due to lack of entitlement or dis-trust of public doctors – as a positioning outside of the state, I suggest that such care-seeking actions are forms of claim-making within the constraints that shape their il/legality. Combined with interviews with doctors and civil society that define analysis of how a continuum of discourses are involved, these findings shed light on the local, state and global structures that exclude, constrain or facilitate access to care. Building on concepts of healthcare ‘access as an interface’ (Levesque et. al. 2013) and health equity as an interrogation of inequitable distributions of power and resources, I argue for the integration of political and juridical context, as well as situated, ethnographic knowledge, into understandings of transmigrants’ healthcare. In doing so, I point towards what an inclusive politics of healthcare might look like in Kuwait. PAPER #3 Expanding the guidelines for the care of forced migrants AUTHOR(S) Suzana Duarte Santos Mallard (Institute of Psychosociology and Community Ecology (EICOS), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ) ABSTRACT Therapeutic clinics for migrants can be considered as a point of tension and site of possibility for the psychological trauma and care of forced migrants. They represent points of convergence for narratives of individual experience and provide insight into broader ethical, social, and political issues. Encounters in these clinics affect refugees, therapists, and the wider community. These encounters produce knowledge and prompt reflection in the field of psychology and define the possibilities and outcomes of those involved. A close examination of these dynamics can provide insight into how clinicians can expand guidelines for the care of forced migrants. Drawing on extensive interviews with therapists in Brazil and the United States, this paper proposes a series of steps for expanding and enhancing psychological care for forced migrants. These steps could enable therapists to identify the specific vulnerabilities of their patients to more quickly and effectively address their needs. They entail: 1) making it a priority to let the migrants find their own voice, and being willing to reflect and question one’s own assumptions; 2) engaged listening, which has the potential to remove migrants from the silence that their condition imposes; and 3) forging a bond that can help restore a sense of agency and trust. Previous studies of forced migrants have suggested that this population is objectified and thereby excluded from exercising their will. The above steps seek to restore migrants’ subjecthood within the therapeutic context. Thus, every professional working with this population should be committed to providing these forms of engaged and self-reflexive care when interacting with migrants. PAPER #4 Healthcare access among migrant children and their families in the UK: Reconsidering law, ethics and society AUTHOR(S) Dr Catarina Alves Soares (Barts Healthcare NHS Trust) Dr Sunanda Bhatia (Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust) Dr Bryony Hopkinshaw (Medact Migrant Solidarity Group) Dr Jonathan Broad (Medact Migrant Solidarity Group) Dr. Sarah Boutros (Medact Migrant Solidarity Group) ABSTRACT In the increasingly hostile policy environment and discourse around migration, children and families face barriers to access the national health service (NHS) healthcare. In this paper, we discuss the healthcare context, and the implications of ethics and law on the quality of care provided to migrant children and their families. We ground the paper around adapted clinical case scenarios of children whose healthcare is impacted by their legal migration status, particularly undocumented children who lack legal documentation, and unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. This paper discusses whether current ethical, legal and professional frameworks advocate or hinder access to healthcare and influences on the quality of care. There are detrimental and discriminatory effects of policies within healthcare and society including border enforcement. For instance, the NHS has seen recent expansions of charging children for healthcare and charging for reproductive health including pregnancy and delivery in migrant families. Not only are such policies unfavourable in safeguarding this vulnerable group, but they also lead to moral conflict among stakeholders such as healthcare staff. Having witnessed extenuating circumstances makes children who are unaccompanied and seeking asylum extremely vulnerable; but it also builds their resilience and independence. Therefore, it is imperative to enable their voices to be heard as well as to advocate for a higher level of wellbeing. PAPER #5 Access to healthcare, insurance provision and health status of Sri Lankan migrant domestic workers Dr Hiranthi Jayaweera, Research Affiliate (former Senior Researcher), Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), School of Anthropology, University of Oxford ABSTRACT Poor health affects Sri Lankan women who migrate overseas for domestic work before they migrate, while they are abroad, and on return to Sri Lanka. Provisions to ensure equitable access to healthcare are failing them, both in their own country and abroad. Compared to documentation of the violations of human rights of Sri Lankan overseas domestic workers particularly in Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) countries, relatively little attention has been paid so far to their health and barriers in access to healthcare. Based on primary qualitative research conducted in 2014-15 with 60 pre-departure and returned domestic workers and 20 stakeholders representing state, civil society and international organisations, this paper explores the impact of the Sri Lankan labour migration governance framework relevant to health, as well as the impact of GCC receiving country policies and employer practices, on migrants’ access to healthcare and health status throughout the entire migration process. The research findings point to gaps and anomalies in the governance framework around health that have a negative impact on the women’s health and health rights across the migration process, including during recruitment, training, and medical testing; in the employment contract, insurance, Sri Lankan embassy involvement in receiving countries; and in the provision of health support on return. The domestic workers’ working conditions and lack of health support in destination countries lead to significant deterioration of the health of most. It is clear that the women knowingly sacrifice their health in continuing the cycle of migration. Recommendations for policy and practice reform are based on viewing migrant health holistically, connecting the entire migration journey, and family health as well as the individual migrant’s health.

discussant

Marcia Vera Espinoza

Queen Mary University of London

discussant

Elias Kondilis

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

author

Jessica L. Potter

North Middlesex University Hospital

author

Suzana Duarte Santos Mallard

UFRJ - EICOS

author

Catarina Alves Soares

Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom

author

Sunanda Bhatia

Imperial NHS Healthcare Trusts

author

Bryony Hopkinshaw

Medact Migrant Solidarity Group

author

Jonathan Broad

Medact Migrant Solidarity Group

author

Sarah Boutros

Medact Migrant Solidarity Group

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Reflexive Migration Studies 3

Wed July 7, 14:00 - 15:30, Session #18 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Umut Mişe

CITIZENSHIP ‘ON PAPER’. On the risk of statelessness of Polish children raised in same-sex unions abroad Dorota Pudzianowska Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty Piotr Korzec Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty For the children born in same-sex couples living abroad, access to Polish citizenship is automatic only on paper because they are unable to get Polish passport, ID or the national identification number. They thus cannot avail themselves of the rights stemming from the Polish nationality they acquire ex lege at the moment of birth but that they have no proof of. This situation leads to new cause of statelessness. The approach of Polish administrative courts over actions of administrative bodies in such cases is not unitary and hardly solves the problem. Upon introducing the notion of statelessness in the context of children born abroad who have same-sex parents (1), we will discuss the scenarios under which the Polish law of citizenship and law on civil registers interact to neuter ex lege citizenship (2). We will further analyze various court decisions that arose out of extensive litigation of such cases (3) and the Resolution of the Supreme Court that nullified litigation efforts and suggested a different solution to the problem (4). As we will argue, this solution, however, does not seem to convince the administrative authorities (5). We conclude that the interaction between the Polish citizenship law and civil status law in such cases is indeed a sizable problem that gives rise to statelessness of children born in same-sex couples living abroad. === “I was willing to pay a lot to belong”: A retrospective view of young-adult immigrants on social integration and identity processes Pnina Dolberg Ruppin Academic Center Karin Amit Ruppin Academic Center More than one million immigrants moved to Israel from the FSU after 1989, among them many children who are now young adults. These young adults, who immigrated as children or adolescents (1.5 Generation), faced various migration challenges and difficulties; yet, they have gone through a constant process of integration into Israeli society. The current study addresses the subjective experience of 1.5 Generation immigrants from the FSU to Israel regarding their personal social integration and identity processes. The research used qualitative methods, based on 28 in-depth interviews with young adults (average age: 32.3) who immigrated as children or adolescence (average age: 9.5) from the FSU to Israel between the years 1989-2004. The stories obtained from the interviewees included painful memories of their early years in Israel. In most of the stories, social difficulties, feelings of alienation and challenges related to their families were engraved as deep wounds that made it difficult for them to develop an Israeli identity. The stories revealed that the military service (mandatory in Israel) and the interviewees’ subsequent years changed their initial experience and made it easier for them to connect to Israel. However, the life stories of young immigrants differ from the conventional narratives of Israeli young adults, which include trial and error as part of the ""emerging adulthood"" life stage common among young people in Western countries. The narratives of the FSU young adults usually included rapid economic consolidation and rapid entry into adult life. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. === Forced migration, protection and legal consciousness in a borderland: aspirations and conceptions of Congolese migrants in Rabat, Morocco Ruben Wissing Ghent University The paper is the result of research into the concept of protection at the EU’s external borders. It assesses the legal and actual content of this central concept in international refugee and human rights law, and the commitment to it of the EU and its mobility partner Morocco in their asylum and migration policy discourses. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these protection policies and legal instruments in the Morocco-EU borderland, it is crucial to include the voices of their intended subjects: What are the perspectives and lived experiences of forced migrants in search for protection? What mobilizes them? What does ‘protection’ mean for them? How do they find it? In the law, or elsewhere? This paper presents a socio-legal analysis of the data obtained through observation and 15 interviews with Congolese migrants with (self-assessed) protection needs in Morocco, in October-November 2019. This law in action perspective leads to the following findings: - Firstly, once in Morocco, the Congolese forced migrants aspire material subsistence and working opportunities, rather than ‘protection’; and this irrespective of the original reason that forced them to leave the DRC. - Secondly, they understand, perceive and experience ‘protection’ not as a legal concept in the first place, but as physical safety, freedom of movement and spiritual and religious comfort and relief. - Thirdly, they conceive refugee and human rights law practices, expressed throughout different state law manifestations, as protection-inhibiting rather than protection-enhancing; and preferentially rely on informal and non-state normative orders and institutions instead.

author

Ruben Wissing

Ghent University

author

Karin Amit

Ruppin Academic Center

author

Dorota Maria Pudzianowska

University of Warsaw, Law Faculty

author

Piotr Korzec

Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty

author

Pnina Dolberg

Ruppin Academic Center

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Multi-method approaches in migration scenarios

Thu July 8, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #50 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Carsten Keßler

Aalborg University Copenhagen, Department of Planning

chair

Karolina Sobczak-Szelc

Current migration research builds on a wide range of methods, particularly when it comes to scenario-based research exploring future migration. This panel will discuss the challenges of combining and meaningfully integrating methods as diverse as interview-based case studies, demographic cohort-component projection methods, work with novel data sources (e.g. social media), Delphi studies, and methods based on machine learning. It will address the challenges of such multi-method approaches in migration research based on our work in the H2020-funded Future Migration Scenarios for Europe (FUME) project. FUME focuses on understanding the patterns of migration at multiple levels, from the international over the national and regional to the local level, and employs a range of methods to this end. The panel will feature 5 papers presenting different methods applied, and, in some cases, even developed in FUME. The presentations will focus on the challenges of integrating the results from other methods as input and delivering outputs that are useful for colleagues further down the workflow, who often use other methods yet again. A thorough discussion of the pitfalls of such transdisciplinary mixed-methods work, which often also faces challenges regarding the languages and practices in different disciplines as well as ethics issues, will help both the FUME project team and other researchers working in similar settings to advance our understanding of combining and integrating multiple methods in migration research. PAPER #1 The contribution of origin country case studies to the formulation of future migration scenarios AUTHOR(S) Karolina Sobczak-Szelc (University of Warsaw Centre of Migration Research) Lanciné Eric Nestor Diop (Department of Politics and Society, Aalborg University) Stefano degli Uberti (Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies, Italian National Research Council) Konrad Pędziwiatr (Cracow University of Economics) ABSTRACT Among migration scholars there is an increasing demand for models enabling to establish migration scenarios providing ‘reliable numbers’ on future migrants to Europe. Models need to take into account different contextual factors such as culture, economy, environment, as well as motives, aspirations and intentions of potential migrants at regional and local levels in countries of origin. Based on the experience of the four case studies of the FUME project (Iraq, Senegal, Tunisia and Ukraine) that provide the qualitative contribution to overall project objective of understanding present migration patterns to formulate future migration scenarios, the paper aims at discussing the issues at stake and the strategies adopted to address this gap. We introduce the components of the methodological approach (including on-line and field research methods) and how each step of the analysis is conceived to fuel the next stage of the research aimed at exploring the migration decision-making processes of the potential migrants. The greatest methodological challenge is to design a common modus operandi that allows to cast light on the socio-cultural, economic, political, environmental and personal factors, that influence the individual and collective aspirations and decisions of prospective migrants. The key research questions are: A) How to advance understanding of possible future migration trends through qualitative methodological and analytical approaches? B) What does it mean methodically to pursue a migration decision-making approach in order to envision the future international migration patterns for Europe? C) What opportunities and challenges exist in terms of knowledge sharing, and integration of qualitative evidences and results, in a mixed methods migration research project? PAPER #2 Integrating expert opinions and data to estimate and forecast international migration AUTHOR(S) Arkadiusz Wiśniowski (Department of Social Statistics, The University of Manchester) Ji Hye Kim (Department of Social Statistics, The University of Manchester) ABSTRACT Migration scenario-based projections and probabilistic forecasts are typically driven by either data, or expert opinion. Relatively few approaches integrate the two sources of information. Migration data provide evidence of ranges and variability of the phenomenon in the past and may thus be useful in assessing the unknown (current and future) levels and uncertainty of migration. However, it is well acknowledged in the literature that migration data are often inadequate, incomplete or entirely missing. Therefore, expert opinion, which typically is used to assess the future levels of migration, can be used to provide information about the inadequacies of the data, plausibility of scenarios and narratives, and assessing detailed characteristics of migration. In this study, we review and evaluate the recent approaches of integrating international migration data and expert opinions that have been obtained by using a Delphi survey. The Delphi method permits eliciting and refining group judgements. It has three main features: 1) anonymous responses, 2) iterations and controlled feedback, and 3) aggregated response. It helps to reduce bias due to an individual’s dominance and may allow varying opinions of experts from different fields to converge. We also present the Delphi approach on eliciting information on importance of migration drivers, as well as its skills and gender composition in the next 10 years, from the European Union policymakers’ perspective. We propose how this information can be incorporated in projecting future migration and population. PAPER #3 Global bilateral migration projections accounting for diasporas, transit and return flows, and poverty constraints AUTHOR(S) Jacob Schewe (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research) Albano Rikani (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research) Lucas Kluge (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research) ABSTRACT Anticipating changes in international migration patterns is useful for demographic studies and for designing policies that support the well-being of those involved. Existing forecasting methods do not account for a number of stylized facts that emerge from large-scale migration observations and theories: existing migrant communities – diasporas – act to lower migration costs and thereby provide a mechanism of self-amplification; return migration and transit migration are important components of global migration flows; and poverty constrains emigration. Here we present hindcasts and future projections of international migration that explicitly account for these non-linear features. We develop a dynamic model that simulates migration flows by origin, destination, and place of birth. We calibrate the model using recently constructed global datasets of bilateral migration. We show that the model reproduces past patterns and trends well based only on initial migrant stocks and changes in national incomes. We then project migration flows under future scenarios of global socio-economic development. Different assumptions about income levels and between-country inequality lead to markedly different migration trajectories, with migration flows either converging towards net zero if incomes in presently poor countries catch up with the rest of the world; or remaining high or even rising throughout the 21st century if economic development is slower and more unequal. Importantly, diasporas induce significant inertia and sizeable return migration flows. Our simulation model provides a versatile tool for assessing the impacts of different socio-economic futures on international migration, accounting for important non-linearities in migration drivers and flows. PAPER #4 Machine Learning for Spatially Explicit Population Projections AUTHOR(S) Marina Georgati - Department of Planning, Aalborg University Copenhagen Carsten Keßler - Department of Planning, Aalborg University Copenhagen ABSTRACT As the global number of migrants has raised by 130 million from 1990 to 2019, migrants are increasingly shaping the image and development of urban centers. However, there are still no established methodologies to project where it is more likely for people of specific socio-demographic groups to set up home and answer questions such as: How are migrants distributed in a city? Are they attracted by discernible spatial characteristics? While spatially explicit projections could play a significant role as a tool for urban planning, this lack of adequate tools for future population projections means that cities miss out on a valuable opportunity. Machine learning (ML) techniques have demonstrated capabilities to capture relationships among the plethora of urban variables to assist the estimation of future population distribution at local scale, especially when specific demographic features are taken into consideration. Our primary focus concentrates on the demographic characteristics of migrants and their spatial distribution in the capital region of Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this study is to downscale the national population projections to spatially local units via a flexible, ML-based methodology for high-resolution gridded population projections by various demographic characteristics, and specifically by region of origin. We study how ML methods capture and relate migration dynamics to topographic and socio-economic variables. Such novel geocomputation methodologies enrich the toolbox of migration research and reveal potentials to study in depth the complex migration systems in destination cities and their relations to urban, topographic and social characteristics.

discussant

Tuba Bircan

Interface Demography (DEMO), Vrije Universiteit Brussel

author

Lancine Eric Diop

Politics and Society, Aalborg University

author

Stefano degli Uberti

National Research Council (Italy)

author

Konrad Pędziwiatr

Centre of Migration Research

author

Arkadiusz Wiśniowski

University of Manchester

author

Ji Hye Kim

Department of Social Statistics, The University of Manchester

author

Jacob Schewe

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

author

Albano Rikani

Potsdam Institute for climate impact research

author

Lucas Kluge

Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

author

MARINA GEORGATI

AAU

Access to the session WebEx link and uploaded papers is available for attendees only. Did you register? Check your conference status.

Living in Diversity: How do people without migration background react to and participate in majority minority neighbourhood contexts

Thu July 8, 11:00 - 12:30, Session #98 panel | SC Superdiversity, Migration and Cultural Change

chair

Marina Lazëri

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

chair

Kim Knipprath

VU Amsterdam

Over the last forty years, researchers in the field of Migration and Ethnic Studies looked at the integration of migrants and their descendants in host societies. Concepts, methodological tools and theoretical frameworks have been developed to measure and predict integration outcomes across different ethnic groups and in comparison, with people of native descent. Yet, even though there is wide acknowledgment that the integration process is a two-way process, researchers have primarily had a one-sided focus on studying the integration of migrants and their descendants. The BaM project puts forward that addressing this blind spot has become more urgent now given that in many Western European cities people without a migration background are becoming a minority themselves. This situation - in the literature referred to as a majority-minority context - is a new, but rapidly growing phenomenon in Western Europe. In this panel, we present four papers which focus on advancing the conceptual framework of the Bam project while providing insights based on qualitative data collected in Amsterdam and northern England. The first paper introduces the concept of “laboring” diversity and discusses its role within the growing literature around ‘conviviality’. The second paper focuses on the “becoming a minority” framework in the north of England which was heavily influenced by the Brexit process. The third paper makes use of Elias and Scotson’s established–outsiders model, to illustrate everyday dynamics of power relations between different types of residents with and without a migration background. Finally, the fourth paper looks at how the Covid-19 crisis has impacted the social climate regarding ethnic diversity in Amsterdam. PAPER #1 Between willingness and labor: how people without a migration background ‘labor’ diversity in their majority-minority neighborhood AUTHOR(S) Josje Schut (VU Amsterdam) Ismintha Waldring (VU Amsterdam) ABSTRACT Among scholars, the idea is broadly shared that people without a migration background who rhetorically love ethnic diversity still tend to self-segregate from ‘ethnic others’ in various ways. As such, their attitudes and practices towards diversity are not aligned, and some suggest that this rhetorical appreciation of diversity can serve as a buffer for not having to engage with diversity. Yet, as people without a migration background have numerically become one of many ethnic minority groups in several contemporary European cities, it could be argued that it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to uphold their exclusionary practices in these so-called majority-minority cities and neighborhoods. This article is situated within the burgeoning body of literature around ‘conviviality’, which examines people’s quotidian practices of exclusion as well as practices of inclusion. Based on twenty semi-structured interviews conducted in a majority-minority neighborhood in Amsterdam, we attempt to understand why and how people without a migration background put “work” into promoting connections with neighborhood residents with a migration background. We thereby scrutinize the different ways in which people without a migration background ‘labor diversity’, varying from micro- to more explicit forms of labor, and their motives to do so. By bringing power literature into our theoretical framework on convivial labor, we show how this group, despite being a numerical minority and despite showing willingness to engage, remain in the power position to decide how and on what aspect they labor, while having the option to ‘opt out’ from these practices. PAPER #2 In the wake of Brexit: living in diversity in majority minority neighbourhoods in the North of England AUTHOR(S) Andrew Wallace (University of Leeds) Adrian Favell (University of Leeds) ABSTRACT The formulation of the Becoming a Minority project poses a question of how its framework and conceptualisation of key majority minority questions may apply to other similar scenarios in Western Europe, beyond its central focus on large port/second cities. Our paper transposes the BAM framework to the North of England, where majority minority relations lay at the heart of the Brexit outcome in the UK and the ongoing dynamics of British politics. We propose a translation not only across borders to the UK, but also away from the large metropolitan cities where BAM has honed its approach. Drawing upon two localities in the large scale UK ESRC funded project ‘Northern Exposure: Race, Nation and Disaffection in “Ordinary” Towns and Cities after Brexit’ -- Halifax and Wakefield -- we seek to raise questions about how the project maps onto to places that are not large cities, in some circumstances are peri-urban, and which are ‘super-diverse’ in their dynamics even in the absence of large ‘migrant-origin’ populations. In so doing, we aim to tease out some of the overlaps and tensions with the BAM study and offer some critical reflections on racial/ethnic geographies, diversities, divides and interactions within an urban region beyond the West European urban core. PAPER #3 Second-generation: `the established and the outsider in the neighborhood´ AUTHOR(S) Elif Keskiner (VU Amsterdam) Ismintha Waldring (VU Amsterdam) ABSTRACT The emerging phenomenon of majority-minority cities refers to the reality of increasingly ethnically diverse neighborhoods where everybody belongs to a minority group. At the same time another phenomenon parallels this majority -minority formation and that is gentrification: Neighborhoods that 30 years ago experienced a “white-flight” and were almost taken over by migrants and their descendants, are now experiencing a ‘come back’ by the young urban professionals or middle-class young families who purchase affordable housing in the gentrified neighborhoods. This creates an interesting condition for the migrants but also their descendants who are born and raised in these neighborhoods and live there over 30 years. On the one hand second-generation groups are ‘the established’ of the neighborhood due to their extended stay and familiarity with the setting. On the other hand the new comer white middle classes can spring a feeling of ‘outsider’ due to their class or ethnic status as well as their condition being the “buyers” in the neighborhood. Using Elias and Scotson’s established–outsiders model, we illustrate everday dynamics of power relations between different types of residents with and without a migration background. Their contribution uncovers that second generation who embody the constellations of being an established and an outsider simultaneously, function not only as bridge builders but also as mirroring figures of power relations between neighborhood residents. PAPER #4 The impact of Covid-19 in ethnically diverse neighborhoods AUTHOR(S) Maurice Crul (VU Amsterdam) Frans Leslie (VU Amsterdam) Laure Michon (VU Amsterdam) ABSTRACT In 2019, the BaM team conducted a major study into the social climate regarding ethnic diversity in Amsterdam, which was part of the large international BaM project, Becoming a Minority. We conducted the research in majority minority neighborhoods, neighborhoods where there is no longer a numerical majority group, and everybody effectively belongs to an ethnic minority now. Our respondents are the inhabitants without migration background, people who are born in the country, who have two parents also born in the country. The Amsterdam data mainly shows a positive picture. It is not just because of the demographic shift that ethnic diversity in Amsterdam is becoming the norm. Our data shows that also among those without migration background, who actually live in ethnically diverse neighborhoods, there is an overwhelming positive attitude towards ethnic diversity. Because of the sum of all the smaller and bigger daily practices of all its inhabitants, Amsterdam is evidently moving towards being more inclusive and more open to cultural diversity. And then came Covid-19! What is the current status? Under the stress of the Corona crisis, do openness and tolerance remain, will they diminish, or will they maybe even increase? Are some groups in the city disproportionately affected? Based on the results of our large Covid-19 Survey and interviews with local residents, we will discuss these questions in detail.

author

Elif Keskiner

EUR-CIMIC

author

Adrian Favell

University of Leeds

author

Maurice Crul

Vrije Universiteite

discussant

Peter Stevens

University of Ghent

author

Josje Schut

author

Ismintha Waldring

EUR-CIMIC

author

Andrew Wallace

University of Leeds

author

Frans Lelie

author

Laure Michon

City of Amsterdam

Access to the session WebEx link and uploaded papers is available for attendees only. Did you register? Check your conference status.

Reflexive Migration Studies 2

Thu July 8, 14:45 - 16:15, Session #144 panel | SC Reflexive Migration Studies

chair

Adolfo Sommarribas

University of Luxembourg

The Politics of (Un)Counting International Migration in West Africa Inken Bartels Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies, Osnabrueck University Since the ‘migration crisis’ in 2015, various actors from politics, media and science have called for more and better data as a basis to efficiently manage migration. This includes a rising demand for global comparative statistics on the international movement of people, especially on the African continent. International Organizations (IOs) have responded to this demand by offering their member states a wide range of data practices. The paper looks at their statistical knowledge production in West Africa exploring how migration in the region became subject to a “global statistical gaze” (Speich Chassé 2016). It examines how IOs practices of (un)counting enacted West Africa as a region of international migration and how this enactment affects the emerging migration governance (Scheel, Ruppert and Ustek-Spilda 2019). West Africa is a particularly interesting case because, until recently, most post-colonial states did not generate census or survey data on questions of citizenship and ethnicity (Rallu, Piché and Simon 2006). In the name of nation building, they abandoned colonial classification practices and were reluctant to produce statistical data that could be used to claim rights or political power along ethnic lines. Fostering regional integration, citizenship and national belonging were of minor interest in many West African states. Looking at IOs’ statistical data practices in these states, the paper offers insights into the post-colonial interactions between international and national politics of (un)counting migration. It also contributes to a better understanding of the co-production of statistics and migration governance beyond Europe and the state. === Georges Tapinos' life and writings : Migrations and Migration in Population Matters. In Memory of Georges Tapinos 1(940-2000) RICHARD Jean-Luc University of Rennes 1, France Alexandra Tragaki By dedicating a paper to the memory of the Great demographer and Population economist Georges Tapinos (1940-2020), former students of Georges Tapinos, we are demonstrating our loyalty to his teachings, the legacy of which is expressed here. Georges Tapinos, for whom migrations were an intrinsic part of economic dynamics and the consequence of individual freedoms, has been a prominent specialist of migration studies. Among his last works, he analyzed the repercussions of questions resulting from the data on irregular migrations in a Eurostat report on the measurement of irregular migration in Europe (3/1998/E/N° 7). There is no doubt that he wanted, together with Daniel Delaunay, to direct independent, academic, methodologically-oriented, clearly-focused research, insofar as this was possible, into the alarmist rhetoric in favor of closing borders. If migrations are often still explained by economic factors, Georges Tapinos was really aware that conflicts, which also have economic consequences, are the other main reason often simultaneously associated with migratory movements, And they are the movements of individuals, movements which may or may not take place within a family context (family migrations, groups of displaced persons, et.) or a context of constrant (forced migrations, for example). === “Non-linear, shifting and risky trajectories: religious temporality in understanding Moroccan migrant mothers’ navigations and experiences of migration” Amal Miri Ghent University This article aims to contribute to an analytical shift within current West-European social scientific scholarship on so called ‘low-skilled’, third-country marriage migrant women. It does so by moving these women from the periphery, where they are largely invisible, marginalised or stigmatised to be mere appendages of men and passive followers of patriarchal or religious ideologies, to the center of analysis. It starts from the hypothesis that these women are agents in the way they imagine and navigate their migration process. It will be argued that as immigrants these women (often cognitively) negotiate gender relations in confronting or navigating uncertainties and difficulties of which motherhood and a precarious residency status - due to restrictive migration regulations - are the most challenging and stigmatising. In doing so this paper positions itself within the emerging area of research on mobility and temporality. More specific, this paper will question how Moroccan migrant mothers’ embodied religious temporality - that is, their specific understanding and valorisation of time – offers a unique reference point to deal with their precarious residency, with motherhood, and as such challenge a political or bureaucratic temporality in migration. Presenting two ethnographic vignettes I will empirically analyse Moroccan marriage migrant women’s nonlinear, risky and often undocumented trajectories and heterogeneous migration experiences from different social locations as multiple scaled, intersecting, and mutually constituting hierarchies of gender, class, race/ethnicity, religion and residency status. In doing so this article hopes to make visible a set of voices and perspectives that are generally absent from societal debates and migration policies, which is indispensable for dealing appropriately, both on a theoretical level and in policy terms, with challenges of marriage migration, motherhood and belonging. === CITIZENSHIP ‘ON PAPER’. On the risk of statelessness of Polish children raised in same-sex unions abroad Dorota Pudzianowska Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty Piotr Korzec Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty For the children born in same-sex couples living abroad, access to Polish citizenship is automatic only on paper because they are unable to get Polish passport, ID or the national identification number. They thus cannot avail themselves of the rights stemming from the Polish nationality they acquire ex lege at the moment of birth but that they have no proof of. This situation leads to new cause of statelessness. The approach of Polish administrative courts over actions of administrative bodies in such cases is not unitary and hardly solves the problem. Upon introducing the notion of statelessness in the context of children born abroad who have same-sex parents (1), we will discuss the scenarios under which the Polish law of citizenship and law on civil registers interact to neuter ex lege citizenship (2). We will further analyze various court decisions that arose out of extensive litigation of such cases (3) and the Resolution of the Supreme Court that nullified litigation efforts and suggested a different solution to the problem (4). As we will argue, this solution, however, does not seem to convince the administrative authorities (5). We conclude that the interaction between the Polish citizenship law and civil status law in such cases is indeed a sizable problem that gives rise to statelessness of children born in same-sex couples living abroad.

author

Dorota Maria Pudzianowska

University of Warsaw, Law Faculty

author

Piotr Korzec

Univeristy of Warsaw, Law Faculty

author

Inken Bartels

Insitute of Migration Research and Intercultural Studies (IMIS), University of Osnabrueck

author

Jean-Luc RICHARD

ARENES - Centre de recherches sur l'action politique en Europe

author

Amal Miri

University of Antwerp

author

Alexandra Tragaki

Harokopio University

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Norms & Values 2

Thu July 8, 16:30 - 18:00, Session #161 panel | RI Norms and Values in Migration and Integration

chair

Doga Ultanir

Civic Integration for Asylum Seekers and Refugees: Building on Common Values Roberta Medda-Windischer Eurac Research - Institute for Minority Rights Andrea Carlá Eurac Research - Institute for Minority Rights In the past decade civic integration policies have become fashionable in many European countries. According to the logic of civic integration, a key tool for the process of inclusion of the migrant population are classes and training through which migrants learn the language and especially the specific values of the country, such as liberty, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. Thereby, through civic integration the burden of proof is put on the shoulder of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers, who should prove their willingness to integrate in the (host) society. However, in general, there is a deep skepticism about civic integration policies and civic education programs for newcomers, which are increasingly criticized as unidirectional, disciplinary and exclusionary and resulting in participants being more estranged, apprehensive, fixated and resistant. This paper is situated at the interplay of these dynamics, presenting the result of the EU-funded EUMINT project (Euroregions, Migration and Integration) in which civic integration encounters for asylum seekers, refugees and local population on key values of the European Union (Art. 2 TEU) have been developed. In order to overcome the problems and criticisms usually attributed to civic integration programs, EUMINT reframed the concept of civic integration and employed a participatory and active learning approach and newly designed interactive didactic material. Based on surveys with participants and control groups, the paper will present the result of these encounters organized in Austria and Italy, evaluating to what extent they have been successful in fostering awareness of EU values, while overcoming the problematics usually assigned to civic integration programs. === Integration and adaptation strategies of young Ukrainians and Byelorussians in Poland. Values, identities and belongings in transition. Monika Banaś Jagiellonian University in Krakow The article addresses adaptation and integration strategies of young adults from Ukraine and Belarus who came to Poland after 2016. Research based on questionnaires supplemented with in-depth interviews indicates differences in the way individuals manage uncertainty caused by migration, as well as by the associated social, cultural, political and economic change. Depending on the country of origin (Ukraine, Belarus) studying and / or working adults aged 18-26 acquire different adaptation and integration methods despite cultural and historical similarities stemming from common socio-political heritage they share as citizens of now independent states, which both used to be parts of the former Soviet Union until 1991. The immigration-refugee nature of the studied groups influences transformation processes with regard to individual and group identity. Identity as a dynamic construct under the influence of intercultural contacts is subject to constant, though not immediately noticeable change. The Ukrainian-Belarusian-Polish cultural and linguistic context is the basis for (re)formation of values, norms and beliefs on which young adults from Ukraine and Belarus rest their sense of belonging. This, entangled in a broader European context of the EU, makes the research highly relevant for EU cohesion and cooperation with neighboring countries. The part of the research carried out so far (other parts still underway) allows to propose a preliminary hypothesis about various adaptation and integration strategies and their common features. The article deals with the differences and similarities of these strategies, linked back to values, norms, and consequently to the sense of belonging and identity." ==== Reception and integration of migrants: the vision of documentaries Encarnación La Spina Human Rights Institute, University of Deusto Trinidad L. Vicente Human Rights Institute, University of Deusto Gorka Urrutia Asua Human Rights Institute, University of Deusto In recent years, especially since the so-called “refugee crisis”, documentaries have become a primary vehicle for analyzing the drama of migration, but also for raising awareness and moving the audience's social awareness about this drama (migratory reality, violation of human rights, causes and problems derived from such processes in their different phases, etc.). Looking at the different migration scenarios (arrival, transit and destination), various documentaries have provided different approaches to reflect the migratory experience from the life stories of their recipients and the social or identity reaction of each destination. Therefore, our proposal, proposes to observe and explore under the lens of the reception and integration of refugees, one of the migratory challenges that has had a more contained and disparate projection in the documentary format. In particular, several documentaries will be selected to analyze the differences in the way of representing / communicating the social problems and challenges existing in this reception phase for refugees in different countries and destination societies. This proposal includes titles, protagonists and diverse contents on this process of reception-integration, among others Memorias del refugio”, "Fuocoammare" and "Ongi Etorri". All of them allow us to reflect in a socio-critical key as a model of reception without integration in rights only implies a resigned or tolerated acceptance of the other - perceived as a continuous threat to the general well-being, thus denying spaces for coexistence and equality. === How immigrant and minority professionals connect their cultures of mobility to mainstream norms and values in Britain Samina Mesgarzadeh Institut national d'études démographiques, Paris Drawing on a fieldwork in London-based professionals’ networks labelled as black and Muslim, this paper analyses the ways in which these networks connect their ""minority culture of mobility"" - i.e. ""the set of cultural elements (…) that provides strategies for managing economic mobility in the context of discrimination and group disadvantage” (Neckerman et.al., 1999)- with mainstream social norms and values in Britain. Whereas research has shown how minorities create a culture of mobility that differs from the ""mainstream ideology of achievement"" (Atom, 2003), my research highlights the way in which these professionals’ network connect elements of their minority cultures of mobility with mainstream norms and values, like “hard work” and wealth. This paper will thus show that minority cultures of mobility also function as narratives of inclusion that target a broader audience in the mainstream society, such as employers and the media. References: Neckerman K.M., P. Carter, and J. Lee. 1999 “Segmented Assimilation and Minority Cultures of Mobility.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (6): 945-965. Akom A. 2003. “Reexamining Resistance as Oppositional Behaviour: The Nation of Islam and the Creation of a Black Achievement Ideology.” Sociology of Education 76: 305-325. === Discourses on exclusion and integration in Greece: reading the refugee reception crisis (2015- ) through the Albanian immigration experience (1991-2001) Georgia Spyropoulou Hellenic League for Human Rights -Panteion Univ. Kostis Karpozilos Panteion University, Athens Dimitris Christopoulos Panteion University, Athens Following the 2016 EU-Turkey statement regarding the handling of the refugee question, more than 100.000 refugees have stayed in Greece. This diverse community has been systematically portrayed as “trapped”; hegemonic public discourse and state policies converge on the temporality of their presence based on the perceived refugees’ desire to continue their itinerary to the north. This outlook -that has roots in the 2015 reception crisis- has led to a stalemate: the predominance of the perpetual limbo has forestalled the implementation of integration policies and consequently the configuration of the public perception that refugees do not want to stay in the country. This paper aims to challenge the conceptual framework that informs such policies by historicizing its premises. Today the case of Albanian immigrants is showcased as a successful story of integration vis-a-vis the inability or refusal of refugees to integrate in Greek society. What is often forgotten is that the arrival of Albanian immigrants in the early 90s had provoked a response that echoes the one of post-2015: they were perceived as unwanted seasonal workers that could not -or did not want- to integrate. This perspective was primarily reflected in the policies of the Greek State that evaded for nearly a decade the responsibility of providing a legal framework for a million of workers that were treated as “temporary”. However, 30 years after the first wave of Albanian migration to Greece, the narrative has completely changed. By demonstrating the similarities and patterns between the two cases our research questions the static, essentialist perception of human mobility by emphasizing the transformative power and political construction of time: how the narrative of permanent temporality is instrumentalized for the entrapment of individuals in a state of limited rights and denial of integration politics.

author

Roberta Medda-Windischer

Institute of Minority Rights

author

Andrea Carlà

EURAC Research - Institute for minority rights

author

Monika Banaś

Jagiellonian University in Krakow

author

Encarnación La Spina

Pedro Arrupe Human Rights Institute. University of Deusto

author

Trinidad Lourdes Vicente

University of Deusto

author

Gorka Urrutia

DEUSTO

author

Samina Mesgarzadeh

University of Lausanne

author

GEORGIA SPYROPOULOU

author

Kostis Karpozilos

author

Dimitris Christopoulos

Panteion University, Athens

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Visiting Migrants 2

Fri July 9, 08:00 - 09:30, Session #182 panel | SC Migrant Transnationalism

chair

Aija Lulle

Loughborough University

For migrants the world over, visits ‘home’ and being visited by relatives and friends are an essential part of the migrant experience. Such visits are eagerly anticipated and vital to transnational family connection. Yet, surprisingly little attention has been given by migration scholars to these visits. Twenty years ago, anthropologist Baldassar published her pioneering book Visits Home, on visits between Australia and Italy. This remains virtually the only in-depth study, although a scattered literature of journal articles has evolved from scholars in transnational migration, diaspora studies, mobilities, and tourism. The title of the workshop is deliberately ambiguous, with the word ‘visiting’ being used both in its verbal and adjectival sense. Adjectivally, visiting migrants are migrants engaged in visiting home. Verbally, we refer to the non-migrant relatives and friends who are visiting their migrant co-nationals abroad. Either way, visits are social and cultural encounters circumscribed by expectations, performativity and rituality (e.g. gift-giving, hospitality) in which transnational familyhood is reasserted and affective bonds renewed. There are several ways that visits can be conceptualised. As short-term mobilities, visits are temporally enfolded within the longer time-frames of migration and diaspora formation. Visits are often an element of transnational ties; and for longer-established diasporas, visits to the ancestral homeland are an essential part of diasporic identity. Regular visits to the homeland can be a preparation for a subsequent return migration; or they can be a substitute for permanent return. The three panels bring together scholars of different career stages, including several PhD students. Collectively, they explore the cultural landscape of visiting migrants in many differing parts of the world and from interdisciplinary perspectives. The panel organisers have already made plans for either an edited OA book or journal special issue. PAPER #1 ‘It’s just a natural human thing to do, to go and visit your family… but it’s not easy for us’: Gender and generation in Bangladeshis’ transnational visits between London and Sylhet AUTHOR(S) Md Farid Miah (University of Sussex) Russell King (University of Sussex) ABSTRACT In the title to this paper Maya, a British-Bangladeshi woman, expresses her frustration at the refusal of the Home Office to grant her father in Sylhet a visa to come and fulfil his role as family head at the wedding of his son, Maya’s brother, in London. Alongside the inhumanity of the UK’s ‘hostile environment’ towards immigrants and visitors, denying them the right to celebrate an important event of familyhood, the case illustrates well the intersection of gender and generation which fundamentally shapes the pattern of visits, in both directions, across this long-distance transnational social and family space. Bangladesh is a patriarchal society, with marked gender divisions layered across generations, which are largely reproduced among the migrant community in London. Patriarchal structures, behaviours and expectations are manifested, in various ways, in the phenomenon of transnational visiting; for example, some older British-Bangladeshi men make long solo visits to Sylhet, against the wishes of their families, to escape the British winter. Based on 60 in-depth interviews in London and Sylhet, supplemented by participant observation, we delineate the gendered and generational structures framing the visits, both of migrants to the homeland, and of non-migrants to their relatives in London; and we explore the expectations, behaviours, choreography and performativity of both the visitors and the visited. Age, gender, generation, class, citizenship, and material wealth (or lack of it) are the key intersecting variables which emerge in the participants’ narratives and through participant observation of the visits. PAPER #2 Reunions and disunions: short-lived joy, divergent expectations and lost intimacies in Asian migrant care workers’ visits home AUTHOR(S) Megha Amrith (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity) ABSTRACT For Asian migrant domestic and care workers in Singapore, visits home are highly anticipated and longed for, but only as long as they remain brief. Drawing on ethnographic research with migrant women of different nationalities in Singapore, this paper examines such visits as emotionally complex events that give rise to both reunions and disunions. Visits bring intense joy as migrants reunite with dispersed family members, including seafarer husbands, cousins working in other countries, and with children and ageing parents who stayed put. Homesickness is eased through activities such as eating together, karaoke parties and holidaying. However, such visits also involve performative acts such as gift-giving and hosting family and village gatherings, all of which require significant expense by migrants. Families imagine them to be ‘rich’ in spite of their precarious working conditions abroad, while entrenched gendered expectations demand that migrant women behave in particular ways. This leads to a simmering of tensions, and sometimes boredom, as migrant women miss their sense of freedom and cosmopolitanism abroad. Intimate dissonances also emerge as migrants struggle to bond with their children after years abroad; while marital betrayals, moral judgements and sibling conflicts come to the fore. This strenuous relational work on visits is important in re-orienting migrant subjectivities and aspirations, and often leads to prolongations of migrants’ absences and a deepening sense of estrangement. The paper further examines how migrants, many of whom are on temporary work contracts in Singapore, fear and anticipate the moment when short visits ultimately become permanent returns. PAPER #3 Intersections of death and visitations among Thai-American retirees AUTHOR(S) Tassya Putho (University of Surrey) Scott Cohen (University of Surrey) Allan Williams (University of Surrey) ABSTRACT Visits, particularly returns, can happen throughout the migrant’s life cycle and even after death. As much as visits are a part of migrants’ lives, they also intersect with their experiences and imaginations of death. This study on the later-life mobilities of retired Thai-Americans explores different patterns of visitations among three prominent groups of retirees: those who had opted to stay in the United States, return to settle in Thailand, or travel back and forth in between. Findings from 52 semi-structured interviews with retired Thai-Americans and their family members brought many death-visitation experiences and scenarios to light. These were comprised of visits connected to the place where the retirees envision their future trajectories, visits that brought them full circle back to their migrant origins, as well as visits undertaken to care for elderly relatives that eventually lead to arranging and attending their funerals. In this paper, death is interwoven with various patterns, practices and rituals of visitations in an original comparison between three groups of Thai-American retirees with different residential strategies and imaginations of death. For most of the interviewees, there is a distinct connection between the nature of these visits and how they perceive their end of life, while for others, death is embedded in a strong sentiment for the homeland. This paper contributes an understanding of the nexus of death and visits that demonstrates the increasingly complex ways in which these events have become intermingled with later-life mobilities in transnational lives. PAPER #4 A transnational practice between fractured homes: second-generation Turkish-German migrants’ experiences of visiting and being visited AUTHOR(S) Nilay Kılınç (University of Helsinki) ABSTRACT This paper explores the multiple ways in which visits affect the understanding of home on the part of second-generation Turkish-Germans who have relocated to Turkey. Three types of visit are identified: (i) family visits to Turkey when the second generation was growing up in Germany; (ii) after the second generation has relocated to Turkey, visits to Germany, the country of their upbringing; (iii) visits to Turkey on the part of the second generation’s relatives and friends who still reside in Germany. Each type has different meanings for the visitors and the visited, creating fluid reflections on the meaning of home, which, especially for the second-generation ‘returnees’, tends to become fractured. Constantly comparing their two home(lands) since childhood, they often simultaneously feel both ‘here’ and ‘there’ as a result of changing attachments and a mix of positive and negative experiences in both locales. Childhood visits to Turkey are remembered as fun- and sun-filled holiday times. On the other hand, many adult second-generation returnees experience disillusionment about their previously idealised life in the ancestral homeland. Yet when their Germany-residing friends and relatives visit them in Turkey they tend to exaggerate that life in Turkey is good. Meanwhile, visiting parents make disparaging remarks about the ‘backwardness’ of Turkey compared to the efficiency of Germany. The second generation’s visits to Germany are often uneasy experiences, when they feel like ‘guests’ and soon get impatient to return to Turkey. Evidence comes from 80 interviews with second-generation ‘returnees’ in different parts of Turkey.

author

Russell King

University of Sussex

author

Tassya Putho

University of Surrey

author

Megha Amrith

Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity

author

Md Farid Miah

University of Sussex

discussant

Loretta Baldassar

The University of Western Australia

author

Scott Cohen

University of Surrey

author

Allan Williams

University of Surrey

author

Nilay Kılınç

University of Helsinki

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Covid and Post-Covid digital education. Opportunities and risks for migrant and other disadvantaged students

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #223 panel | SC Education and social inequality

chair

Roberta Ricucci

FIERI

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the near-total closure of schools, universities and colleges. According to data provided by UNESCO, as of the end of November 2020, approximately 1,077 billion learners have been affected, 13% of the total learner population. School closures have impacted not only students, teachers, and families, but acted as a multiplier of socio-economic inequality at the intersection of class, gender, (dis)ability, ethnicity and migration status. The panel will be focussed on the impact on migrant and refugee children and their families: interrupted learning, compromised nutrition, childcare problems, and consequent economic cost to families who could not work during the pandemic. The various contributions will compare and contrast the effects of Covid-19 in various countries - Italy, Greece, Malta and Israel - and educational contexts and to what extent schools, administrations and civil-society organizations act in support of migrant children and their families in pursuing educational activities. Indeed, digital methods highlighted new potentialities such as new forms of digital transnational educational alliances between parents, children and educators; new partnerships among educational actors working in the formal, non-formal and informal settings; and a new focus on multilingualism in education. All the contributions will further discuss these opportunities in various local socio-cultural contexts, highlighting practices and initiatives which can then be discussed in the framework of policy transferability. PAPER #1 Inclusive Digital Education. Lessons from Europe. AUTHOR(S) Miali Dermish (SIRIUS Policy Network on Migrant Education) ABSTRACT In 2020 we saw many Ministries of Education instruct schools to move to various forms of distance-learning. Yet availability of advice, tools, guidance and support to do so, as well as preparedness of schools to implement such a shift smoothly, was very mixed. The OECD “Framework to guide a response to the Covid-19 Pandemic” reported that a large number of countries surveyed offered no initial guidance to “support the ongoing academic instruction of schools”. However, in many European Union countries we saw a slightly better response. As a network of researchers, policy-makers and migrant-led initiatives, SIRIUS Policy Network on Migrant Education collected information from their members on inspiring practice during the Covid-19 school closures, particularly at the school and NGO –level. This practice could be used to inform and improve both distance learning, digital learning and a post-pandemic prepared education system. In fact, SIRIUS was the first organisation to formulate a set of Member State and EU level recommendations for educational policy-makers in making digital education and post Covid-19 education more inclusive and robust (see here: https://www.sirius-migrationeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Moving-Educational-Policy-Forward-after-Covid-19-A-SIRIUS-Perspective-FINAL-1.pdf ). In addition, on December 2020 SIRIUS hold an ‘Inclusive Digital Education Workshop’ for 15 EU Member State teams consisting of policy-makers, teachers, students, migrant activists and social workers which has the dual role of identifying key challenges and potential solutions towards making digital inclusion more inclusive and informing national digital education plans for the future. As the leading network on migrant education in Europe in this paper we share the learnings from this workshop and our ongoing work on Digital Education. PAPER #2 Toward a digital esperanto? Suggestions and projects to overcome the linguistic gaps in the era of covid- education. AUTHOR(S) Letizia CInganotto (INDIRE Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione Innovazione e Ricerca Educativa) Alessia Rosa (INDIRE Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione Innovazione e Ricerca Educativa) Gabriella Taddeo (INDIRE Istituto Nazionale di Documentazione Innovazione e Ricerca Educativa) ABSTRACT During the pandemic, the school has been reorganized with articulated forms of distance and blended learning (Eurydice, 2020). As some researches, at national (Indire, 2020) and international (ICIPES, 2020) level, show, the greatest limitations were found precisely in the inclusiveness of distance learning, since the family background was central to supporting students, especially the younger ones, and this factor led to amplify inequality in the learning opportunities. The linguistic issue was, in such gap, one of the central issues. The presentation will analyze some initiatives carried out to support immigrants and refugees by providing educational pathways with particular focus on language learning in multilingual and multicultural contexts. At international level, it is worth mentioning the "Language for Resilience" project, created by the British Council in 2016 out of a need to address the language needs of migrants and refugees who experienced interruption to learning and life. Starting from this project and the different actions provided, such as the involvement of different stakeholders, the creation of a digital repository of learning contents, the combination of formal and informal learning within the refugees' communities etc., the presentation will try to design possible future educational scenarios addressing the specific refugees and migrants language needs, also taking into consideration the latest Council Recommendation for a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages (2019), the report "Education begins with language" (2020) and some other documents at international level. PAPER #3 Digital Education for asylum-seekers in Greece: NGO/IGO Projects and the Challenge of Coordination AUTHOR(S) Asteris Huliaras (University of the Peloponnese) Sotiris Petropoulos (University of the Peloponnese) ABSTRACT In September 2016, the Greek ministries of education and migration policy jointly presented a plan for the education of refugee children and their integration into the Greek education system. This plan aimed at facilitating access to education for all minors living in accommodation structures in Greece. It provided for pre-schoolers to be educated through schemes organized in the refugee camps (as parents were considered to feel uncomfortable sending them away to pre-schools), while children of primary and secondary school age would be integrated into local schools. However, many Greek teachers felt unprepared to deal with ethnically diverse classes and the language barrier proved a major impediment to the implementation of the plan. Efforts with regard to education and training in digital literacy and e-skills that are now of fundamental importance for access to education in the Covid-19 era were sporadic for asylum-seekers and mostly originating with NGOs and international organizations. There is an almost complete lack of data available on the state of digital culture of migrants in Greece. Nevertheless, the average level of education of migrants in Greece is among the lowest in OECD countries. The paper identifies and classifies relevant digital and e-skills projects implemented by NGOs and IGOs for migrants in Greece focusing on the problems of fragmentation, lack of coordination and duplication. It attempts to analyze best practices and see how a digital culture and e-skills can “diffuse” within and among migrant communities and within migrant families – overcoming gender and age gaps. PAPER #4 Educational and Cultural Practices during Covid 19 - African Asylum Seekers' Schools in Israel AUTHOR(S) Dolly Eliyahu-Levi (Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv) Michal Ganz-Meishar (Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv) ABSTRACT African asylum seekers children in Israel suffer from developmental disabilities, learning difficulties and sensitive problems (Kritzman-Amir, 2015). Corona crisis exacerbated the situation, because many children found themselves together with their parents in a complex reality of life: crowded apartments without computers and suitable space for studying. During such a period, the educators are required to practice that goes beyond the boundaries of the classroom and allows communication with the parents, who often do not understand what is expected of them (Ben-Peretz & Flores, 2018). In this study, we examined the actions of teaching students who taught in educational institutions where children from families of African asylum seekers study. The study is qualitative-interpretive (Shalsky & Arieli, 2016), and included 20 teaching students who experienced teaching experiences outside the school walls in community, socio-cultural contexts. For example, meetings with language mediators and culture mediators, conversations with parents and community leaders. The findings were collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with the students. The findings reveal pedagogical practices in four spaces: (1) Personal - expressing a commitment to know about children's culture, customs and language of origin (Eliyahu-Levi & Ganz-Meishar, 2017), (2) Distance Learning - division into groups, use of classroom YouTube channels, language mediation (Burdina, Krapotkina, & Nasyrova, 2019), (3) Family - strengthening the bond with the parents, (4) Community - tightening the connection between the school and support organizations. This research may expand the academic discussion about teaching-learning processes with children from diverse groups in society. Increasing awareness of pedagogical practices that encourage personal relationship with the child, familiarity with families and their socio-cultural capital.

discussant

Valentina Mazzucato

MACIMIDE

discussant

Alessio D'Angelo

University of Nottingham

author

Miali Dermish

SIRIUS Policy Network on Migrant Education

author

Asteris Huliaras

author

Sotiris Petropoulos

University of the Peloponnese

author

Dolly Eliyahu-Levi

Levinsky College of Education

author

Michal Ganz-Meishar

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Migration Politics & Governance 9

Fri July 9, 13:45 - 15:15, Session #242 panel | SC Migration Politics and Governance

chair

Phil Martin

Following the refugee relocation scheme: Ideological interpretations of inter­state responsibility in Romania Raluca Bejan Dalhousie University This project presents on preliminary interview data (n=14) that explores how Romanian policy makers and elected representatives interpret the idea of interstate shared responsibility in relation to the EU’s relocation system for internally re­distributing refugees. Following the 2015 levels of irregular migrant entries to Greece, Italy and Hungary, the European Commission (EC) adopted two procedural decisions intended to transfer 120,000 people in need of international protection from the aforementioned ‘burdened’ nations to the least affected Member States. A distribution key was apportioned between the 28 states on several indicators: GDP (40%), population size (40%), unemployment rate (10%) and past numbers of asylum seekers applications (10%) (EC, 2015). The relocation decisions stirred an outspoken political brawl with a pair of states (i.e., Slovakia and Hungary) bringing their complaints to the European Court. The scholarly research on relocation is scarce. Most literature engages with analytical dialogues on responsibility­sharing mechanisms, on various distributive scenarios, or on the norms of fairness grounding these schemes. There is no empirical data on ideological interpretations of intra­EU solidarity efforts as they particularly pertain to the local implementation of the relocation scheme. This paper will discuss how distributive ideas and ideals of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility are understood within the political and legislative context in Romania and will explore what constitutes a fair distributive mechanism in the development of interstate responsibility sharing in matters of asylum and migration management. === Too vulnerable to be resettled? Comparing selection criteria for refugee resettlement in eight countries Erlend Paasche Norwegian Institute for Social Research Jan-Paul Brekke Norwegian Institute for Social Research Less than one percent of the worlds’ refugees are resettled, mostly through the UNHCR. By what criteria do resettlement countries decide to accept or reject candidates for resettlement? Over the past few years, refugee resettlement has in many ways gained in prominence. Commitment to this particular form of refugee protection has been reaffirmed through the 2018 Global Compact on Refugees, the 2019 Global Refugee Forum, the UNHCR’s Three-Year Strategy (2019-2021), and the proposed EU Pact on Migration and Asylum. For the worlds’ refugees, however, it still represents a needle’s eye. In this paper, we comparatively analyse national selection criteria and procedures in Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, Germany and France, empirically based on expert interviews and an international survey. We find that while resettlement states face a similar dilemma between ‘helping those who need it the most’ and not overburdening local administrations with refugees who are ‘too vulnerable’, their approaches differ. Some put more emphasis on humanitarian principles and rely largely on the UNHCR’s eligibility assessments. Others put more emphasis on integration-related concerns. It is therefore important, we argue, to go beyond mere statistics and national ‘quotas’ in this field. In a legal vacuum, it is subject to the discretionary power of the resettlement state not only how many it wishes to resettle but also whom it wishes to resettle. This discretionary power largely explains the political ascendancy of refugee resettlement lately, but it also creates tension between international commitment to humanitarian principles and national pragmatism. === Land, sea and air borders of the EU: human suffering, intervention and externalization Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert PRIO This paper takes the European external borders as a prism to understand EU migration policies, and its continuous move towards externalization of border management. It does so through an empirical study of the spatial dimension of the EU border areas and the security and humanitarian spaces at these borders. How do the different socio-political spheres of land, sea and air borders, that make up the external borders of the EU, create different forms of humanitarian suffering, and different forms of interventions – both to govern mobility and to respond to the humanitarian needs? And how do they in different ways produce an externalization of the EU migration policies? The paper begins by investigating how the EU border regime has reshaped the land borders, from removing physical border checks, to producing new effective borders through technological surveillance, to reintroducing land border controls, first in the wake of the 2015 Refugee reception crisis and then in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Second, it examines the specificity of sea border, from being more risky for the migrants seeking to cross, yet providing for an obligation to search and rescue persons in distress for any vessel at sea. Being more difficult to patrol and control than the physical land border: how has this led to different attempts to externalize the management of these borders, into third countries beyond the EU? Third, the air space has, especially with the advent of the “drone gaze”, become the dimension allowing new forms of overview, and thus potentially both increased control and improved rescue operations. The paper argues that the complex situations of humanitarian suffering and security governance at the external borders of the EU together produce the push towards externalizing border management, yet producing new dilemmas rather than solving the existing ones. === Management of Mobility of Syrian Refugees across Turkey Sezgi Karacan University of Ottawa This paper analyses Syrians’ mobility in Turkey and how borders within and across Turkey vis-à-vis Syrian refugees are negotiated among different actors with a focus on the roles the EU and resettlement mechanisms to Canada play in this process. Responses from the Global South to Global North’s migration policies have become an important area of inquiry in the scholarship on migration and borders. Turkey’s asylum system and border policies cannot be considered independently from the EU’s asylum and border policies that are externalized and practiced outside of its official borders and various international protection mechanisms and channels of resettlement to third countries such as Canada. This research focuses on three areas of asylum policy and border practices that play a role in the governance of Syrians’ mobility between 2011 and 2020, along with the relationships between these three areas: Turkey’s management of Syrians’ mobility and internal borders; EU’s externalization of its borders and migration control to Turkey; resettlement of Syrian refugees to Canada from Turkey. The research design is composed of policy analysis and semi-structured interviews. The policy analysis covers law and regulations of asylum and temporary protection in Turkey, externalization of European border and migration control, and resettlement channels to Canada from Turkey. Semi-structured interviews consist of state, non-state, and international actors in Turkey, and refugees who are resettled to Canada through Turkey. By way of this, this paper inquires their experiences of mobility and negotiating borders, and explore the differences between policy and practice.

author

Raluca Bejan

Dalhousie University

author

Erlend Paasche

Norwegian Institute for Social Research

author

Jan-Paul Brekke

ISF

author

Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert

Peace Research Institute Oslo

author

Sezgi Karacan

University of Ottawa

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Knowledge, governance, and co-production with migrants

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #248 panel | SC Methodological Approaches and Tools in Migration Research

chair

Tamar Todria

Institute for European Studies IES TSU

PAPER #1 Using ‘Go-Alongs’ in Researching Refugees’ Housing Journeys in Ireland AUTHOR(S) Cordula Bieri (School of Social Work & Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin) Paula Mayock (School of Social Work & Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin) ABSTRACT Background 79.5 million people are currently affected by displacement due to violence, conflict and persecution. In Ireland, refugees seeking international protection are accommodated in the Direct Provision system, which has been widely criticised by academics, human rights activists and the residents themselves for creating a system of social exclusion and institutionalisation. Research aims The detrimental effects of the Direct Provision system on the residents’ well-being are well documented. However, much less is known about refugees’ journeys once they have been granted status. This qualitative research project specifically examines refugees’ experiences of transitioning from Direct Provision into independent housing, including any experience of housing precariousness and/or homelessness. Methodology While in-depth interviewing is used to examine research participants’ housing journeys, ‘Go-Alongs’, an ethnographic, person-centred approach involving researcher and research participant walking side by side to places meaningful to the participant, are used to gain further insight into past and current experiences of housing and place. Data collection was interrupted by the first lockdown in March 2020 and in-depth interviewing was consequently moved online. Discussion Combining in-depth interviewing with the ‘Go-Along’ approach has allowed for a deeper understanding of refugees’ housing experiences to emerge, as the material environment encountered during these walks evoked observations, descriptions and memories that were more detailed than the narratives emerging from the in-depth interviews. Furthermore, by deciding what places to show research participants gain more control over the resulting narrative, thereby helping to address any power imbalances between researcher and research participant. PAPER #2 Database of integration project as a unique tool to assess integration activities AUTHOR(S) Ondřej Valenta (Association for Integration and Migration) Marie Jelínková (Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University) ABSTRACT The research community in the Czech Republic struggles with the insufficient range, accessibility and quality of data describing the state of affairs in the field of integration of international migrants. The lack of representative data hinders the effort of the research community to thoroughly grasp and reveal the overall picture of integration activities targeted at migrants in the Czech Republic. The consequences are generally two-fold: at first, it prevents the research community to create a solid empirical base, upon which it can formulate and provide tailored advice to policy-makers. Secondly, it also contributes to the inefficiency of integration policies and programmes of public support to migrant integration, as there is an undeveloped system of monitoring and evaluation of these policy tools in this area, generating no data. In order to at least partially remedy the current unfortunate situation, a unique tool providing a new large set of various data was established. The Database of Integration Projects is a source of a rich information about ca 6,700 projects supported from public and private sources which were implemented in the Czech Republic with the aim of supporting the integration of various groups of migrants into Czech society in the time-period 2004-2020. The purpose of the database is to enable and develop a thorough analytical and research approach to migrant integration. At the same time, it allows a systematic evaluation of the implementation of integration policies, programmes and measures at the national, regional and local level. The extent of data it contains and opportunities of utilization make the database a unique tool also in international comparison. PAPER #3 On how developmental changes explain future trends of emigration AUTHOR(S) Zoltan Csanyi (Hungarian Central Statistical Office) ABSTRACT Creating future migration scenarios is the most challenging exercise of population projections. Most national practices involve extrapolations of current migration trends, assumptions on long-term zero net migration and/or expert estimations. Theoretically based projections of migration trends are quite rare. In an attempt to fill this gap, the aim of this paper is to reveal effects of macro level development trends on global patterns of emigration on the short- and medium run. For that, log-linear regressions were carried out on a sample of medium-size and large countries (i.e. with more than 1.5 M inhabitants), using retrospective UN data concerning migration and several aspects of socio-economic development. A distinctive feature of this ongoing research is that instead of examining the impact of absolute measurements of development in a certain point of time, ratios of developmental change of five-year intervals are used to explain changes of emigration rates in the consecutive five-, ten- and fifteen-year time intervals. Change of emigration rates in the reference period were included to deal with the omitted variable bias on the one hand, and to take count of the self-sustaining mechanisms of migration on the other. Preliminary results show that changes in relative GDP per capita (as a share of the world average), FDI inflows, employment in agriculture and previous migration trends have significant effects on posterior changes of emigration rates. However both their significance and estimation parameters change in time, the results provide promising tools to be taken into account when making population projections. PAPER #4 Formal and informal organizations supporting migrants in Greece: A mixed method approach AUTHOR(S) Stefania Kalogeraki (University of Crete, Greece) ABSTRACT During the recent European migrant crisis, Greece became one of the major entry points by the sea of thousands of refugees entering its territory en route to wealthier countries. The unpreparedness of the Greek state and the European Union leaders to deal with the massive migrant flows contributed to the pivotal role that different actors, including among others formal and informal organizations, played to respond to migrants’ needs. The paper based on a mixed method approach and using data collected during the refugee crisis in the context of the EU-funded TransSOL project provides some evidence on the distinct features of informal and formal migrant organizations uncovering their diverse roles in meeting migrants’ needs in Greece. The quantitative findings portray some key aspects (such as organizational structure, activities, ultimate aims and means to achieve them, etc.) of formal and informal migrant organizations operating in the country. The qualitative semi-structured interviews with representatives of these organizations unveil how they frame their solidarity initiatives complementing specific quantitative results. The qualitative findings demonstrate that informal organizations frame their solidarity initiatives in relation to migrants’ mobilization as the only means to claim their rights whereas formal organizations frame their solidarity initiatives in relation to the implementation of adequate policies. The paper contributes to the discussion on the potential diverse roles of civil society actors to support those in need as well as it highlights the value of mixed method designs in providing an enriched understanding of specific facets of the research theme under study. PAPER #5 Using cartography to study mediations of immigrants living in global cities AUTHOR(S) Viviane Riegel ABSTRACT This discussion is based on the methodological approach developed for a doctoral research on immigrants in two global cities and their possible cosmopolitan practices. This study was carried out based on the 'scapes' theory of global culture, proposed by Appadurai (1996), using the cartographic method based on mediations categories by Martin-Barbero (2009). This qualitative approach aimed to understand the complexity of individuals' mobility experiences in the face of global processes. We understand mobility also by the constant possibility of immobility, that is, the structures that facilitate certain movements and prevent others. The empirical-methodological strategy of cartography developed is based on Martin-Barbero's (2002) proposal for a cognitive cartography, which would be appropriate for unstable and constantly changing times. This choice was due to the focus of Martin-Barbero (2018) in the mediation of the cultural mutations of our time. In this perspective, the main elements of mobility are contemporary migrants and communication flows. A cartography was constructed by mapping everyday practices in the socio-communicational spaces of immigrants in the global cities of São Paulo and London. The field research carried out consisted of interviews with 20 individuals in different mobility experiences in each city, and the observation of the practices of individuals in the 16 socio-communicational spaces most mentioned by the interviewees. For the development of the analysis categories, the Martin-Barbero (2009) mapping mediation is considered as a structure. At the center, mobility experiences, and in the two axes, spaces and temporalities, flows and identity. This cartography draws a map in three layers: first, the comparison between different individuals; second, the comparison between different spaces; and third, the different practices of these individuals in these spaces.

author

Paula Mayock

author

Viviane Riegel

ESPM-SP

author

Stefania Kalogeraki

University of Crete

author

Cordula Bieri

Trinity College Dublin

author

Zoltan Csanyi

author

Ondřej Valenta

GEOMIGRACE

author

Marie Jelínková

Charles University Prague

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Asserting and resisting borders: state and non-state actors perspectives and strategies

Fri July 9, 15:30 - 17:00, Session #258 panel | RI Revisiting Return Migration in Shifting Geopolitics

chair

Zana Vathi

Ormskirk

This panel advances scholarship in the field of return migration, engaging with border crossings from a theoretical and empirical perspective. Engaging with a multitude of actors, geographical locations, and scenarios, it ultimately asks whether and how borders are engaged with, rather than taken as a given, in the politics and practices of return. Theoretical reflections on the (ir)relevance of borders, as key constitutive features of nation-states, to migrants in the context of return are discussed (Ruspini). The papers cover a spectrum of formality and level of negotiation, varying from informal border crossings and state’s attempts to supress these (Riano) to multi-actor and high-level political stakeholders (such as the EU) enforcement of deportations to the country of origin (Jorge). Another key actor, mostly overlooked in return migration studies – the country of origin – is brought in as a stakeholder in the deportation corridors in asserting sovereignty through domestic policy tools (Zanker and Altrogge). The set are a diverse collection of accounts which together raise important questions of power positionality and agency in the shifting geopolitics of return migration. PAPER #1 European Union Readmission Agreements’ Necropolitical Mechanisms and Terminologies: An Analysis of the Joint Way Forward Declaration between the EU and Afghanistan. AUTHOR(S) Manuela (Queen Mary, London) ABSTRACT In December 2016, against the backdrop of the so-called “refugee crisis”, the European Union (EU) and the Afghan government signed the Joint Way Forward Declaration (JWF), a document similar to an EU readmission agreement, which aimed to return unlimited numbers of ‘refused’ asylum seekers and ‘irregular’ Afghan migrants from Europe to Afghanistan over four years (2016-2020). Research that investigates removal policies terminology combined with policies’ sub-sequent implementation remains scarce. Hence, by borrowing conceptual tools from the rich literature in post-colonial studies, particularly Achille Mbembe’s necropolitics and its constitution of death worlds, otherness and coloniality, I will argue that declarations such as the JWF are a clear example of the EU’s exercise of necropower. As much as necropolitics is about death, I contend that it also captures the allowance of returnees’ social and political deaths. Although different from direct killing and subsequent death, this means that the application of necropolitics to the study of removal policies helps us to think of necropower in terms of what is barely seen, especially when policies such as the JWF are crafted and implemented within the law and orchestrated through policy narratives and terminologies that legitimise operations of removals. Through a necropolitical lens, my paper will analyse the JWF Declaration, where I will argue that the use of narratives and terms such as return to describe deportation deflect attention away from the act of expulsion and its devastating implications for those who are ‘returned’, illustrating the EU’s exercise of necropower PAPER #2 Migrants unbound? Theorizing transnational and return migration AUTHOR(S) Paolo Ruspini (University of Geneva, Institute of Sociological Research (IRS)) ABSTRACT The contemporary features of international migration have resulted into an increasingly blurred distinction between migrants’ countries of origin, transit and destination. Circular and return patterns of migration and mobility have a leverage on integration practices and pose several challenges for migration scholars and stakeholders. In this regard, the introduction of a transnational approach allows to go beyond an essentialist and/or purely ethnic perspective on return migration. The transnational perspective does view return not at the end of migration cycle but with return the migration process continues. The binary structuralist vision of cross border movements is thus questioned, taking into account the circularity of migration movements, which facilitates migrants’ mobility (Chapman and Prothero, 1983-84). Time-space compression is what make “communities without propinquity” possible (Faist, 2000). These spatial configurations are a paramount feature of the current era if compared with the unidirectional and permanent migration of the former centuries. They do possibly allow migrant rights and identity negotiation and re-negotiation across borders. Pertinent research questions include the following: First, what is the unique contribution of transnationalism and social networks to comprehend return migration? Secondly, do the current spatial configurations make the contemporary “migrants unbound”? (Ruspini, 2019). At last, what migration theory can learn from empirical research? This paper aims at elucidating some of these aspects by linking migration theory with relevant examples from fieldwork on return and transnational migration. PAPER #3 Resisting Closed Borders: Informal Cross-Border Mobilities of Returnees Living between Colombia and Venezuela AUTHOR(S) Yvonne Riano (Institute of Geography and nccr - on the move University of Neuchatel ) ABSTRACT The cities of Cúcuta and San Antonio are separated by the 300 m. long Simon Bolívar bridge, stretched over the Táchira river. The first city is in Colombian territory and the second in V enezuelan territory . During decades, the inhabitants of these two cities wove close ties of friendship, kinship, trade, circulation, habitation, and study. A transnational social space connecting the two cities has thus emerged where the political border has little relevance. However, in recent years the Venezuelan government has exercised its territorial powers to prohibit cross-border crossings along the bridge to include or exclude 'desirable' or 'undesirable' populations. In 2005, Colombians living in San Antonio were deported, accused of being paramilitaries threatening the public order in Venezuela. Thousands of Colombian families were violently expelled from their homes and forced to return to Colombia. Subsequently, the international Simon Bolívar bridge connecting Colombia and Venezuela was closed. However, many Colombians returned later to San Antonio where they own homes in a squatter settlement. They sleep there but work, buy, trade, study and receive medical services in Colombia. Since the border is still closed because of the Covid pandemic, they cross the trocha daily, an informal path dug into the jungle to satisfy basic needs in Colombia. This paper discusses how dominant forms of territoriality are contested by the informal cross-border mobilities of Colombians, and discusses implications in terms of survival and human rights. It is based on ethnographic work, participatory Minga workshops, mental maps, and biographical interviews with 30 cross-borders. PAPER #4 Reinterpretation of a Moratorium: The Gambian Ban on Deportations and the question of State Sovereignty AUTHOR(S) Franzisca Zanker (Arnold-Bergstraesser Institut (ABI) Freiburg ) Judith Altrogge ( IMIS/University of Osnabrück) ABSTRACT In 2019, the tiny West African country of The Gambia imposed a moratorium on all deportation flights from the EU. This caused an uproar amongst European policy circles. Though West African countries are infamously reluctant to cooperate on forced returns, the moratorium was a yet unheard-of instrument. Thus far, deportation moratoriums have only been applied as humanitarian foreign policy tool by deporting states like South Africa who imposed a brief moratorium on deportations to Zimbabwe in 2008 in light of a cholera epidemic in the origin country. Though the Gambian moratorium was eventually lifted again, so far the modus-operandi of future deportation cooperation that is acceptable for both sides has not been found. Whilst political philosophers have increasingly discussed the meaning of state legitimacy for migration cooperation, deportation studies have argued that states use deportation as an act of showing their sovereignty towards their own population. But what about the states who receive deportees and (have to) cooperate with deportations? This paper argues that the Gambian moratorium on deportations was a domestic policy tool, related to the importance of the migration issue for the Gambian government, as well as the political-influential returnees and diaspora and political unrest in the country more generally. Though the moratorium ultimately jeopardized the country’s diplomatic standing, it was arguably an inverse display of sovereignty towards their own citizens and a form of top-down anti-deportation activism. In concluding, the paper will discuss the implications of such sovereignty assertion in terms of migration as a decolonial right.

discussant

Yvonne Riaño

SFM Neuchâtel and nccr - on the move

author

MANUELA DA ROSA JORGE

QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

author

Paolo Ruspini

author

Franzisca Zanker

Arnold Bergstraesser Institute

author

Judith Altrogge

University of Osnabrueck

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